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From 1584 to 1851. 










"Truth is stranger than Fiction." 

VOL. I. 




History inakcth a young man to be old, without either wrinkles or gray hairs ; privileging 
hiin with the experience of age, without eitlier the infirmities or inconvenience thereof. 

Fuller's Holy War. 

Ill fares it with a State, whose history is written by others than her o^vn sods. 


The archives of the State, and the desks of ancient families, now bury the story of the rise 
and progress of the State of North Carolina : ignorance and wickedness may misrepresent the 
character of her history, if efforts are not made to break away the darkness that surrounds it. 
Such are the inducements of this publication. 


The world will not be able fully to understand North Carolina, until they have opened the 
treasures of history, and become familiar with the doings of her sons previous to the Revolu- 
tion, during tliat painful struggle, and the succeeding years of prosperity. Then will North 
Carolina be respected as she is known. 


Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by 


in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court in and for the Eastern District of 















T T II E S E , 









Extract from the Report of the Joint Select Committee of the Library 
of the General Assembly of North Carolina, at the last session (1851), through 
Hon. Wui. H. Washington (Chairman), Senator from Craven County. 

" The Committee cannot but regard the work of Col. "Wheeler as a patriotic 
and praiseworthy efi'ort to rescue from oblivion important facts of our early 
history, and to elevate the character and standing of his native State; and, 
as such, would cordially recommend it to the favorable consideration, not 
only of the legislature, but of the people of the State at large." 

Extract from a letter of Hon. David L. Swain, President of the University of 
North Carolina, to Rev. Francis L. ILnvks, D. D., LL. D., of New York. 

"Chapel Hill, February 22, 1851. 
"The Sketches of Col. Wheeler, in relation to this State, contain a great 

amount of useful and minute information, chiefly statistical and biograpliieal, 

connected with every county in the State." 

Extract from a letter of Hon. R. M. Pearson, one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

" Raleigh, March 1, 1851. 
" I have had a conversation with the other two Judges, upon the subject 
of the Sketches of North Carolina, which you are about to publish. 

"We concur in thinking that such a work will be highlj' interesting to 
every citizen of the State ; useful as a book of reference ; and will rescue from 
oblivion many facts that ought not to be forgotten." 

Extract from a letter of Hon. George Bancroft, author of "History of the 

United States." 

" New York, March 15, 1851. 
" I look forward to the publication of your work with great interest, in the 
hope that you may fill the gap in the history of your patriotic State." 

" This is a work of which every son of North Carolina ought to be proud." 

Spirit of the Age, 


" This work will be valuable, and ought to be in the hands of every North 
Carolinian." Patrioi, 


" Too little is known of our history. When the important information 
that Col. Wheeler will impart, can be procured, every family ought to own 
a copy of this work." Mountain Banner, 


'We hesitate not to say, that this work will turn out one of the most 
valuable books to the citizens of the State ever yet published." 

. Watchman, 






FKOM 1584 TO 1585. 

The discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, under the auspices of Fer- 
dinand of Spain — John Cabot's expedition in 1490, under the auspices of 
Henry VII. — The first expedition to the United States in 1584, under the 
auspices of Sir Walter lialeigh, which landed on Roanoake Island, in 
North Carolina. 


FROM 1585 TO 1589. 

Second expedition under Sir Richard Greenville in 1585, and the third under 
the same in 1586 — The fourth under Governor White, Governor of the City 

of Raleigh. 


FROM 1589 TO 1653. 

Other expeditions unsuccessful, and Sir Walter assigns his patent (1589) — 
Sketch of the life, character, and death of Sir Walter Raleigh (1618) — Set- 
tlement of the colony of Virginia under Captain John Smith — Sketch of 
the life, character, and services of John Smith — His rescue by Pocahontas, 
daughter of Powhatan — Her life, character, and services. 


FROM 1653 TO 1712. 

Permanent settlement of North Carolina — William Drummond, first governor, 
in 1603, a Scotchman — Succeeded by Governor Stephens on his death, 
1067 — Who was succeeded at his death (1674) by Governor Carteret, whose 
deputy, Miller, acts as governor during the absence of Carteret — Cul- 
pepper's insun-ection, and possession of the government by him in 1678 — 
Governor Eastchurch arrives in North Carolina- — Culpepper sent for trial 
to England, tried and acquitted — John Harvey, on the death of Eastchurch, 
governor in 1080 — Governor John Jenkins appointed, who, on his death, 
is succeeded by Henry Wilkinson (Dec. 1681) — Seth Sothel appointed 
governor in 1683 — His character and life; exiled by the people and death — 
S icceeded by Governor Philip Ludwell (1689), who resided most of his 
tinii. in Virginia — Constitution formed by Locke fur North Carolina (1693) 
— Caioilna divided into North and South Carolina — Thomas Smith ap- 


pointed governor — On his advice, John Archdale, " the Quaker GoTernor," 
is appointed (1G94); his sagacious and prudent administration — On 
his return to England (1C99) Thomas Harvey governor — On his death 
in 1699, Henderson Walker is governor — On his death (1704) Robert 
Daniel succeeds as governor— Difficulties between the Church of England 
and the Dissenters — First church in North Carolina (1705) — Fii'st news- 
paper in the United States (1705) — Contest between Cary and Glover ft r 
the government — Cary prevails — Cary sent to England for examination 
( 171 1) — Edward Ilyde governor in 1712 — De Graaffenreidt's patent — Indian 
murders — Lawson, first historian of North Carolina, killed by the Indians 
— Hyde dies with yellow fever (1712) and George Pollock succeeds him — 
First emission of paper money in North Carolina. 


FROM 1712 TO 1729. 

Charles Eden governor (1713) — Tuscai-ora Indians humbled, and make a 
treaty — Black Beard, the pirate ; his life and death — Edenton established 
— Eden'a death (1722) — Copy of his tombstone — Thomas Pollock succeeds 
as governor; and, in 1724, on his death, William Reed, as President of the 
Council, is governor — In 1724 Governor Burrinj;;ton arrives — His character 
— His opinion of the people of North Carolina — Sir Richard Everhard 
appointed governor, 1725 — Dividing line between Virginia and North 
Carolina, 1727 — The lords nioprietorp siirrender to the crown, pJuly 1729, 
except Lord Granville- -I opulation and divisions of the colony at this time 
— Portion of Lord Granville. 


FROM 1729 TO 1754. 

North Carolina nnder the Royal Governors — Governor Eurrlngton, 1729 — Ilis 
character, conduct, life, and death in 1734 — Nathaniel Rice, the Secretary, 
governor in 1734, who was succeeded by Gabriel Johnston, as governor — 
Line between North and South Carolina — Computation of time altered 
by aot of Parliament — First printing press in North Carolina, 1749 — 
Fort Johnston built — Moravians purchase land in North Carolina — First 
revisal of the laws of North Carolina — Governor Johnston, after being 
governor for twenty years, dies (1752) — Hi" life, character, and services — 
He is succeeded, for a time, by Nathaniel Rice ; and, on his death, in Janu- 
ary 1753, by Matthew Rowan — Population of North Carolina in 1754 — 
Aid sent to Virginia against the French by North Carolina. 


FROM 1754 TO 1765. 

Arthur Dobbs, governor (1754) — His conduct — His officers — People seize 
and imprison Lord Granville's agent — Courts of law held in each district, 
1702 — On the death of Dobbs (1765) Tryon succeeds. 


FROM 1765 TO 1771. 

Tryon's administration from April 1765 to July 1771 — His character — Early 
resistance of the Mecklenburg people — John Ashe and the Stamp Act, 
1765 — Paper seized — Conduct of the people of New Ilaaover, 1766 — Duel 
between Captain Simpson, of his majesly's sloop-of-war the Viper, and 
Lieutenant Whitechurst, a relative of Mrs. Tryon, in which Whitechurst 
is killed — Suicide of Chief Justice Berry — Repeal of the Stamp Act — 
Palace for the governor — A description ot its splendor — Regulation troubles 


commence, 17G6— Herman Husbands; his character — Colonel Edmund 
Fanning, of Orange ; his character — People of Anson County and Rowan 
sympathize with the Reguhitors — Tryon's expedition to Mecklenburg and 
Rowan — He raises a body of troops, and marches to Hillsboro' — Fanning 
indicted and convicted — Husbands indicted and acquitted by the jury — 
Judge Moore, in Rowan, cannot hold court — Sheriff of Orange resisted by the 
Regulators, and beaten — Sheriff of Dobbs resisted, and one of his deputies 
killed — Court at Hillsboro' broke up by the Regulators — Judge Henderson 
compelled to retreat — Fanning and John AVilliams beaten by the Regulator.- 
— Governor marches against the Regulators in strong force — Battle of 
Alamance, May 16, 1771 — Regulators defeated — First blood of the colonists 
ehed in these United States by royal troops — Tryon marches to join Wad- 
del, as far as Jersey settlement, in Davidson — Tryon returns to Hillsboro', 
where court is held, and six of the Regulators are hanged — Tryon em- 
barks, June 30, 1771, to New York, to which colony he had been appointed 


FROM 1771 TO JULY 4, 1776. 

Administration of Josiah Martin, November 1771 to 1775 — Last of the royal 
governors in North Carolina — His life and character — Parliamentary usages 
of " the olden times" — The powers of the governor — " A king, aye every inch 
a king" — Difficulties arise between the governor and the Assembly, as to the 
attachment laws and appointment of judges — Courts of law closed — i''!:'st 
popular Assembly meets at Newbern, on the 25th of August, 1774 — John 
Ilarvey, Moderator — Names of the members — Its resolves — It adjourns and 
another is called in April, 1775 — Governor Martin fulminates a proclama- 
tion against " such disorder and anai'chy," March 1, 1775 — The Colonial 
and the Popular Assemblies meet at the same time and place — " Passage of 
arms" between the governor and the Asseml)ly — The governor, in his 
speech to the Colonial Assembly, denounces these meetings of the people, 
and particularly the unwarrantable appointment of delegates to attend a 
Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, then in agitation, as highly inju- 
rious and "particularly offensive to the king" — The Assembly reply that 
" the right of the people to assemble and remonstrate is not to be doubted," 
and pass resolutions "approving of the General Congress at Philadelphia, 
to assemble September 4, 1774" — Whereupon, Governor Martin dissolves 
the Assembly — The last which ever sat under the Royal Government in 
North Carolina — Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 1775 — 
Governor Martin retreats on board of his majesty's ship-of-war Cruiser, in 
the Cape Fear River; and the royal government terminates forever ii. 
North Carolina — Provincial Congress meets at Hillsboro', August 1775 — 
Troops raised for military operations — Civil government exercised by a 
Provincial Council — District Committees of Safety ; and County Com- 
mittees — Names of the committee-men in each district — Battle of i>Ioore's 
Creek, in New Hanover County, February 27, 1776 — Tories defeated 
under General McDonald — Provincial Congress meets at Halifax, April 
4th, 1776 — Names of members — Names of general, field, battalion, and 
county officers — This body instruct their delegates in the Continental 
Congress, in April 1776, to vote for independence — Committees of safety 
appointed — Adjourned on the 14th of May, 1776 — Provincial Council of 
Safety meets at Wilmington, on the 6th of June, 1776 — General Ruther- 
ford, of Rowan, marches with one thousand nine hundred men, against the 
Overhill Cherokees (now Tennessee), reduces them, burns their towns. 
and destroys their crops — Provincial Council of Safety meets in July, at 
Halifax — The national Declaration of Independence reaches them while 
iL session — Their proceedings, and some account of the first celebration, 
in North Carolina, of the Declaration of Independence. 





The Constitution, by whom, when, and where formed — Congress of the State 
meets at Halifax, on the 12th of November, 177G — names of the members 
— Richard Caswell, President — Committee appointed to form a Constitu- 
tion — Names of committee — Richard Caswell elected governor, and the 
names of the Council of State. 


Life, character, services, and death of Richard Caswell, first Governor of 
North Carolina, under the Constitution. 

State of Frankland, its rise, progress, and fall. 


Governors of North Carolina, from Richard Caswell, 1776, 
to David S. Reid, 1851. 


Judiciary of North Carolina — Its history — Lives and characters of Martin 
Howard, Chief Justice ; Maurice Moore : and Richard Henderson ; Associate 
Judges, under the royal government — The Judges of North Carolina, from 
1776 to 1851 — The Attorney-Generals, the Secretaries of State, the Trea- 
surers of State, and the Comptrollers, from 1776 to 1851 — These statistics 
are relieved by a specimen of legal wit worthy of preservation. 


A list of the members of the Continental Congress from Noi-th Carolina, 
before the adoption of the Constitution (formed at Philadelphia, in May 
1787) ; and a list of the Senators and Representatives in Congress, from 
this State, from 1789 to 1851 ; with the ratio of representation for each 
decade, and the number of members in the House — Present Congressional 
districts by act of 1846, and the members of each. 


Press of North Carolina, from 1749 to 1851 — Account of some of the editors, 
and list of the papers now published in North Carolina (1851). 


Literary institutions of North Carolina— Their history, progress, and pre- 
sent condition— Queen's Museum, at Charlotte, 17 <0— University, incor- 
porated in 1789, and located at Chapel Hill, 1792— Corner-stone laid in 


October 179?- — Commenced tuition, 1795 — Life and character of Dr. Joseph 
Caldwell; and a list of its graduates from 1798 to 1851 — Davidson College, 
in Mecklenburg County, commenced in 1838 : its present faculty and 
alumni, from 1840 — Wake Forest College, in Wake County — Its trustees 
and faculty — Female institutions, common schools, and Literary Fund of 
the State. 


Banks of North Carolina — Railroads — Canals — Turnpike and plank roads — 
Institution for deaf and dumb — State hospital for Insane. 


Resources of the State, her liabilities, and her expenses. 


Date. English Sovereigns. 

Oct. 1! 

Octri2. i ^^^^^^ ^'^^^* 


1663. Charles II 



Wm. and Mary 

George I. 

George III. 
May 16. 
August 25. 
May 20. 
June 17. 
December 9. 
February 27. 

August 27 - 

December 20. 
January 3. 
September 11. 
October 4. 
October 7. 
June 28. 




1770, March 3 






June 20. 
Mav 12. 
June 22. 
Auo;ast 16. 
October 7. 
•January 17. 
March 15. 
September 8. 
October 19. 
January 20. 
September 3. 


Nov "liber. 


Columbus discovers America. 

Armidas and Barlow approach the coast of N. C. • 

( Charter of Charles II. William Drummond, Go- 
1 vernor of Carolina. 

John Culpepper's rebellion. 
, Carolina divided into North and South. 
First church in North Carolina. 
First newspaper in the United States. 
Carey's rebellion. 

Charter of Charles II. surrendered. 
Stamp Act passed. 
Battle of Alamance. 
Popular Assembly at Newborn, N. C. 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. 
General Washington, Commander-in-chief. 
Battle of Bunker s Hill. 
Koyal governor retreats. ]\Iartin. 
Battle of Great Bridge, near Norfolk, Va. 
" Moore's Creek. 
" Long Island.' 
Constitution of North Carolina formed at Halifax. 
Battle of Trenton. 

Gen. Rutherford subdues the Cherokees, 
Battle of Princeton. 
" Braudywine. 
" Germantown. 
" Saratoga. 
" Monmouth, 
f " Brier Creek, on Savannah Paver. Ashe 
I defeated. 

Surrender of Charleston. 
Battle of Ramsour's Mill, in North Carolina. 
Gates defeated at Camden. 
Battle of King's Mountain. 
'* Cowpens. 
" Guildford Court House. 

" Yorktown. 
Treaty of peace at Versailles. 
England recognizes the independence of America. 
Constitution of the United States formed. 
J North Carolina, by a convention at Ilillsboro', re- 
I jccts the Constitution. 
Convention at Fayetteville adopt it. 


I HAVE for many years, in hours of leisure, been engaged in 
collecting and condensing documents and facts relative to the early 
history of my native State. 

As the material increased on my hands, and the time has come 
Vhen the results of my labors are to-be presented to the intelligence 
and favor of my countrymen, I feel, unaffectedly, how inadequate 
I am for such a task. . My labors, however, may have one effect : 
they may assist and inspire some abler hand to undertake and com- 
plete this work, now so hesitatingly commenced.. 

There is no State in om- Union whose early history is marked 
by purer patriotism, more unsullied devotion to liberty, or more 
indomitable opposition to every form of tyranny than North Caro- 

Yet how little of that early history has been given to the world ! 

While Virginia, on one side, has had the labors of her Jefferson, 
whose intellect shed a lustre on every subject it touched ; and a Mar- 
shall, who was as illustrious as Chief Justice of the highest judicial 
tribunal of om- land, as his character was pui'e in all the relations of 
life ; and the classic genius of her Wirt, Stith, Campbell, Howe, and 
many others devoted to her history, and to the biography of her 
distinguished sons ; while South Carolina on the other, has employed 
the "philosophic pen" of her Eamsay, Drayton, Simms, and others; 
North Carolina, earlier colonized in point of history, full of glorious 
examples of patriotism and chivah'ic daring, has been neglected 
by her own sons and others. 

Tlie fair records of her early fame are buried amid the mass of 
official documents in the offices of the Board of Trade and Planta- 
tions in London ; and her history only shadowed forth in "the 
heavy pages" of Martin, who was a foreigner by birth, and the citi- 
zen of another State by adoption ; and by Williamson, whose labors 
terminated by an elaborated dissertation on fevers, and ends in 
1771. To these we should add "the fancy sketches" of Joseph 
Seawell Jones, of Shocco, whose book, when referring to docu- 
inei>ts in our State Department, and official records, is worthy of 
studj , but whose pages only embrace a limited time, and are marked 
with misplaced temper. 

Such*x.u,^e been the historians by whom the history of North 


Carolina has been attempted. The historian of the age (George 
Bancroft), of whom it may be said, in the words of the immortal 
epitaph of Goldsmith, bj Dr. Johnson,* and inscribed on his monu- 
ment in Westminster Abbey — 

" Qui nullum fere scribendi genus 
non tetigit, 
Nullum quod tetigit non ornavit," 

has been compelled to say, from examining such efforts, that " so 
carelessly has the history of North Carolina been written, that the 
name, merits and end of the first governor are not known." 

One of these (Jones), however, makes this just remark : " The 
archives of the State, and the desks of ancient families, now bury 
the story of the rise and progress of the State of North Carolina. 
Ignorance and wickedness may misrepresent the character of her 
history, if efforts are not made to break away the darkness that sur- 
rounds it. Such are the inducements for this publication." 

The Legislature of North Carolina, in common with every citizen of 
the country, has felt the opprobrium of this neglect. At its session 
of 1827, a resolution was passed directing the Governor to make a 
respectful application to the British Government to procure (from 
the offices of Board of Trade and Plantations in London), for the use 
of the State, copies of such papers and documents as relate to the 
colonial history of North Carolina. 

The Governor (H. G. Burton), in February, 1827, addressed 
Albert Gallatin, then our minister at that com-t, on this subject; 
and the British authorities promptly afforded all the aid in their 
power. Such a mass of documents was discovered, that Lord 
Dudley, then at the head of the Foreign Office, could only present 
indexes ; but, at the same time, most kindly offering to an author- 
ized agent of our Government access to, and copies of, these papers. 

These indexes, by a resolution of 26th January, 1843, Avere or- 
dered, by the General Assembly of our State, to be published, 
under my authority and direction — at that time associated in the 
administration of the State, as Public Treasurer. This brought me, 
by law, directly to the examination of these papersj as far as these 
indexes would allow. 

This important matter rested here for six years. The Legisla- 
ture, by resolution, January, 1849, empowered the Governor to 
procure, from the public offices in London, these documents. 

In the interim, conscious of the importance of these papers, and 
their vital connection with the State, I sent to a distinguished friend, 
then in London, a list of such as seemed to me of the most import- 
ance, and they have been procured. Aided by these, and by printed 
works of rare merit, procm-ed from abroad at much labor and ex- 
pense, as well as by the records of the State Department, to which, 
by a resolution of the last General Assembly (1850), and the cour- 

* Who touched upon every subject, and touched no subject that he did not 


tesy of the present venerable Secretary of State (Wm. Hill), free 
access was obtained ; aided, also, by gentlemen not only of our own 
State, but of other States, with copies of official documents, and 
faithful traditional statements, important and interesting, this work, 
"with all its imperfections on its head," is committed to the press. 

I here repeat the assertion made in the prospectus, that I do not 
aspire to the position of an historian ; that niche in the temple of» 
fame can be occupied by some more worthy person. All that I 
hope is to present a fair and truthful record of facts, illustrative of 
the early times of our beloved and venerable State ; the names of 
those who have done her service in the field and senate; and 
valuable statistical information of her resources and products; 
thus affording data to other and abler hands to occupy the historic 
field, as yet unexplored, and "so fair, so full of goodly prospects.'" 

If I shall succeed in rescuing from the dust of age, or the oblite- 
rating hand of time, one event elevating to our State character ; or, 
"like the fanciful enthusiast in Old Mortality, removing the moss 
and lichen of neglect" from the monument of one generous name, 
my end will be accomplished, and I will have paid that debt which 
Lord Coke asserts "every man owes to his profession." 

In this, the kind offices of every friend of North Carolina are 
solicited. This book, it is hoped, will be worthy of the State, as it 
is the labor of years and patient research. That it will be read by 
all, is not to be expected ; but, to those who may study its pages, it 
will be profitable. 

To the Christian, it will present the record, without bias or sec- 
tarianism, of a people guided by the hand of Providence to this 
western wilderness in search of freedom of conscience, and liberty 
to--worship without the trammels of law or priestly dictation ; and, 
aided by the same hand, from feeble beginnings becomes a great 
and powerful nation. 

The story of the rise and progress of our State creates a high 
moral feeling. In its records, we realize the words of David : — 

" We have heard with our ears, God, our fathers have told us, what 
work thou didst in their days, in the times of old. 

" How thou didst drive out the heathen with thy hand, * * * * * 
''For they got not the land in possession by their own sword, neither did 
their own arm save them: but thy right hand, and thine arm, and the light 
of thy countenance, because thou hadst a favor unto them."* 

To the student, it will afibrd a data to more extended inquiry in 
her history. 

To the statesman, unmixed as it shall be with party politics or 
partisan feeling, it may sometimes be a book of reference, by 
which his efi'orts may be guided, and ends for the good of the state 
.be attained ; and, by its statistic information, facilitate his labors. 

^ To the youth of the State, the simple record of patriotic exertion 
will act as a direct incentive to virtuous emulation. 

* Psalms, xliv. 1, 2, 3. 


Sallust informs us that Scipio and Maximus, when beholding the 
statues of their illustrious countrymen, became violently agitated. 
*'It could not," he says, "be the inanimate marble which possessed 
this mighty power. It was the recollection of noble actions which 
kindled this generous flame in their bosoms, only to be quenched 
when they too, by their achievements and virtues, had acquired 
•equal reputation." 

" And by their light 
Shall every gallant youth with ardor move 
To do brave deeds." 

It is to be hoped, too, that this book may be looked into (unin- 
teresting as records and statistics may be to them) by the fairer 
portion of creation. 

They may find in the single-hearted devotion of a Pocahontas ; 
in the enthusiastic fidelity of a Flora McDonald ; in the resolves of 
the women of '76 in Mecklenburg and Rowan ; in the masculine 
courage of Mrs. Slocumbe, of Wayne, and Mrs. Powell, of Halifax : 
in the patriotic offering of Mrs. Steele, of Salisbury ; in the un- 
wearied care of the mother of a Gaston, examples worthy of imita- 
tion ; and in the brilliant repartees of Mrs. Wilie Jones, and Mrs. 
Ashe, of Halifax ; wit to be admired, before which the martial 
spirit of a Tarleton was forced to quail. 

I here take occasion publicly to acknowledge my obligations to 
the very many friends by whom my efibrts have been countenanced 
and aided. To Hon. George Bancroft, now of New York ; to Hon. 
David L. Swain, Professors Mitchell and Hubbard, of the University 
of the State ; to Col. Peter Force, of Washington (who has been 
a kind friend to me from boyhood) ; to Dr. Cyrus L. Hunter, of 
Lincoln ; to Professor Rockwell, of Davidson College ; to my faith- 
ful agents in every county in the State, and to many others. 


I. The first landing of the colonists in 1584, to the Revolution- 
ary war, 1776, will constitute the first series ; with a list and sketch 
of the Governors under the Proprietary, and Royal Governments. 

II. The second will present the Governors, Judges, and Executive 
officers, from that time to the present. 

The Members of Congress from the State, from 1774 to 1851. 

The Press, from the first introduction of printing, in the State, 
to the present day. 

Education in the State ; History of the University ; Sketches of 
the life and characters of its Presidents ; other institutions and the 
Common Schools. 

The public institutions of the State, as the Banks, Railroads, 
Canals, Turnpike and Plank Roads ; Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb, and State Hospital for the Insane. 


Resources of the State ; her expenses and liabilities ; her Popu- 

III. The third series, will present a sketch of each county in the 
State, in alphabetical order ; 1, date of its erection ; 2, origin of 
its name ; 3, situation ; 4, boundaries, its colonial and revolutionary 
history, its products and population ; sketches of lives of its distin- 
guished citizens, and an accurate list of the members from each 
county in the Senate and House of Commons, from the adoption of 
the constitution, or the erection of the county to the last session, 

Whatever defects this work may present, it has one merit that 
cannot be detracted ; it is written and compiled by a native of the 

Mr. Prescott thus speaks of Graham's Eistory of the United 
States: "Mr. Graham's work with all its merits is the work of a 
foreigner, and that word comprehends much that cannot be over- 
come by the best writer. He may produce a beautiful composition ; 
faultless in style, accurate in delineation, and full of sound logic 
and wise conclusions. But he cannot enter into the sympathies, 
comprehend the feelings and peculiar ways of thinking that form 
the idiosyncrasy of a nation. What can he know who has never 
been warmed by the same sun, lingered among the same scenes, 
listened to the same tales in childhood, pledged to the same inter- 
ests in manhood, enlivened by the same hopes and depressed by 
the same fears that go to form national character !" * *_ * 

" As in portrait painting, so it is in painting characters in history. 
A foreign artist may catch some bold outline, prominent feature, or 
general air of his subject ; but he cannot hope to delineate the 
fleeting shades of expression, the almost imperceptible play of fea- 
tures which are only observed and revealed to the most familiar 
observation and daily intercourse. 

" Who would look to a Frenchman for a good work on England, or 
to an Englishman for a faithful history of France ? Ill fares it ivith 
a state, whose history is tvritte7i by others than her own sons ! What 
foreign hand like Herodotus and Thucydides could have painted the 
achievements of Greece ? Who, like Livy and Tacitus, the shifting 
character of the Roman, in his rise, meridian, and decline ? Had 
the Greeks trusted their story to the same Romans what would 
have been their fate with posterity ? Let the Carthagenians tell !"* 
Of the histories of North Carolina (if we except Jones), not one 
has been written by a native of the State, or who resided in the State 
at the time of their death. 

Williamson, whose work was published in 1812, was a native of 
Pennsylvania, and died in New York. 

Martin, who published in 1829, was a native of France, and died 
in Louisiana. 

* Prescott's Miscellanies, 310. 


This work is written, collated and published, by a native North 

Errors, it doubtless contains, omissions unavoidable, and many 

But he trusts that his labors will not be without some beneficial 

He will be p-ateful for any correction of errors, or any omission 
supplied ; and if this meets a kind reception from his countrymen, 
another edition may remedy these defects, and be more worthy of 
their attention, and of his illustrious subject. 


Beatty's Ford, N. C. 
1st July, 1851. 




FROM 1584 TO 1585. 

The discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, under the auspices of Fer- 
dinand of Spain — John Cabot's expedition in 1496, under the auspices of 
Henry VIL— The first expedition to the United States in 1584, under the 
auspices of Sir Walter Raleigli, which landed on Roanoake Island, in 
North Carolina. 

The renown acquired for the Spaniards in the discovery of 
America by Cohimbus, in 1492, excited other nations to emulate 
this example. 

England and France engaged in this enterprise. 

In 1496, John Cabot obtained from Henry VII. a patent for 
himself and three sons,* to search for countries hitherto unseen 
by Christian people, and to affix the banners of England in any 
land they might discover. A voyage, in 1497, was undertaken by 
him, and, for the first time, the shores of North America, among 
the polar bears and rude savages of Labrador, were visited by an 
English ship.f 

The discovery of a north-west passage, and the mercantile in- 
terests of the kingdom, kept this feeling alive with the English 
nation through the subsequent reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VL, 
Mary and Ehzabeth. Added to this feeling was the thirst for gold, 
which it was believed abounded in this western world. 

In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh, not disheai'tened by the sad fate 
of his step-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who perished a year pre- 
vious on a voyage of discovery, obtained a patent from Queen 
Elizabeth,! and fitted out two ships under Philip Amidas and 
Arthur Barlow. These ships sailed in April, 1584, from England, 
aud in July they landed on the shores of North Carolina. 

* Patent recorded in Ilakluyt, iii. 25, 26. 

t '^•rncroft, i. 9. X Hakluyt, iii. 297. 


It was tlien and there "the meteor flag" of England was first 
displayed in these United States, and on the sandy banks of North 
Carolina, rested the first Anglo-Saxon anchor. 

After returning thanks to God for their safe arrival, Amidas took 
formal possession of this country, in " the name of Elizabeth of 
England, as rightful Queene and princess of the same." 

Here we may pause at this interesting point of our inquiries, and 
remark as most providential, that this settlement occurred at this 
period, under such auspices. 

Had it occurred a few years earlier, imder the rule of "the 
bloody Mary," seas of blood and persecution must have been en- 
countered before our forefathers had attained the religious liberty 
they then er^oyed. Had it occurred under the flag of Spain, the 
sword of a Cortez or Pizarro would have carried blood and devas- 
tation ; murder would have signalized the event, and this country 
now be no further advanced in science or religion than the be- 
nighted and bigoted regions of South America. But here, the 
reformed religion and enlightened privileges of the age of Elizabeth 
marked the event. 

The season of the year (July), was mild. The sea was calm ; the 
air was redolent with the perfume of flowers ; and, as expressed by 
Amidas, in his report to Sir Walter Kaleigh, " the fragrance, as 
they drew near the land, was as if they had been in the midst of 
some delicate garden, abounding in all manner of odoriferous 

The loveliness of the scenery, and the mildness of the climate, 
was excelled by the gentleness of the native inhabitants, who re- 
ceived the strangers Avith all that hospitality, which, even at this 
day, is characteristic of "the Old North State." On Roanoake 
Island, now in Currituck county, the English were welcomed by the 
wife of Granganimeo, father of Wirgina, the king. " The people 
were most gentle, loving, and faithful, void of all guile and treason, 
and such as lived after the manner of the golden age."* 

After making a short stay, Amidas and Barlow returned to Eng- 
land, where they arrived safely in the following September, accom- 
panied, in the guileless simplicity of their nature, by Manteo and 
Manchesc, two native Indians of North Carolina. Their accounts 
to their patron, Sir Walter Raleigh, and to Queen Elizabeth, of the 
climate, soil, and inhabitants, caused a thrilling excitement through- 
out the kingdom of England. In the fullness of her heart, the 
queen called it Virginia, discovered as it was under the reign of a 
virgin queen. 

* Copied from Amidas and Barlow's account. Ilakluyt, iii.'SOl, 307. 



FROM 1585 TO 1589. 

Second expedition under Sir Richard Greenville in 1585, and the third under 
the same in 1586 — The fourth under Governor White, Governor of the City 
of Raleigh. 

This adventure of Amidas and Barlow was most Ratifying to 
the spirit of the English nation. Believing with popular credulity 
the gorgeous and glowing descriptions of this western world by 
Amidas and Barlow, it was not difficult to gather a numerous com- 
pany of emigrants to this land of promise. 

Another expedition under Sir Richard Greenville, sailed (19tli 
April, 1585) from Plymouth, under the auspices of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, with several persons of distinction; among whom were Sir 
Ralph Lane, as Governor ; Cavendish, who soon after circumnavi- 
gated the globe ; Hariot, the historian ; and one hundred and eight 
others. They landed on Roanoake Island in July. The ships left 
the colonists in August and returned. This colony thus planted, 
governed by Lane, achieved no permanent location; and, after a 
residence of a year, returned with Sir Francis Drake to England. 

Tius terminated the first colony. This step of Governor Lane's 
was ill timed, for, a few days after his departure, a ship, dispatched 
by Sir Walter Raleigh, arrived, loaded with every essential to com- 
fort ; and, soon after. Sir Richard Greenville appeared the second 
time with three ships, who searched in vain for Lane and the 
colonists. Sir Richard left fifteen men on the Island of Roanoake 
and returned. 

In the early part of the next year (January, 1587), Sir Walter 
Raleigh dispatched John White, commissioned as " Governor of the 
City of Raleigh," and a number of colonists, male and female, who 
arrived in July. The colonists left by Greenville were not to be 

On the northern end of the island, the foundations of "the City 
of Raleigh" were laid. By command of Sir Walter, Manteo was 
baptized (27th August, 1587), and created Lord of Roanoake. 
White returned to England, leaving a colony of eighty-nine men, 
seventeen women, and two children. Among them was his daugh- 
ter, Eleanor Dare, wife of one of the assistants, whose child was 
the first-born offspring of English parents in this western world. 

Tbe condition of England, at the return of White, was unpro- 
pitiouf to the colony. Sir Walter Raleigh, Greenville, and Lane, 
with the whole nation, were engaged in a war with Spain, by which 
an invasion was threatened. It was more that tAvo years beforo 


White could return ; and, on landing on the Island of Roanoake 
(1590), not a single man was found.* It had been agreed on leav- 
ing the colony, that if any accident should overcome the colonists, 
to leave the name of the place where they might be found ; and, if 
in distress, to designate it by a cross. Governor White found, on 
a tree or post, the word Croatan, but without the sign of distress. 
No trace of these colonists has ever been discovered, f 

Lawson, the earliest historian of Carolina, believes that the Eng- 
lish, despairing of all relief, from the long absence of their friends, 
amalgamated Avith the Indians. In confirmation of which he learned 
"from the Hatteras Indians that several of their ancestors were 
white people, and could talk in a book. The truth of which is con- 
firmed by gray eyes being among these Indians and no others." 

Thus ended the second colony. 


FROM 1589 TO 1653. 

Other expeditions unsuccessful, and Sir Walter assigns his patent (1589) — 
Sketch of the life, character, and death of Sir Walter Raleigh (1618) — Set- 
tlement of the colony of Virginia under Captain John Smith — Sketch of 
the life, character, and services of John Smith — His rescue by Pocahontas, 
daughter of Powhatan — Her life, character, and services. 

Compelled to desist from the hope of successful colonization in 
North Carolina, Sir Walter Raleigh still did not despair of finding 
his faithful men, left by Greenville. | He sent five several expedi- 
tions to search for them, but in vain; and, after expending about 
forty thousand pounds, and receiving no benefits in return, he 
assigned§ (7th March, 1589), to Thomas Smith and others, the 
privilege of trading to Virginia, reserving to himself one-fifth of the 
gold and silver they might discover. As the Chesapeake Bay had 
been discovered by Governor Lane, he directed their location to 
that point, as being a safe and commodious harbor, rather than the 
dangerous coast and open road near Cape Hatteras. 

Thus ended the efibrts of the brave and gallant Raleigh to es- 
tablish a colony in North Carolina. " A man of wit and the sword," 
as he was so tauntingly termed by Sir Edward Coke ; his character 
and fame arc dear to our State. As a soldier, his courage was 
undaunted ; and, as a scholar, his^ learning was deep and varied. 
Although his gallantry and services found no favor in the eyes of 
the pusillanimous James I., under whom he sufiered ignominy 
and death; after a long and rigorous confinement, he was tried for 

* Williamson, i. 60. f Lawson, 62. 

X Purchas, iv. 1653. § Williamson, ii. 58. 


offences of which he was innocent, convicted, and beheaded on Oc- 
tober 29, 1618;* yet his name has been preserved; and, after a 
lapse of two hundred years, the State of North Carolina has offered 
a tribute to his memory and his virtues, by naming its capital in 
honor of the generous, chivalric and noble Raleigh. 

" His memory sparkles o'er the fountain : 
His name inscribed on lofty mountain, 
The meanest rill, the mightiest river 
Rolls, mingled with his name forever." 

In accordance with the suggestions of the sagacious councils of 
Sir Walter, the Chesapeake became the point to which future efforts 
were directed. 

A patent was granted to a London company (1606), and about 
the same time, another patent was granted to Sir Thomas Gates, 
Sir George Sommers, and others. 

The next spring (1607), saw a colony located at Jamestown, 
governed by the distinguished Captain John Smith. 

Discord, anarchy, and confusion, mark the early history of these 
colonists, and but for the genius, courage, and skill of Smith, they 
had shared the fate of the colony of Roanoake. But Providence 
destined otherwise. 

"Tanto molis erat, 

condere gentium."! 

Guided by his talents, influenced by his example, under the wise 
administration of Smith, the Qolony of Virginia was founded. 

It is refreshing to the mind of every American, to know that 
under the auspices of such men our country was first settled. 

With all nations, the character of their founders is a source of 
pride. Ancient Greece asserted that her founders were divine. 
Rome delighted in the fanciful idea that Romulus was descended 
from their gods. "No Norman tyrant landed on our shores," nor 
did any " fabled fugitive" from the flames of Troy settle this coun- 
try; but men "who knew their rights, and knowing, dared main- 
tain." The rock can now be shown upon which they first landed ; 
the rude ramparts that sheltered them from the savage foe can be 
pointed out. . In their characters are discovered every virtue that 
can dignify our nature, and every trait that ennobles mankind. In 
none are virtue, courage, or patience more conspicuous than in John 
Smith. I . 

He had distinguished himself in the wars with the Turks ; and, m 
single combat, met (1607) before the walls of Alba Regis, and over- 
came three of the most distinguished of his adversaries. _ His whole 
course of life previous to his arrival in the colony of Virginia, was 
peculiarly adapted to prepare him for the trials, dangers, and adver- 
sities^ of this position. In every situation in which he was placed 

* See "Celebrated Trials" (Philada., 1835), page 180. 

j Of such material to form a nation. 

t Life of Captain John Smith, by W. Gilmore Simms. 


as a soldier, or a statesman, his character was fully equal to his 

While exploring the river which his patriotism had dignified hy 
the name of his sovereign (James), he was taken prisoner (1608), 
and conducted by the Indians in triumph to their savage king, 
Powhatan. Undismayed by adversity, he meets his fate with calm- 
ness and dignity. He is condemned to death. 

Already the savage death song is sounded ; the victim is bared 
and bound, and Powhatan, the savage monarch, stands ready to 
give the word to the executioners, whose war clubs are raised. But 
the youthful daughter of Powhatan, Pocahontas, rushes between the 
victim and his fate — 

" A shriek arrests the falling blow, 
And Pocahontas shields the foe." 

At her earnest supplications he is released ; in a few days he is 
allowed to return to his comrades in arms at Jamestown,* Such 
was his influence, that the Indians, instead of the war club and 
tomahawk, are seen bringing corn and other supplies to the famished 

To the generous character of this Indian princess, Pocahontas, the 
safety and preservation of the colony may be attributed. She was 
so pure and simple-hearted in her conduct, that often she advised, 
at great peril, the colonists of impending danger ; and finally, was 
induced to marry one of the colonists, Rolfe ; from Avhich alliance 
some of the first families of Virginia trace their origin. 

She embraced the Christian religion,! and was baptized and re- 
ceived into the church under the name of Rebecca. J In 1616, she 
went with Sir Thomas Dale to England. She was cordially received, 
and treated with that respect due her rank and her devotion to the 
cause of the colonists. She died in England, at Gravesend, "the 
sweetest example of Christian resignation and fortitude." She left 
one son, Thomas Rolfe, who was educated in England, and became 
a person of distinction in Virginia. He left one daughter, who 
married Colonel Robert Boiling, who had the present Colonel John 
Boiling and several daughters, who married ColOnel Richard Ran- 
• dolph. Colonel .John Fleming, Dr. "William Guy, Thomas Eldridge, 
and James Murray. The late talented John Randolph was a de- 
scendant of this family, J 

Years have elapsed since this admirable woman departed, but her 
noble conduct will endure in the pages of history, when the marble 
which records her generous deliverance of Smith, in our National 
Capitol, shall have mouldered to its original elements. 

* " A true relation of such occurrences and accidents of note as have hap- 
pened in Virginia since the first plantino; of the colony, by John Smith, 1608." 

t This interesting event forms the subject of the national picture in the 
capitol at Washington, by Chapman. 

X Stith, 46. Simms' Life of Captain John Smith, 366. 



FROM 1653 TO 1712. 

Permanent settlement of North Carolina — William Drummond, first Governor, 
in 1663, a Scotchman — Succeeded by Governor Stephens on his death, 
1667 — Who was succeeded at his death (1674) by Governor Carteret, whose 
deputy. Miller, acts as governor during the absence of Carteret — Cul- 
pepper's insurrection, and possession of the government by him in 1678 — 
Governor Eastchurch arrives in North Carolina — Culpepper sent for trial 
to England, tried and acquitted — John Harvey, on the death of Eastchurch, 
governor in 1680 — Governor John Jenkins appointed, who, on his death, 
is succeeded by Henry Wilkinson (Dec. 1681) — Seth Sothel appointed 
governor in 1683 — His character and life ; exiled by the people, and death — 
Succeeded by Governor Philip Ludwell (1689), who resided most of his 
time in Virginia — Constitution formed by Locke for North Carolina (1693) 
— Carolina divided into North and South Carolina — Thomas Smith ap- 
pointed governor — On his advice, John Archdale, "the Quaker Governor," 
is appointed (1694); his sagacious and prudent administration — On his 
return to England (1699), Thomas Harvey, governor — On his death in 
1699, Henderson Walker is governor — On his death (1704) Robert Daniel 
succeeds as governor — Difficulties between the Church of England and the 
Dissenters — First church in North Carolina (1705) — First newspaper in the 
United States (1705) — Contest between Cary and Glover for the govern- 
ment — Cary prevails — Cary sent to England for examination (1711) — 
Edward Hyde governor in 1712 — De Graaffeureidt's patent — Indian mur- 
ders — Lawson, first historian of North Carolina, killed by the Indians — • 
Hyde dies with yellow fever (1712), and George Pollock succeeds him — 
First emission of paper money in North Carolina. 

Sixty-nine years after the landing of Amidas and Barlow on the 
coast of North Carolina, a colony from Virginia (July, 1653), led 
by Roger Green,* settled on the banks of the Roanoake, and on 
the south side of the Chowan, and its tributary streams. 

North Carolina had, previously, been the refuge of Quakers, and 
others fleeing from religious persecutions. Before this period, this 
country had been explored by the Secretary of the Colony of Vir- 
ginia, in 1622, who traveled overland to Chowan River, and de- 
scribed the fertility of the soil, the salubrity of the climate, f and 
the kindness of the natives. 

In 1662, the Chief of the Ycopim Indians granted to George 
Dm-ant a neck of land in Perquimans county, which still bears his 

On the 24th March, 1663, King Charles II. granted to Edward, 
Earl of Clarendon ; George, Duke of Albemarle ; William, Earl of 
Cii-ven; John, Lord Berkley; Anthony, Lord Ashley j Sir George 

* Henning, Statutes at Large, BSD, 381. 
t Smith's Virginia, ii. 04. 


Carteret, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, all the coun- 
try between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, between 31° and 36° 
parallels of latitude, called Carolina, in honor of Charles. 

In 1663, Sir William Berkley, Governor of the Colony of Vir- 
ginia, visited the province, and appointed William Drummond 
Governor of the Colony of Carolina. Drummond was from Scot- 
land, and inheriting the national characteristics of that people, he 
was prudent, cautious, and deeply impressed with a love of liberty. 
Such was the settlement, and such Avas the first Governor of 
North Carolina. The lake in the centre of the Dismal Swamp pre- 
serves his name. 

It was called the county of Albemarle from Gen. Geo. Monk, after- 
wards Duke of Albemarle, one of the proprietors, which included 
the country between Virginia and the Cape Fear River. The county 
of Clarendon spread over the region from Cape Fear to Florida. 

Drummond,* at his death in 1667, was succeeded by Stevens as 

At this time the colony contained about four thousand inhabit- 
ants, a few fat cattle, and eight hundred hogsheads of tobacco. t 

The first assembly that made laws for Carolina, assembled in the 
fall of 1669.x 

No freer country was ever organized by man. Freedom of con- 
science, security from taxation except by their own consent, were 
their first objects. No one could recover a debt, the cause of action 
of which arose out of the colony, within five years ; the emigrant was 
exempted from taxation for a year ; every emigrant received a 
bounty of land. These simple laws suited a simple people, who 
were as free as the air of theii- mountains ; and when oppressed 
were as rough as the billows of the ocean. They submitted to no 
unjust laws, they bowed their knee to no earthly monarch. 

"Are there any," says Bancroft,§ "who doubt man's capacity 
for self government ? Let them study the history of North Caro- 
lina ; the inhabitants were restless and turbulent in their imperfect 
submission to a government imposed on them from abroad ; the 
administration of the colony was firm, humane, and tranquil when 
left to themselves. Any government but their own was oppres- 

March, 1669. At this time, a form of government, magnificent in 
design, and labored in detail, called " The fundamental constitutions 
of Carolina," were drawn up by the celebrated author of the Essay 
on the Human Understanding, John Locke. These are preserved 
in the second volume of Revised Statutes (1837), 449. 

On the death of Governor Stevens, who died in the colony full 
of years and wealth, the assembly chose Carteret for their governor, 
and on his return to England soon after, Eastchurch, who then was 
in England, was appointed governor, and Miller secretary. 

* Williamson, i. 93. t Chalmers, 533. Bancroft, ii. 157. 

; Chalmers, 525. | Bancroft, ii. 158, 


The governor being detained, Miller proceeded to North Carolina, 
" holding the triple oJEce of governor, secretary, and collector." 

The conduct of this man, " dressed up in his brief authority," was 
oppressive. The spirit of the people was aroused by his extortion and 
tyranny. Led on by John Culpepper, who had been surveyor-gene- 
ral of South Carolina, they seized the president and six members of 
the council, and put them in prison. They called a legislature, 
appointed courts of justice, and exercised all the rights and powers 
of government for two years.* The imbecile hand that then held the 
English sceptre (Charles II.) was too fond of pleasure " to take 
much trouble with a distant and disordered colony." 

The colonists declared, that " excessive taxation, abridgment of po- 
litical liberty, with a denial of a free election of an assembly, the 
unwise interruptions of the natural channels of commerce were the 
threefold grievances of the colony." 

This was the germ of the great principles that ripened more 
than one hundred years after, into our glorious revolution of 1776, 
and its rich fruits were our national independence and liberty. 

When Governor Eastchurch arrived, his authority was derided. 
He applied to the Governor of Virginia for aid to restore his 
authority. But he died before troops could be raised. 

Culpepper was tried in England in 1680 for these offences, defended 
by Shaftesbury ; he was acquitted, even by an English jury. 

In 1680, John Harvey, as president of the council, took charge 
of the colony of North Carolina, and in June of that year, John 
Jenkins was appointed governor by the proprietors ; who was suc- 
ceeded on his death (December 1681), by Henry Wilkinson. 

That the insurrection of Culpepper Avas not considered treasona- 
ble, or even unpopular with the Proprietors themselves, is proved 
by the fact that one of his associates under Governor Harvey, was 
the Receiver General, and another (George Durant) a judge of the 

Such, however, was the free spirit of the people, that it was ex- 
pedient to send one of the proprietors as governor. 

In 1683, Seth Sothel, who had purchased the rights of Lord 
Clarendon, arrived as Governor in North Carolina. 

The character of Sothel presents every vice that can degrade 
man or disgrace his nature. " During the six years that he mis- 
ruled the people of North Carolina, the dark shades of his charac- 
ter were not relieved by a single ray of virtue."! Profligate in his 
habits, licentious in his tastes, sordid and avaricious in his conduct ; 
his administration is marked by every kind of extortion. He was 
not fit to rule over a people that were impatient of any tyranny or 
oppression. He was impeached, imprisoned by the people, and sen- 
tenced by the colony to twelve months exile, and a perpetual 
inc:<r>acity for the office of governor. He returned to South Carolina, 
where he afterwards became governor ; from this colony also his 

* Wniu... son, i. 132. t Il^id. i. 140. 


vices expelled him, and he died in North Carolina in 1692 without 

For the will of Seth Sothel, from the records now on file in Se- 
cretary of State's OflBce at Raleigh, see chap, xix., Chowan county, 
in the following pages. 

Philip Ludwell succeeded as governor, 1693. He continued 
but a short time in the colony, and although four years governor, 
resided the greater part of that time in Virginia.* 

Governor Ludwell had been a collector of customs in Virginia, 
an adherent of Berkley, and a complainant in England against 
Efiingham as Governor of Virginia. After some time spent in vain 
efibrts to carry out the wishes of the lords proprietors, consistent 
with the prosperity of the colonists, he gladly retired to Virginia, 
and Alexander Lillington was appointed deputy governor ; two years 
afterf Thomas Harvey succeeded as deputy governor. 

The fundamental constitutions so sagely devised by the philoso- 
phic Locke, were abrogated at this time. 

The portion of the province north of the Santee, was called North 
Carolina ; and the foiu" southern counties. South Carolina. 

A dreadful storm was in this year experienced in North Carolina ;J 
it reversed the order of nature. It stopped some rivers, and opened 

Thomas Smith, on the abrogations of the constitutions of Locke, 
was appointed governor by the Proprietors ; but his political opi- 
nions were so difierent from those of the colonists, that he gladly 
advised that one of the Proprietors should visit North Carolina, to 
inquire into their grievances and redress their wrongs. 

Following this salutary counsel. Lord Ashley, the grandson of 
Shaftesbury, the pupil and antagonist of Locke, and the celebrated 
author of the Characteristics, was appointed. He declined the mis- 
sion, and John Archdale, a member of the peaceful society of 
Friends, received the appointment. Until his arrival, Joseph Black 
was deputy governor of the province. 

The selection of Governor Archdale Avas most fortunate. Im- 
bued with the peaceful and wise tenets of his religious belief, and 
the true principles of democracy that it inculcated, like his great 
predecessor in Pennsylvania who landed only twelve years before, at 
New Castle (27th Oct., 1682), his administration of the colony was 
prudent, wise, and salutary. 

In the month of March, 1695, he met the Legislature in Charles- 
ton. § He purchased lands in Albemarle, and one of his daughters 
married in Pasquotank, where some of his descendants live to this 
day. The wife of William Hill, Esq., the present Secretary of 
State of North Carolina, is a descendant of Governor Archdale, 
through his daughter Ann, who married (July, 1688) Emmanuel 

* Williamson, i. 147, f Ibid. i. 143. 

X Marten, i. 195, ^ Williamson, i. 158. 


Lowe, whose daughter Anne married Pendleton, whose daughter 
Mary married Dempsy Conner, the father of Mrs. HilL 

An advocate for the freedom of conscience, he wisely avoided the 
religious disputes between the zeal of the high church party, and 
the great body of the people, which had much excited the colony. 
He quieted the jarrings between the colonists and their feudal 
sovereigns, by remitting quit rents for three and four years, regu- 
lating the prices of lands, and allowing the payment in produce in 
lieu of money. To cultivate the friendship of the Indians, he es- 
tablished a Board to decide all contests between them and the 
whites. Although surrounded by dangerous and savage tribes, no 
conflict was apprehended, because no ofience was committed. 

Penn's treaty with the Indians in Pennsylvania has received the 
plaudits of all ages. Made, unlike other treaties, without any 
formality of oaths ; and, unlike others, was never violated. So 
Archdale acted. He established in our jurisprudence the great 
principle that those, who, from conscientious scruples, refused to 
bear arms, should be' exempted therefrom on a certificate from the 
Governor. * 

Roads were made under skillful surveys. The course of his con- 
duct was such that the representatives of the freemen of the colony 
declared that, "by his wisdom, patience, and labor, Governor Arch- 
dale had laid a foundation for a most glorious superstructure, "j" 

His character deserves to be held in grateful remembrance by the 
people of North Carolina. The effects of his sagacity introduced sys- 
tem and union into the colony, and his name should be perpetuated 
by a more enduring monument than it has hitherto received. 

During his administration, a brig from Madagascar, on her way 
to England, anchored off Sullivan's Island. Thomas Smitlf, a land- 
grave, on going on board, received a bag of Rice, with descriptions 
of its culture, its suitableness for food, and its incredible increase. 
From this small beginning arose that which soon became the chief 
support of the colony, and is now one of its staple commodities and 
a source of wealth. | 

When Governor Archdale returned to England, the government 
of the Colony of North Carolina devolved on Thomas Harvey, as 
Deputy Governor, who had already (1695) exercised that office; 
and, on his death, the administration devolved on Henderson Walker, 
who was President of the Council. § He was a lawyer, and for some 
time a judge of the Supreme Court. 

Under his administration, an important change took place in the 
judiciary. Hitherto the general court had been held by the chief 
magistrate, the deputies of the lords proprietors, and two assistants. 
A commission now issued appointing five persons Justices of the 
Supreme Court. 

* See Militia Laws of North Carolina, quoted in note to vol. i. William- 
son, 272. 
t Archd-Je, 21. Bancroft, ill. 16. Martin, i. 198. % Martin, i. 198. 

i See Mart: :, i. 2G5. Williamson, i. 18"J. Bancroft, iii. 20. 


The piracies of the famous Captain Kidd occurred at this time, 
who was taken, and tried in England and executed. 

Under the mihl rule of Gov. Walker, the inhabitants of North 
Carolina increased in the enjoyment of the highest personal liberty. 
"Five miles below Edenton, just a hundred yards from the sound, 
beneath the shade of a large cedar, is the grave of Henderson 
Walker. The stone that marks the spot keeps the record that 
'North Carolina, during his administration, enjoyed tranquillity.' " 

I copy from the tomb-stone the following : — 

" Here lyes y* body of 


President of the Council and Commander-in-Chief" of North Carolina, 

during whose Administration the Province enjoyed that tranquillity which 

it is to be wished it may never want. 

He departed this life, 14 April, 1704, aged 44 years." 

On the north side of this tomb 

" Lyes y« body of 


Son of Major Alexander Lillington, 

who died in ye 15 year of his age. Anno 1706." 

Over the other side is the following inscription : — 

" Here lyes y* body of 


Wife of Edward Mosely, Esq. 

She was y' daughter of Maj. Alex. Lillington, Esq., and y" 

Widow of the Hon. Henderson Walker, Esq., 

Late President of His Majesty's Council of No. Carolina. 

She departed this life, Nov. the 18th, A. D. 1712, 

aged 55 years & 5 months." 

On the death of Governor Walker, Robert Daniel, a landgrave, 
was made President of the Council. He had distinguished himself 
in arms at the late attack on St. Augustine, and was appointed by 
Sir Nathaniel Johnson, whose commission now extended over the 
whole Province as Deputy Governor of the Northern part of 

Lord Granville, who was still Palatine, had instructed Sir Na- 
thaniel Moore to establish the religion of the Church of England 
in the colony by legal authority. 

In 1704, by arts and intrigue in the General Assembly, a law 
was passed by a majority of one, disfranchising all dissenters from 
any ofiice of trust, honor, or profit. 

A previous assembly had passed a law (1702) by which thirty 
pounds should be raised in each precinct to support a minister of 
the church of England. 

This produced tumults and insurrections among the people. A 
large majority of the colonists had no religion; many who professed 
religion were Quakers, Presbyterians, Lutherans, and Independents. 

In the year 1705, the first chmxh in North Carolina was built 


in Cliowan County.* Quakers were not allowed to give evidence 
in any criminal case, or serve on a jury, or hold any office. 

The Governor (Daniel) and the people, immediately opposed 
these laws. A petition was introduced into Parliament, and, on 
hearing the evidence, the House of Lordsf declared that these 
" acts were repugnant to the laws of England, contrary to the charter 
of the proprietors ; an encouragement to atheism ; detrimental to 
trade; and tended to the depopulation and ruin of the province." 

Thus Avas first asserted, in North Carolina, by her simple and 
patriotic people, the great principle of divorce of church and state. 

This year (1705) was printed the first American newspaper, 
called the Boston Neivs Letter. 

In this year, so severe was the cold, that Albemarle Sound, at 
Edcuton, was frozen over.J 

Peacefully as was this important principle (separation of church 
and state) maintained and established. North Carolina was not 
free from tumult. The succession of a governor (like that of the 
sceptre of the mother country) was often the scene of confusion 
and insurrection. In the language of a cotemporaneous writer, § 
"it was the common practice of the people in North Carolina to 
resist and imprison their governors, until they looked upon that as 
lawful which had been so long tolerated." 

Thomas Cary was appointed Deputy Governor by Sir Nathaniel 
Johnston. The Lords Proprietors disapproved of the choice, and 
directed their deputies to select one of their own number as Governor 
of North Carolina. The deputies selected William Glover. Cary, 
who was selected as deputy governor, had been collector of the 
rents of the Lords Proprietors, and had neglected to settle his ac- 
counts. For awhile he seemed to yield to the sway of Glover ; but, 
aided by his friends, he seized the records of the province, and 
proclaimed himself governor. 

The colony now was a scene of anarchy ; the laws were suspended, 
and justice fled. The respectable portion of the colony adhered to 
Glover ; while Cary possessed the force. A general assembly was 
called, which met at Captain Heckelfield's, on Little River, to de- 
cide this vexed question. Members appeared under writs of election 
issued by President Glover ; while another set appeared under writs 
of election issued by President Cary. Glover and Cary sat in 
separate rooms with their respective councils. Great confusion 
prevailed, and the partisans of Glover, irritated by the persecutions 
from Cary and his adherents, sought refuge in Virginia. Thus 
was the Colony of North Carolina, for a time, again under a domin- 
ion contrary to the propt ictary government. 

At this period, Edward Hyde arrived with the commission of 
Lieutenant Governor ; but Cary refused to yield. With an armed 
brig c^nd a smaller vessel he made an attempt upon Edenton, but 

* WiiMamson, i. 109. f Martin, i. 223. 

X WilUi.^.^on, i. 177. § Sputswood MSS. 


was repulsed and retired to Batli. Governor Hyde made a requi- 
sition upon the Governor of Virginia, Alexander Spotswood, wlio 
sent a party of marines from the ships that lay in Hampton Roads. 
The finale of this insurrection is detailed hy the following letter 
from Governor Spotswood, which I copy from a document on file in 
the archives of the Historical Society of the University of North 

"Kequotan, July 31, 1711. 
" To the Proprietors of Carolina : 

"My Lords — Since my writing this, the marines are returned, 
after having frighted the rebellious party so as to lay down their 
arms and disperse; and I with joy tell your Lordships that there 
is now some prospect of trancjuillity in your Government ; and that 
I have brought this about Avithout effusion of blood or disorders 
committed. And, upon my arrival at this place, I found Colonels 
Cary, Levy, and Truit, and company, blustering, and pretending 
to have taken a passage in the fleet for their going for England, in 
order to justify their actions. Whereupon I had them brought 
before me ; but plainly discovered they intended nothing less than 
a fair trial at youj: Lordships' Board. Wherefore, seeing they 
would give me no security for such appearance, I have sent them 
home in the Reserve and Tyger men-of-war ; believing the greatest 
justice I can do them is to leave them to your Lordships' examination. 


Edward Hyde, who was appointed Governor the next year, issued 
his proclamation January, 1712, granting pardon to all the late in- 
sux'gents, except Thomas Cary, John Porter, and three others. 

The Lords Proprietors granted, in 1709, to Christopher, Baron 
de Graaffenreidt, ten thousand acres of land, on the Neuse and Cape 
Fear rivers, at the rate of ten pounds sterling for every thousand 
acres, and five shillings quit rent. A great number of Palatines, 
and fifteen hundred Swiss, followed the Baron, and settled at the 
cjonfluence of the Trent and Neuse. The town was called New Bern, 
after Bern in Switzerland, the birth-place of Graaffenreidt. 

It had been the boast of one of the earliest historiansf of North 
Carolina, that this colony was the only instance of a nation planted 
in peace, and located without bloodshed of the natives. This was 
true at this time. While Massachusetts, Virginia, and others were 
laying the foundation of their colony on the bones of the aborigi- 
nes, and cementing their structure with blood, North Carolina was 
quietly pursuing her course, unmolested by the Indians, and respect- 
ing their rights. 

* Extracts from "Letters of the Hon. Alexander Spotswood, late Governor 
of Virginia, respecting the affairs of North Carolina, addressed to the Ministry 
of the late Queen Anne, extracted from the letter book in MS. and deposited 
in the Secretary's Office of North Carolina by Alexander Martin, late Gover- 
nor, to serve as materials for some future historian of said State." 

t Lawson's History of North Carolina. 


The Indians viewed with jealousy the increasing numbers of the 
whites. The first blow was struck by them. The Tuscaroras, a 
powerful tribe, formed a conspiracy with the Pamplico Indians, to 
attack the planters on the Roanoake. The Cothechneys, who lived 
in the present county of Greene, engaged to come down and join 
the Cores, and attack the planters on the Neuse and Trent rivers. 
Bath was to be attacked by the Mattamuskeets and Matchepungoes. 

On the 11th of September, 1711, one hundred and twelve per- 
sons, principally settlers on the Roanoake and Chowan, fell under 
the murderous tomahawk. The carnage was continued for three 
days, until fatigue only disabled the savage foe. 

The utmost cruelty marked the inroad of the savages. From a 
letter of C. Gale, who was then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
written a short time after, this horrid massacre has been trans- 
mitted to us in all its fearful truth. Old men and infants, young 
men and maidens, all shared the same awful fate. " The family of 
Neville," says Gale, "was treated after this manner. The old man 
was found, after being shot dead, laid out on the floor, with a clean 
pillow under his head, his stockings turned over his shoes, and his 
body covered with fine linen. His wife, after»being murdered, was 
set upon her kness in the chimney corner, and her hands raised up 
on a chair, as if at prayer. A son was laid out in the yard, with a 
pillow under his head, and a bunch of rosemary laid to his nose. 
At the next house, the owner was shot, and laid on his wife's grave ; 
women were laid on the floor, and great sharp stakes run up through 
their bodies. Women with child, were murdered, and the unborn 
ripped out and hung on trees."* 

Lawson and Graafienriedt were taken while exploring the Neuse. 
Lawson, the Surveyor-General of the province, and its earliest 
historian, was murdered by the savages ; De Graaifenreidt only 
escaped by humiliating stipulations. Such was the efi'ect upon 
Graaifenreidt, that he sold his interest to Thomas Pollock for eight 
hundred pounds, and returned to Switzerland. This conduct of the 
Indians, met with severe chastisement. Governor Hyde called out 
the militia of North Carolina. The Legislature of South Carolina, 
with alacrity raised six hundred militia, and three hundred and sixty 
Indians, under Col. Barnwell; who, with great expedition crossed 
the wilderness that then separated North from South Carolina, and 
was joined on the Neuse by such portions of the North Carolina 
militia, as could be spared from guarding the inhabitants. The 
Indians were fortified on the banks of the Neuse, in the present 
County of Craven, about eighteen miles west of Newborn. Her€ 
they received the attack of the whites. They were defeated with 
great slaughter (1712); more than three hundred savages were 
kiMed, and one hundred made prisoners. 

* I I'.m indebted foi* this letter to the excellent address of Professor Hub- 
bard, of i,be University, at the last commencement, on the " Early Historians 
of North Carolina." 


In the summer, to the horrors of war, the ravages of the yellow 
fever were added to the misfortunes of the colonists, and the 
Governor fell a victim (September 8th, 1712). 

The Deputies of the Lords Proprietors selected George Pollock, 
the Deputy of Lord Carteret, as President and Commander in 
Chief to succeed him. 

To liquidate the heavy debts* of the colony, in consequence of 
the Indian wars, eight thousand pounds of bills of credit were 
issued by the colony. 

This was the first emission of paper money in the State of North 


FROM 1712 TO 1729. 

Charles Eden governor (1713) — Tuscarora Indians humbled, and make a 
treaty — Black Beard, the pirate ; his life and death — Edenton established 
— Eden's death (1722) — Copy of his tombstone — Thomas Pollock succeeds 
as governor; and, in 1724, on his death, William Reed, as President of the 
Council, is governor — In 1724 Governor Burrington arrives — His character 
— His opinion of the people of North Carolina — Sir Richard Everhard 
appointed governor, 1725 — Dividing line between Virginia and North 
Carolina, 1727 — The lords proprietors surrender to the crown, July 1729, 
except Lord Granville — Population and divisions of the colony at this time 
— Portion of Lord Granville. 

On the 13th of July, 1713, Charles Eden was appointed Gover- 
nor of North Carolina. 

From 1693 to January 1712, the northern part of the province 
(Albemarle), was ruled either by deputy governors appointed by 
the Governor of Carolina at Charleston, or by the President of the 
Council, elected by the deputies of the lords proprietors. In all 
other respects the two governments. North and South Carolina, 
were independent, separated by a wilderness, and a well defined 
boundary, the Santee River. 

The Tuscarora Indians, now hmnbled, entered into a treaty (June 
1718), and a tract of land on the- Roanoake, in the present county 
of Bertie, was granted to them by Governor Eden. Finally, this 
tribe joined the nations in New York, holding, until a few years 
past, the fee simple in a portion of the soil of Bertie County. 

In the administration of Governor Eden, a character notorious 
for his crimes as a pirate, Edward Teach, commonly called BlacJc 
Beard, lived in North Carolina. So darins: were his adventures, 
that he defied the government; he had a ship of forty guns well 
armed, and spread terror along the coast. The colonial govern- 
ment finding itself unable to resist his power, it was deemed proper 

* Martin, 1264. 


ttat the king's pardon should be issued to all pirates, who, Tvithin 
a limited time, should surrender themselves to anj of the colonial 
governors (George I. 1717). 

Teach, and twenty of his men, surrendered themselves to Governor 
Eden. His associates dispersed themselves, and some went to work. 
Teach's habits were illy suited to a life of peace and industry. His 
ill-gotten wealth was soon squandered in licentious courses. He 
fitted out a sloop at a place which now bears his name, within 
Ocracoke Inlet, called Tcaclis Hole, and again sallied forth on 
piratical adventures. Such was the annoyance of his depredations, 
that the Assembly of Virginia oifered one hundred pounds reward 
for his apprehension. 

Lieutenant Maynard, taking with him two small coasters, sailed 
from Hampton Roads on the 17th of November, 1718, in quest of 
Teach. He found him at his usual place of rendezvous, near 
Ocracoke. The action immediately commenced. Teach, with horrid 
oaths, boasted that he neither asked nor gave quarters. At one 
broadside, nineteen of Maynard's men were killed; to save them 
from such murderous fire, he ordered his men below, directing 
himself his vessel. The pirates board his ship; at this moment 
the lieutenant calls his men on deck; a fierce and deadly com- 
bat, hand to Jiaiid, ensues. The two commanders meet. They 
rush to combat, and the pirate Teach falls covered with blood. 
Eight of his fourteen men were killed, and the other six wounded, 
so that they could no longer fight. Maynard sailed up to the town 
of Bath with the head of Teach hung to the bowsprit of his vessel. 

Thus died, amid his vices and crimes, a man whose valor was 
worthy of a better cause, and whose name is given to a place well 
known to every shipper on our coast. To this day, superstition still 
preserves his name with heaps of buried treasure. The character 
of Governor Eden suffered much by a supposed intimacy with Teach. 
Edward Mosely, who was a prominent man in the colony, declared* 
that "the Governor could raise an armed posse to arrest honest 
men, though he could not raise a similar force to apprehend Teach, 
a noted pirate;" and on Teach's dead body was found a letter of 
his secretary, Tobias Knight, intimating proof of Knight's friend- 
ship and Eden's respect. 

Mosely was subsequently arrested for misdemeanorf himself, and 
tried by the General Court, convicted, fined one hundred pounds, 
silenced as an attorney, and declared incapable of holding any office 
in the colony during three years. The Governor laid before the 
Council, 1719, an account of his proceedings against Teach. The 
Council expressed their approbation of his conduct. 

In August, 1720, the Governor met the Legislature, assembled 
at the Court House in Chowan. At this session, a town Avhich had 
beea some time before established, was called, in honor to the 
Governor, Edenton. 

* TTilliarason, ii. 11. f Martin, i. 286. 


Governor Eden died ITth March, 1722, aged forty-nine. 
On Salmpn Creek, in Bertie County, the stone that marks his 
grave has this inscription : — 

" Here lyes y' body of 


•who governed this Province eight years to the great satisfaction of the Lords 

Proprietors, and y' ease and happiness of y* people. 

He brought the country into a flourishing conditiqn, and died much 

lamented, March y*" 26, 1722, getatis 49. 

And near this place, lyes also y« body of 


his virtuous consort, who died -Jan. the 4th, 1716, eetatis 39. 


post funera, 


Quem virtus non mamor 

in aeternum 


Thomas Pollock (March 30th, 1722) again succeeded as Presi- 
dent of the colony ; on 30th August following, he died. On 7th 
September, William Reed was president ; during the period, unin- 
terrupted peace prevailed. 

On the 15th January, 1724, George Burrington, who had been 
appointed to succeed Governor Eden, opened his commission as 

In February, 1731, Governor Bm-rington thus officially to the 
Duke of New Castle, gives us his opinion of the inhabitants of North 
Carolina : — 

" The people of North Carolina'are neither to be cajoled or out- 
witted. Whenever a governor attempts to effect anything by this 
means, he will lose his labor and show his ignorance." 

" The inhabitants of North Carolina are not industrious, but 
subtle and crafty ; always behaved insolently to their governors ; 
some they have imprisoned, others they have drove out of the coun- 
try, and at other times set up a governor of their own choice, sup- 
ported by men under arms."* 

Tranquillity prevailed in the colony. The associates in the 
government were, Christopher Gale, Chief Justice; James Stan- 
way, Attorney General; Edward Mosely, Surveyor general; Arthur 
Goffe, Receiver General; John Dunstan, Naval Officer; Henry 
Clayton, Provost Marshal. 

The character of Governor Burrington had little to recommend 
him as a wise ruler, or sagacious statesman. He was appointed 
from family influence, his father having rendered service in pro- 
moting George I. to the English throne, and like all such appoint- 
ments, when not based on merit, was unfortunate. Without any 
great talent, he was deficient in ordinary prudence in matters of 
state ; while his private life was disgraced by broils, and breaches 

* MS. Documents on file in Offices of Board of Trade in London, from 
1662 to 1769, procured through kindness of Honorable Geo. Bancroft. 


of the peace. He had not been in the colony two years, when so 
many complaints were made of his rash and injudicious conduct, 
that he was removed, and in April, 1725, Sir Richard Everhard 
was appointed. He qualified at Edenton, on 17th July, 1725. 

The legislature met at Edenton on 6th November following, and 
the boundary line between North Carolina and Virginia was run 
this year. The commissioners on the part of Virginia were William 
Byrd, William Dandridge, and Richard Fitzwilliams ; those of our 
State, were Christopher Gale, lidward Mosely, and Samuel Swann. 
They commenced their labors 5th March, 1727. 

The first of these (William Byrd) has left a record containing 
" the History of the Dividing Line," which has been published ; and 
which is not very complimentary to North Carolina.* He states 
" the borderers laid it to heart if their land was taken in Virginia, 
they chose much rather to belong to Carolina, where they pay no 
tribute to God or to Csesar." 

The people of South Carolina had already revolted from the 
feudal sway of the Lords Proprietors, and Governor Johnston was 
compelled to leave his government, and this colony reverted to the 
crown. Although this feeling did not extend, to North Carolina, 
yet the proprietors found that their possessions did not yield them 
any permanent advantage. It was believed that the restless and 
turbulent spirit manifested by the people against the deputy of their 
fellow-subjects, would yield a loyal obedience to the direct repre- 
sentative of the Sovereign. 

Accordingly, the Lords Proprietors (except Lord Granville) sur- 
rendered the government of the province, and all the franchises 
under tlie charter of Charles XL, as well as their property in the 
soil, to the English crown, for a valuable consideration. This was 
ratified by an act of Parliament (2 Geo. II. ch. xxxiv., 1729). Each 
of the proprietors received from the crown, the sum of two thousand 
five hundred pounds sterling. 

John, Lord Carteret, Baron of Hawnes, as heir of his father 
(who died in 1696), was in possession of the share of Sir George 
Carteret. He Avas afterwards created Earl of Gran\dlle, and he 
thought fit to retain his eighth part of the soil. This was laid off, 
in 1743, for him, adjoining Virginia. Five commissioners were 
appointed by the crown, and five by Lord Granville. His terri- 
toryf was bounded on the north by the Virginia line, on the east 
by the Atlantic, on the south by a line in latitude 35° 34'' from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the Pacific. 
A princely domain ! 

Thus ended the proprietary government of North Carolina, en- 
during sixty-six years after the charter from Charles II. 

The population did not exceed ten thousand persons in North 
CaroliL^a. Its primary divisions was into three counties. 

* ^Vestovei- MSS. Petersburg, 1841. 
f Martin, vol. ii. 43. 


1st. Albemarle ; whicli was subdivided into six precincts, Curri- 
tuck, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan, Bertie, and Tjrrell. 

2d. Bath, into four precincts, Beaufort, Hjde, Craven, and 

3d. Clarendon, one precinct, New Hanover. 


FROM 1729 TO 1754. 

North Carolina under the royal governors — Governor Burrington, 1729 — His 
character, conduct, life, and death, in 1734 — Nathaniel Rice, the Secretary, 
governor in 1734; who was succeeded by Gabriel Johnston, as governor — 
Line between North and South Carolina — Computation of time altered by 
act of Parliament — First printing press in North Carolina, 1749 — Fort 
Johnston built — Moravians purchase land in North Carolina — First revisal 
of the laws of North Carolina — Governor Johnston, after being governor 
for twenty years, dies (1752) — His life, character, and services — He is 
succeeded, for a time, by Nathaniel Rice ; and, on his death, in -January 
1753, by Matthew Rowan — Population of North Carolina in 1754 — Aid 
sent to Virginia, against the French, by North Carolina. 

George Burrington, who had been governor under the pro- 
prietoi-s, was appointed, in 1770, by the king (George I.). He 
arrived in February 1731, and qualified as governor, at Edenton, 
on the 25th of that month. William Smith was Chief Justice ; Ed- 
mund Porter, Judge of Admiralty; John Montgomery, Attorney- 
General ; Xathaniel Rice, Secretary of the Province. The Council 
of the Governor, named in his commission, were John Baptist Ashe, 
Cornelius Harnet, Matthew Rowan, and four others. 

Governor Bm-rington did not beofin his administration under 
such auspices as would tend to benefit the colony. His disposition 
was not fitted for his station. He soon became involved in diffi- 
culties with his council, the Assembly, and the judges. The records 
of the colonial offices and board of trade present evidence from Mr. 
Montgomery, the Attorney-General, Mr. Porter, one of the council, 
Mosely, Ashe, and others, of the misbehavior of Governor Burring- 
ton ; while the records of the General Court, sitting at Edenton 
(March 1726), show that he was indicted for slanderous and ^'icious 
conduct ; for breaches of the peace on the house of Su" Richard Ever- 
hard, on the persons of Robert Kenyon, Robert Rawle, the provost 
marshal, and others. His eccentric conduct created such a storm, 
that he found it impossible to resist its fury ; and, under pretence 
of visiting South CaroUna, he left the colony, went to Charleston, 
1734, and soon after sailed to England. His death occurred soon 
after. Rioting, in his usual manner, all night, he was found mur- 
dered, in the morning, in the Bird Cage Walk, in the corner of St. 
James' Park, in London. 


The government devolved on the Secretary, Nathaniel Rice, who 
was qualified as governor, at Edenton, on the 17th of April, 1734. 
His administration was of a very short dui'ation, for, during the 
summer under the recommendation of Spence Compton, Baron of 
Wilmington, Gabriel Johnston was appointed governor. He 
arrived in the River Cape Fear, in October 1734, and in November, 
he took the oaths of office, in the town of Brunswick, at the Court 
House in the precinct of New Hanover. 

Governor Johnston was a Scotchman by birth, a man of letters 
and of liberal views. He was by profession a physician, and held 
the appointment of Professor of Oriental Languages in the Uni- 
versity of Saint Andrews, where he had received his education. 
He was an able political writer, and figured in "the Craftsman," a 
periodical for which Lord Bolingbroke, Pulteney and others wrote. 

He met the Legislatm-e at Edenton. His addresses to them show 
that he fully appreciated the lamentable condition of the colony, 
by the imprudence and vicious conduct of his predecessor, and his 
earnest desire to promote the welfare of the people. 

At the next session (September 1736) he again addressed the 
House, bewailing the deplorable condition of the colony; the loose 
morals of the people; the want of provision for education; the dis- 
regard of law; the violation of justice; the oppression of the poor; 
and the contempt of all law by the rich ; and concluded by observ- 
ing, "that while he was obliged by his instructions to maintain the 
rights of the crown, he would show a regard to the privileges, liber- 
ties and happiness of the people." 

In March 1736, the Assembly having imprisoned his Majesty's 
officers for distraining for quit rents, the governor dissolved them, 
so as to put a stop to practices in them so derogatory to the crowti 
and subversive of order.* 

Under his prudent administration the colony revived, and from 
this period increased in population, wealth and resources. 

This year (1738), commissioners ran the line between North and 
South Carolina. The kino; had fixed its beginnino; at the north-east 
of Long Bay, to run thence north-west to 35° north latitude, thence 
west to the South Sea. The commissioners on the part of North 
Carolina were Robert Holton, Matthew Rowan, and Edward Mosely. 
The commissioners began at a cedar stake on the sea shore, by the 
mouth of Little River, and having run a north-west line until they 
arrived, as they conceived to 35°, they altered their course by 
"mutual consent" and ran west to the Pee Dee. This stopped the 
line for the present. Afterwards, it was extended twenty miles by 
private persons. It was continued in 1764. This was taken for 
the true line, according to Governor Tryon's proclamation (May 
1765). Governor Martin, some years after (1771), informed the 
Assembly that he was instructed to continue said line as far as the 
Salisbui V road, thence until it strikes the lands of the Catawba In- 

* Manuscripts from offices of Board of Trade in London. 


dians, thence leaving those lands to the south, to the Catawba 
River, then due west. The ridiculous zigzag that our southern 
line presents, was the effect of private intrigue.* 

The primary division of the province into three counties, Albe- 
marle, Bath, and Clarendon, was in 1738 abolished; the precincts 
were now called counties, and a sheriff appointed for each, chosen 
by the governor, out of three persons recommended by the county 
court for this purpose. 

In February 1742, six northern counties refused to pay taxes, 
owing to their dissatisfaction as to the representation of members 
for the Assembly. Jurors refused to attend courts. f 

France having declared war against England (1744), the defence- 
less seaboard of North Carolina received the attention of the Legis- 
lature. A fort was ordered to be built sufficient to mount twenty- 
four pieces of cannon, on the south bank of Cape Fear, by the 
Legislature which met at Newbern about 1745, and was called, in 
honor of the governor, Fort Johnston. 

Li 1749, a printing press was imported into the province by 
James Davis, from Virginia. J 

The people known as Unitas Fratrum, or United Brethren, ob- 
tained an act of Parliament authorizing them to establish settle- 
ments on the American Provinces. They purchased of Lord 
Granville, one hundred thousand acres between Dan and Yadkin, 
and named it Wachovia, after an estate of Count Zinzendorff in 
Austria. This land was conveyed to James Hutton, who was Secre- 
tary to the United Brethren, in trust for the brethren. During 
our Revolution (1776) it was conveyed by Hutton to Marshal, and 
by act of our General Assembly in 1782, secured to the proper 

1749. Emigrants from west of Scotland flocked to the Cape Fear 
about this period. 

The boundary line between Virginia and North Carolina, which 
had been run from the sea shore to Peter's Creek, which falls into 
Dan River, near the Sauratowns, was continued this year to the 
Holstein River, opposite to a place called Steep Rock. The com- 
missioners of Virginia were Joshua Fay and Peter Jefferson; those 
of North Carolina, William Churton and Daniel Weldon. 

The computation of time was this year (1750) altered by act of 
Parliament. Hitherto, the year commenced in March. The day 
following the 2d September 1752, was reckoned the 14th, omitting 
eleven days. 

The first revisal of the colonial laws was made this year (1752) 
in a small folio volume; it received the nickname of "Yellow 
Jacket," from the yellow hue of its binding. 

* Williamson, ii. 54. 

f JIanuscript (lociuuGiits from office of Board of Trade in London; pro- 
cured through Hon. George Bancroft, late envoy at that court. 
% Martin, ii. 54. 


Governor Johnston's official dispatch to the Duke of New Castle, 
dated April, 1739, states "that having called a new Assembly, they 
had passed many beneficial laws. One, granting the king a rent roll; 
one for the improvement of trade ; one for speedy administration of 
justice. That, after five years' struggle, during which no means had 
been left unattempted to induce him to depart from his instructions, 
he had brought matters in this unhappy country to system, where 
disorder had before reigned, and placed it on a firm foundation."* 

Under the administration of Governor Johnston, the province 
increased in population, wealth, and happiness. At the time of the 
purchase by the crown, its population did not exceed thirteen thou- 
sand ; it now was upwards of forty-five thousand. 

Its exports were 61,528 barrels of tar ; 12,055 barrels of pitch ; 
10,429 barrels of turpentine; 762,000 staves; 61,580 bushels of 
corn ; 100,000 hogsheads of tobacco, besides pork, beef, bacon, lard, 
and other commodities. 

Governor Johnston died this year, August, 1752, after presiding 
over the province for nearly twenty years. 

He deserves the gratitude of every citizen of the State as a 
statesman, a scholar, and patriot. While these pages feebly present 
his services to the State, his name is preserved in calling the patri- 
otic and public spirited county of Johnston in honor to his memory. 

On his death, the administration devolved on Nathaniel Rice, the 
first councillor named in the king's commission, who dying in Janu- 
ary following, was succeeded by Matthew Rowan, the next coun- 
cillor, who qualified at Wilmington on the 1st of February,, 1754, 
and met the Legislature at Newborn, on the 23d of March following. 

Nothing of exciting interest occurred during the administration 
of President Rowan, save, the issuing of forty thousand pounds in 
bills of credit ; the erection of a county in honor of his name, and 
the liberal appropriation of many towards building churches and 
purchasing glebe lands to support its ministers. 

Rowan's official dispatch to the Duke of New Castle, states (1754) 
that he had received a requisition from Virginia for military aid ; 
that he had sent nine hundred and fifty efi"ective men. 

The colony then had a population, as stated by Rowan, of 
militia, 15,400; exempts, 1,000; outposts, 1,500; slaves, 10,000. 

Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, sent an express to President 
Rowan of the alarming movements of the French on the Ohio, and 
that George Washington had been sent thither to examine and 
report ; that he had ascertained the French had taken post on one 
of the branches of that river, built a fort, and engaged the Indians 
to join them. He desired the aid of men from North Carolina. 

The President issued his proclamation for the Legislature to 
assemble at Wilmington on the 19th of February, 1754, who met 

* iv^S. documents from London relating to Carolina, from 16G2 to 1769, 
procurL'l by kindness of lion. George Bancroft, late envoy from United States 
lo Englau.l. 


and appropriated one thousand pounds to the raising and paying 
such troops as might be raised to send to the aid of Virginia. 

Colonel James Innes, of New Hanover, marched at the head of 
a detachment, and joined the troops raised by Virginia and Mary- 
land. But no provision being made by Virginia for supplies or 
conveniences, the expedition was countermanded, and Colonel Innes 
returned with his men to North Carolina. - 


FROM 1754 TO 1765. 

Arthur Dobbs, governor (1754) — His conduct — His officers — People seize 
and imprison Lord Granville's agent — Courts of law held in each district, 
1762 — On the death of Dobbs (1765) Tryon succeeds. 

Arthur Dobbs was appointed Governor by the crown in 1754, 
and in the fall he arrived at Newborn. 

Governor Dobbs was a native of Ireland, a man of letters and 
liberal views. He had been a member of the L-ish Parliament, and 
distinguished for his attempts to discover, through the Hudson Bay 
Company, a north-west passage to Japan, China, and India. 

He brought, as an acceptable oblation, several pieces of cannon 
and one thousand firelocks, a present from the king to the colony. 

He brought to the colony a more powerful advocate for rights of 
the people, than arms. Rice, a printer, is encouraged to carry on 
his business. 

In an official dispatch (December, 1757) Governor Dobbs gives 
a wretched account of the state of quit-rents, misconduct of Ruther- 
ford and Mui-ray, who raised factions against the Governor, and a 
curious record of "Mr. Starky, the treasui'er, who governs many in 
the Assembly by lending them money."* 

Governor Dobbs was qualified at Newbern on 1st of November, 
1754. He was accompanied by a number of his relations, who 
had hopes of offices and preferments. 

He adopted measm-es to conciliate the Indian tribes, now import- 
ant by the advances of the French on the Ohio. He commissioned 
Colonel Hugh Waddell, of Rowan County, to treat with the Catawbas 
and Cherokees. 

"A storm, or hurricane, happened in North Carolina, which 
began on Monday, September 20, 1761, and continued till Friday 
following, but raged with, most violence on the 23d. 

" Many houses were thrown down, and all the vessels, except one, 

* MS. papers relative to Carolina (tempus Geo. II.) procured from offices 
in London, through Hon. George Bancroft, late envoy to that court. 


in Cape Fear River, driven on shore. It forced open a new chan- 
nel for that river, at a place called the Haul-Over, hetween the 
Cedar House and the Bald Head. This new channel was found 
on soundings to he eighteen feet deep at high water, and is near 
half a mile wide."* 

Governor Dohhs' administration of ten years was a continued 
contest between himself and the Legislature on matters frivolous 
and unimportant. A high-toned temper for royal prerogatives on 
his part, and an indomitable resistance on the part of the colonists. 
One incident will prove the spirit and conduct of both parties. 

A bill had been introduced in the upper House for the appoint- 
ment of a printer to the province, and rejected by the other. The 
governor announced to the lower House that he had appointed An- 
drew Steuart printer to the king, and required them to make pro- 
vision for his salary. The House replied that they knew no such 
office, and of no such duty.f 

Superior courts of justice were established in the districts of 
Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Halifax, and Salisbury, to be 
held semi-annually by the chief justice and one associate. 

The people were much oppressed by Lord Granville's agents. 
They seized Corbin, his agent, who lived below Edenton,' and brought 
him to Enfield, where he was compelled to give bond and security, 
to produce his books, and disgorge his illegal fees. 

Governor Dobbs died at his seat on Town Creek, 28th March, 
1765, in the 82d year of his age. 

The persons who composed his council during his administration 
were James Hassel, Mathew Rowan, James Murray, Francis Corbin, 
John Dawson, Lewis H. DeRossett, John Rieusett, James Jones, 
John Swann, John Rutherford, Richard Spaight, Edward B. Dobbs, 
Charles Berry, John Sampson, Henry E. McCullock, Alexander 
McCullock, William Day, Robert Palmer, and Benjamin Herron, 

The judges were James Hassell, Peter Henly, Charles Berry, 
George Nicholas, Joseph Anderson, and Charles Elliott. Thomas 
Childs, Attorney-General. 

* London Majr., Dec. 1761. f Martin, ii. 189. 



FROM 1765 TO 1771. 

Tryon's administration from April, 1765 to July, 1771 ; his character— Early 
resistance of the Mecklenburg people— John Ashe and the Stamp Act, 
1765— Paper seized— Conduct of the people of New Hanover, 1766— Duel 
between Captain Simpson, of his majesty's sloop-of-war the Yiper, and 
Lieutenant Whitechurst, a relative of Mrs. Tryon, in which Whitechurst 
is killed— Suicide of Chief Justice Berry— Repeal of the Stamp Act — 
Palace for the governor ; a description of its splendor— Regulation troubles 
commence, 1766— Herman Husbands; his character — Colonel Edmund 
Fanning, of Orange; his character— People of Anson County and Rowan 
sympathize with the Regulators— Tryon's expedition to Mecklenburg and 
Rowan— He raises a body of troops, and marches to Hillsboro'— Fanning 
indicted and convicted— Husbands indicted and acquitted by the jury- 
Judge Moore, in Rowan, cannot hold court— Sheriff of Orange resisted by 
the 'Regulators and beaten — Sheriff of Dobbs resisted, and one of his 
deputies killed— Court at Hillsboro' broke up by the Regulators— Judge 
Henderson retreats — Fanning and John Williams beaten by the Regulators 
— Governor marches against the Regulators in strong force — Battle of 
Alamance, May 16, 1771— Regulators defeated— First blood of the colonists 
shed in these United States by royal troops— Tryon marches to join Wad- 
del, as far as Jersey settlement, in Davidson— Tryon returns to Hillsboro', 
where court is held, and six of the Regulators are hanged— Tryon em- 
barks, June 30, 1771, to New York, to which colony he had been, appointed 

The conduct of the mother country towards these colonies, in 
the eloquent denunciations of Lord Chatham, was that of "an un- 
just and cruel stepmother towards her helpless children;" disre- 
garding their complaints, and adding injuries to insults. 

Towards North Carolina, the course of England was more like 
that of the father of the faithful, driving her, Hagar-like, into the 
wilderness, there to pine and perish from neglect. It is not won- 
derful then, that her sons, like Ishmael, should be ready to raise 
their hands against every form of oppression. But the God of 
Abraham protected the exiles, and blessed them with fair and fruit- 
ful lands, refreshing shades, and gushing fountains ; the promise 
was also unto them " to make a great nation, because they too were 
of the promised seed." 

The people of North Carolina had now become numerous, 
and attracted attention. The government, to aid the administra- 
tion of Governor Dobbs (never, in his palmiest day, favored with 
any extraordinary powers of intellect or energy of character), now 
infirm and passed eighty years of age, sent William Tryon to 
North Carolina with a commission as lieutenant-governor. He 
arrived 27th October, 1764. 


Governor Dobbs was not in haste to resign the reins of power ; 
but death, a mightier monarch than any earthly potentate, dis- 
missed him. 

In the town of Wilmington, on the 3d of April, 1765, William 
Tryon qualified as Commander-in-chief, and Captain-General of 
the Province of North Carolina. 

Governor Tryon was a soldier by profession. Trained to arms, 
he looked upon the sword as the true sceptre of government. Yet 
with the character of the soldier, he mingled that of the politician. 
He knew when to flatter and when to threaten. He knew when 
"discretion was the better part of valor;" and when to use such 
force and cruelty as achieved for him, from the Cherokee Indians, 
the bloody title of the "Great Wolf of North Carolina." He 
could use courtesy towards the Assembly when he desired large 
appropriations for his magnificent palace; and knew how to bring 
to bear the blandishments of the female society of his family, and 
all the appliances of generous hospitality. While his character 
shows that on the banks of the Alamance, when " the blast of war 
blew in his ears," he could, by his ferocious and bloody conduct, 
"imitate the action of the tiger." After passing the scenes which 
we shall record, for six years, during which time he ruled the 
State with the temper of a despot and the rod of a tyrant, he was 
transferred as governor to the colony of New York. 
' That William Tryon was a man of some ability and military 
talents is true. But his conduct in this State, and subsequently in 
New York, proved him devoid of all principles of humanity. "I 
should," said he, in New York, in 1777, "had I more authority, 
burn every committee-man's house within my reach ; and, in order 
to purge the country of them, I will give twenty-five silver dollars 
for every acting committee-man, who shall be delivered up to the 
king's troops."* He was succeeded in New York, in 1780, by 
General Robinson. Of his subsequent career, and time and place 
of his death we are not advised. 

One redeeming trait appears in his character, but this was not 
owing to any virtue in the man, but was the efi'ect of his profession 
as a soldier. He Avas free from all religious intolerance, as he was 
destitute of any religious principles. 

We have seen, that during the administration of Governor Daniel, 
North Carolina had been oppressed by bigotry, under the cloak of 
religion. In 1741 it was enacted that the. freeholders of every 
parish should, every Easter Monday, choose twelve vestrymen, who 
should lay a tax of five shillings per poll for building churches, 
buying glebes, and maintaining clergymen, whose salaries should 
be fifty pounds sterling. This salary was increased by law to one 
hundred and thirty-three pounds, six shillings, and eight pence. 
The fee of a clergyman for marrying was ten shillings, by license ; 

* Sabine's History of the Loyalists, G53. 


this license to be issued by the governor through the clerks of the 
superior courts. Each vestryman took an oath "not to oppose the 
doctrine, discipline, and litingy of the Church of England."* 

Governor Tryon first met the Assembly in the town of Wilming- 
ton, on the 3d of May, 1765. In his address he opposed all reli- 
gious intolerance, although he recommended provision for the clergy 
out of the public treasury ; yet advised the members of the Church 
of England of the folly of attempting to establish it by legal enact- 
ments. Under such recommendations, a law was passed legalizing 
the marriages (which before were denounced as illegal) performed 
by Presbyterian ministers, and authorizing them and other dissent- 
ing clergymen to perform that rite. 

Governor Tryon entered upon his duties at a stormy period. 
The cloud, which Avas then "not larger than a man's hand," subse- 
quently spread over the whole nation, and gathered such force in 
its progress, that when it burst, it dissolved the colonies from all 
allegiance to the British crown. 

Governor Tryon had early some slight intimation of the charac- 
ter of the people over whom he was to rule. Soon after his acces- 
sion to office, the people of the chivalric county of Mecklenburg, so 
distinguished, as we shall soon see, during the administration of his 
successor, for independence, opposed Henry Eustace McCullock, 
who was the agent of George A. Selwyn. Selwyn had obtained by 
some means, large grants of land from the English crown. John 
Frohawk was employed to locate these grants and survey them. 
The people of Mecklenburg, in arms, seized the surveyor and com- 
pelled him to desist. t This was the first buzzing of that "Hornets' 
Nest" that afterwards so fatally stung the power of royalty. 

The British Parliament had resolved to tax the paper and other 
articles used in the colonies. This iniquitous enactment received 
the Royal sanction 22d ]March, 1765. The patriotic and eloquent 
remonstrances of William Pitt, afterwards Lord Chatham, were un- 
availing. He declared on the floor of Parliament (January 1766), 
that the stamp act should be repealed absolutely^ totally and imme- 
diately^ because it proceeded on an erroneous principle, that of 
taking the money of the colonists without their consent. 

This act produced a violent excitement throughout the whole 
country, and in none more than in North Carolina. 

The Legislatm-e was then in session, and such was the excite- 
ment this odious measui-e of Parliament created amonof the mem- 
hers, that apprehending some violent expression of popular indig- 
nation, Governor Tryon, on the 18th of May, prorogued that body 
after a session of fifteen days. 

The speaker of the House, John Ashe, Esq., informed Governor 
Tryon that this law would be resisted to blood and death. 

Governor TrA'on knew that the storm raged; courajreous as he 
was, he dreaded its fui-y. He did not allow the Legislature to meet 

* AYilliamson, ii. 117. f Martin, ii. 193. 


daring the existence of this act. But faithful to the government, he 
condescended to use the arts of the demagogue, to avoid the odium 
of its measures. He mingled freely with the people, displaying 
profuse hospitality, and prepared dinners and feasts. But unawed 
by power, the people were not to be seduced by blandishments. 

Early in the 3"ear 1765, the Diligence, a sloop-of-war, arrived in 
the Cape Fear River with stamp paper for the use of the colony. 

Colonel John Ashe, of the county of New Hanover, and Colonel 
Waddell, of the county of Brunswick, marched at the head of the 
brave sons of these counties, to Brunswick, before which town the 
Diligence was anchored, terrified the captain, so that no attempt 
was made to land the paper; seized the sloop of war's boat, hoisted 
it on a cart, fixed a mast in her, mounted a flag, and marched in 
triumph to Wilmington. The whole town joined in a splendid 
illumination at night, and the next day these patriotic citizens went 
to the Governor's House, and "bearded the Douglas in his castle." 
They demanded of Governor Tryon, to desist from all attempts to 
execute the stamp act, and produce to them James Houston, who 
was a member of the council, an inmate of the Governor's House, 
and who had been appointed by Tryon, Stamp ]\Iaster for North 
Carolina. The Governor at first refused a demand so tumultuously 
made. But the haughty spirit of the representative of even kingly 
power, yielded before the power of a virtuous and incensed people ; 
for the people prepared to burn up the palace, and with it the 
Governor, the Stamp Master, and the menials of royal power. 

The Governor then reluctantly produced Houston ; who was 
seized by the people, carried to the public market house, and there 
forced to take a solemn oath not to attempt to execute his office as 
stamp master. After this, he was released. He returned to the 
palace, to comfort his dejected and discomfited master. The peo- 
ple gave three cheers and quietly dispersed. 

Here is an act of North Carolinians " worthy of all Grecian or 
Roman fame." 

The famous Tea party of Boston, when a number of citizens dis- 
guised as Indians, went on board of a ship in the harbor, and threw 
overboard the tea imported in her, has been celebrated by every 
writer of our National History, and 

" Pealed and chimed on every tongue of fame." 

Our children are taught to read it in their early lessons ; it adorns 
the picture books of our nui'series, and is known in the remotest 
borders of the republic. 

Here is an act of the sons of the " old North State," not com- 
mitted on the harmless carriers of the freight, or crew of a vessel ; 
not done under any disguise or mask; but on the representative of 
royalty itself, occupying a palace, and in open day, by men 
of "ft pil known person and reputation ; much more decided in its 
character, more daring in its action, more important in its results ; 
and yet not one-half of her own sons have ever read of this ex- 


ploit ; it is not even recorded anywhere in the pages of Williamson, 
who is one of her historians, and who was one of the delegates from 
North Carolina to the Convention, which formed the Constitution 
of the United States ; and its story is confined to the limits of " our 
own pent up Utica." 

Truly has a late writer, who has examined our ecclesiastical his- 
tory with laudable care (and who is a resident and native of another 
State), been compelled to say, that " Men will not be fully able to 
understand North Carolina till they have opened the treasures of 
liistory,* and become familiar with the doings of her sons, previous 
to the Revolution ; during that painful struggle ; and the succeed- 
ing years of prosperity." Then will North Carolina be respected 
as she is known. 

" These are deeds which should not pass away, 

And names that must not wither, tho' the earth 
Forgets her empires with a just decay, 

The enslavers and enslaved, their death and birth." 

The names of those who figured in these trying scenes are still 
preserved in North Carolina by their descendants, who are distin- 
guished, as were their ancestors, by their intellect and proprieties 
of life. Should an opportunity occur, and the country call for 
their services, influenced by these noble recollections, they too will 
be ready to make the same exertions and sacrifices for the happi- 
ness, welfare, and honor of North Carolina. 

Governor Tryon, with unwearied perseverance, earnestly endea- 
vored to propitiate the feelings of the leaders of the people. He 
implored their forbearance, and supplicated their kind advice to 
enable him to administer the government, while secretly he was 
preparing for them the severest punishments from the government 
at home. Failing in this, he resorted to the masses of the people, 
and was the most conspicuous and obsequious at all public meetings. 
But even here he was destined to disappointment, and to meet with 
discomfiture and disgrace while the odious stamp act was in force. 

At a general muster of the militia of New Hanover, February 
1766, the governor had prepared a whole ox to be barbecued, 
and had several barrels of beer unheaded. After the muster, 
he invited the people to partake. The people rushed in a body 
to the tables, overthrew the barrels and spilled the liquor on the 
ground, and threw the ox into the river untasted. The efiect of 
this was electrical. Tryon and his suite retired from the ground 
deeply mortified and chagrined. This behavior was not confined 
to private citizens, but extended to even the officers of the govern- 
ment, some of whom sympathized deeply with the people. 

At this time a duel occurred between Alexander Simpson, master 
of his Majesty's sloop-of-war, the Viper, and Thomas Whitechurst, 
lieutenant of the same. The quarrel was connected with the poli- 

* Sketches of North Carolina, by Rev. ^Y. H. Foote, of Romney, Virginia. 
New York, 184G, p. 83. 


tics of tlie day — Captain Simpson sympathizing with the colonists ; 
Whitechurst, a relative of Mrs. Ti-yon, advocating the conduct of 
the Governor. The latter was killed in the affair. The Governor 
caused the Captain to be apprehended. 

He was tried before Judge Berry, and acquitted, after a fair and 
impartial trial.* The imperious and despotic Try on was here foiled 
by those whom he thought he could influence. He insinuated that 
the Judge connived in the case, and summoned him, while on the 
Edenton circuit, to attend the Council Board. 

The character of Judge Berry was above suspicion. He knew, 
or believed, that Governor Tryon would attempt to inculpate him 
with the government at home, in the unhappy and disordered state 
of the colony. He obeyed the summons, and attended the Governor, 
who received him very coldly. This confirmed his suspicions that 
he was to be impeached and removed ; and, under the agony of such 
a state of feeling, in the frenzy of the moment, he committed 
suicide, by ripping open his bowels with his penknife. Tryon was 
as much the murderer of this talented and amiable man as he was 
afterwards of many others, equally innocent in the affair of Ala- 

The courage of the Governor was not sufficient to allow him to 
face the representatives of the people during the existence of the 
stamp act. "Writs had been issued, and the legislative body was 
to meet in April. But, fearing some popular outbreak, the Governor, 
in February, prorogued the General Assembly to meet on the 30th 
October, 1765. 

The indignation of the people became so great, and the excite- 
ment so intense, that the British Parliament yielded. The stamp 
act was repealed March, 1766. On the 25th of June, the Governor 
issued his proclamation announcing the same. 

This produced great joy among the people of North Carolina. 
The Assembly which met in October, 1766, voted a liberal appro- 
priation for building the Governor a house, which was suitable to a 
prince of the blood royal, and erected a county from Mecklenburg, 
called Tryon, in his honor. This county has since been divided 
into Lincoln and Rutherford, and the odious name of Tryon ex- 

The scheme of , erecting a palace seemed to be a favorite object 
with the Governor, and to it he devoted all the intrigue of the 
politician and the boldness of the soldier. The Assembly had 
already voted £5000, to which, the next year (1767), they voted 
an additional £10,000 sterling. 

To a people in an infant state of society, with but few resources 
and less money, this determination of the Governor to gratify Ins 
vanity was productive of disastrous consequences. The buil.ling 
WLS located at Newborn, and was said to be superior to any- 

* Martin, vol. ii. 212. Jones, in his dofonce (30); says that the suryivor 
was condemned, but escaped, and lied to England. 


thing of the kind in America. Judge Martin* says that he visited 
this edifice in 1783, with General Miranda of South America, 
who stated, that even in South America, a hmd of palaces, it 
had no equal. It was dedicated to Sir William Draper, who 
was said to be the author of the lines placed over the door of the 
entrance : — 

"Rege pio, (lira inimica tyrannis 
Vertuti has asdes libera terra dedit. 
Sint domus et dominus sa3clis exempla futuris 
Hie artes, mores, jura legesque colant."t 

But its princely halls aiforded but little repose to its ambitious 

Heavy expenses had been also incurred by the Governor in run- 
ning the boundary line between the Cherokee Indians and the 
State. . 

•Taxes were necessarily increased upon a people already impatient 
of oppression, and the extortion of the officers in shape of illegal 
fees, roused the free spirits of Orange, Granville, and other coun- 
ties to require redress and reform. 

The conduct of the crown officers, from the Governor down to the 
lowest bailiif of the court, Avas a system of oppression, extortion, 
and fraud. 

In Governor Dobbs's time, these grievances were complained of; 
and these complaints had reached the throne. The Governor Avas 
ordered to have a list, or table of fees set up in every public office. 
But, while this "promise was kept to the ear, it was broken to the 

At the August session of Orange County (1766), a paper was 
presented to the court by a number of persons, which was read by 
the clerk. It stated "that while the sons of liberty had withstood 
the lords of Parliament in behalf of true liberty, the officers under 
them ought not to carry on an unjust oppression in the province ; 
that in order thereto, as there were many evils complained of in 
the County of Orange, they ought to be redressed. If there were 
none, jealousy ought to be removed from the minds of the people." 
The paper proposed that there should be a meeting of the people 
in each captain's district, appointing one or more to attend a general 
meeting, on tlie Monday before the next court, at some suitable 
place [ivhere there should he no liquor), "to inquire whether the 
freemen of the county labored under any abuse of power, and mea- 
sures taken for amendment, if so." 

This was so reasonable a proposal that it was agreed to, and 
Maddock's Mill was selected and the time fixed (October 10, 1766). 

The convention met at the time and place appointed, and re- 

* Martin, ii. 265. 

t Translated thus: " A free and happy people, opposed to cruel tyrants, 
has given this edifice to virtue. May the house and its inmate, as an exam- 
ple for future ages, here cultivate the arts, order, justice, and the laws/* 
How complete a burlesque upon its origin, object, and tendency! 


solved, " that it was necessary such meetings should occur yearly, 
or oftener if necessary, for free and public discussion; that the 
representatives of the people should attend, and give an account 
of the amount of taxes and manner of appropriation." 

In April 1768, they again assembled and formed themselves 
into an association for regulating public grievances and abuse of 
power. Hence the name given to them of Regulators. They 
resolved "to pay only such taxes as were agreeable to law, and ap- 
plied to the purpose therein named, to pay no officer more than his 
legal fees." These men herein breathed the true spirit of liberty; 
yet, by the early historians of the State, are stamped as insurgents 
and factionists. Jones even denounces the head of the Regulators, 
Herman Husbands, as a "turbulent and seditious character."* If 
he was, then John Ashe was, for opposing the stamp law, equally 
turbulent and equally seditious. Doubtless, to minions of royalty, 
his character was seditious ; but time, that unerring test of prin- 
ciples and truth, has proved that the spirit of liberty which animated 
Husbands, was the true spirit Avhich subsequently freed our nation 
from foreign oppression. He lived on Sandy Creek, now in Randolph 
County, and was an extensive landholder. He was from Pennsyl- 
vania, and was raised a Quaker, and a relation of Dr. Benjamin 
Tranklin. I have examined carefully his correspondence and his 
book, giving " an impartial account of the troubles of the regulation." 
They prove that he was, although deficient in. education, a man who 
felt strongly, and expressed himself forcibly. Many of his neigh- 
bors speak of him as a man of strict integrity, a firm advocate of 
popular rights, and a determined foe to oppression and extortion. 
Undeserved wrong and official oppression may have driven hini to 
imprudences, but the purity of his character was above suspicion. 
From his pen proceeded the paper read to the court in Orange, the 
resolutions of the Haddock's Mill Convention were his ; he was the 
favorite of the people — for he was their representative to the 
General Assembly — and when he was arrested and carried to Hills- 
boro', the whole people rose to his rescue. 

Had his ultimate career been successful, or the Regulators 
triumphed over Tryon at the battle of Alamance, his name would 
have come down to us with the Ashes and Waddells of that day, or 
the Hampdens, Sidneys, and others of a former age. 

All violent diseases, in the body politic, like in the natural body, 
require violent remedies. The taxes to build palaces to gratify the 
vanity of an officer who possessed neither the affection of the people 
or any sympathy for their sufferings, the extortion of the clerks, 
sheriffs, and others were outrageous. Edmund Fanning, who was 
from the north, was the minion of Tryon. He Avas the clerk of the 
Court of Orange, Colonel of the county, an Attorney at law, and 
the Representative in the General Assembly : under the powerful 
•-patronage, and the countenance of the Governor, he defied the 

'• * Jones' Defence, 36. 


popular Mill. From a condition of poverty, he became wealthy. 
His manners towards the people were haughty and supercilious, and 
his conduct as an officer was overbearing and extortionary. He 
demanded and received fifteen dollars for a marriage license, and 
charged one dollar for proving a deed. 

The scarcity of money and the extreme poverty of the people, 
rendered their grievances intolerable ; the exactions of the other 
officers caused even these enormous fees to be larger. 

At the meeting in April, the Regulators had selected two persons 
to call upon the sheriif and vestrymen to meet twelve deputies from 
them on Tuesday, after next County Court, to show their accounts. 
Before these two men could attend to this service, the sheriff 
being unwilling to submit to this tribunal, or to exasperate and defy 
its power, took, by way of distress, a mare, saddle, and bridle, and 
carried them to Hillsboro'. He was followed by a party of sixty 
or seventy men, who rescued the mare, then marching to Fanning's 
house, fired at the roof of it, giving him positive and striking proof 
that they deemed him the chief author of these troubles. 

The Sheriff then took with him a party of horse, and riding about 
fifty miles, seized Herman Husbands and William Hunter, and 
lodged them in Hillsboro' jail. 

The Regulators assembled May, 1768, in large force, to rescue 
them, but they had been released on bail. 

On May 21st, the Regulators held another general meeting, and 
James Hunter and Rednap Howell were appointed to wait on the 
Governor with the address of the meeting. They attended, at 
Newborn, in June ; the Governor laid the papers before the Council, 
who decided that " the grievances of which they complained 
did not warrant the measures they had adopted ; that, if carried 
further, would amount to high treason ; that the decent behaviour 
of Colonel Fanning met entire approbation, and advised them to 
desist from further meetings; that the Governor would readily 
remove any hardships, and direct the Attorney-General to prose- 
cute every officer guilty of extortion or malpractice ; and that next 
month, the Governor would be at Hillsboro', and issue a procla- 
mation forbidding such dishonorable practices." 

The Governor attended at Hillsboro', summoned his council, and 
issued the promised proclamation. 

But matters became worse. An association was formed in Anson, 
similar to that in Orange, and offered its aid. 

They continued to meet, enhsting their men, training them to the 
use of arms, believing that a conflict must sooner or later occur. 

On the 11th of July, a large body of Regulators assembled. The 
Governor goes to Mecklenburg, and in that and the adjacent coun- 
ties, raises a large body of troops, and marches from Salisbury to 
Hillsboro'. His journal is recorded in volume ii. chapter 1, Ala- 
mance. No bloodshed occurred at this time. 

He swore the people to maintain and defend the king's govern- 
ment " with hands and hearts, life and goods, against all persons who 


should attempt to obstruct the administration of the laws." He 
required that the Regulators should disperse, and that twelve of the 
wealthiest of them should wait on him at Salisbury, and give bond 
that no rescue should be attempted of William Butler and Herman 
Husbands at the next court in Hillsboro', to which they had been 
bound. This they declined, but assured the Governor that no de- 
sign was entertained of releasing the persons bound ; they desired 
him to dissolve the present Assembly, and call a new one ; and, if 
he would permit them to come peaceably and complain of their 
grievances of the officers, and pardon the past, they would disperse, 
and pay their taxes. 

This occurred at September term of Hillsboro' Superior Court, at 
which a bill was found against Husbands for a riot, of Avhich^ he 
was acquitted by the jury. Hunter and others were found guilty 
and imprisoned. 

Fanning was indicted at this term for extortion in six several 
instances, but protected by the presence and power of Tryon, he 
plead guilty, and was fined six pence. Such a mockery of justice 
was little calculated to allay the feelings of the people, redress their 
grievances, or prevent a repetition of their wrongs. 

The Governor pardoned all persons engaged in this affair, except 
Herman Husbancls and twelve others, and returned to his palace 
at Newbern, 

The next year passed without any commotion in the State ; but 
in the beginning of the new year, 1770, the oppressions and extor- 
tions of the officers greatly increased the popular excitement. 
Maurice Moore, Judge of the Superior Court, found in March, the 
spirit of the people of Rowan County so roused in consequence of 
these exactions, that " no civil process could be executed among the 
people in that county." 

John Lea, Sherifl' of Orange, in attempting to serve a warrant 
on Hanson Hamilton, was attacked by John Pugh and other Regu- 
lators, and beaten severely. 

Simon Bryant, Sheriff of Dobbs County (since divided into Greene 
and Lenoir), in endeavoring to take Thomas Blake and John Coulie, 
two of the Regulators, was attacked by them, and the sheriff was 
compelled to desist ; one of his assistants was killed in the skirmish. 

The Superior Court of Hillsboro' in September, was interrupted 
by the Regulators, and broken up. 

The record now in the office at Hillsboro', has the following entry. 

Monday, 24th September, 1770. " Several persons styling them- 
selves Regulators, assembled together in the court yard under the 
conduct of Herman Husbands, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, Wil- 
liam Butler, Samuel Divinny, and many others, insulted some of 
the gentlemen of the bar, and in a riotous manner went into the 
court house and forcibly carried out some of the attorneys, and in 
a cruel manner beat them." 

The Judge (Henderson) finding it impossible to hold court, left 
Hiilsboro' in the night. 


The same records present the following entry, at the next term 
of the court in March, 1771. 

" Tlie persons styling themselves Regulators under the conduct 
of Herman Husbands, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, William But- 
ler, and Samuel Divinny, still continue their riotous meetings, and 
severally threatening the judges, lawyers and other officers of the 
court, prevented any of the judges or lawyers attending. Therefore 
the court continues adjourned till next September term." 

The Superior Court at Salisbm-y was also impeded. 

To these open and public acts of violence, were added acts of 
personal outrage. John Williams, one of' the lawyers, was seized 
and severely beaten in the streets ; Edmund Fanning was dragged 
out of the court house, and severely beaten. His house (Avhere 
the present Masonic Hall in Hillsboro' is located) was torn doAvn 
and his furniture destroyed. 

The General Assembly met at Newborn on the 5th December, 
1770, and the Governor received them in his magnificent palace, 
then just finished. Among other matters, the Governor urged the 
raising of a body of men, under the rules and discipline of war, to 
march into the settlements of the insurgents, to aid and protect the 
civil officers. 

, Herman Husbands was a member from Orange. An article in 
the Gazette, addressed to Judge Moore, was attributed to him, and 
in consequence, he was expelled from the house. 

This Legislature passed an act prohibiting any number of per- 
sons above ten, assembling, for the disturbance of the peace ; and 
in order to weaken the power of the Regulators, Orange County 
was divided, and three new counties erected,* one, of parts of Orange, 
Cumberland, and Johnston, called Wake, in honor of the wife of 
Governor Tryon ; another of Orange and Rowan, called Guildford, 
and' the southern part was cut off and called Chatham. 

To prevent the Regulators from being supplied with ammunition, 
the Governor, in February, issued a proclamation (1771), prohibit- 
ing all merchants and others from supplying any person with pow- 
der, shot or lead, until further notice. 

In March, the Council determined to raise a force of several 
regiments of militia, and the Governor was advised to march at 
their head into the settlements of the Regulators, and reduce them 
by force. 

In April, Governor Tryon left Newbern, with about three hun- 
dred men, and some artillery. 

In May he-was joined by a detachment of men from New Hano- 
ver, under Colonel John Ashe, also from Craven, under Colonel 
Joseph Leach ; from Dobbs county, under Colonel Richard Caswell ; 
from Onslow, under Colonel Craig ; from Carteret, under Colonel 
Wm. Thompson ; from Johnston, under Colonel Needham Bryan ; a 
company of artillery, under Captain Moore ; a company of rangers, 

* Martin, ii. 271. 


under Captain Neale ; a detachment from Wake, under Colonel 
John Hinton ; a company of cavalry, under Captain Bullock. 

Governor Tryon and these troops crossed Haw River on the 
13th, and on the 14th, encamped on the hanks of the Alamance. 
The next day, on the hanks of the same stream, the royal army 
encamped near the Regulators, who had assembled in great force. 

On the 15th, a petition was brought to the Governor, from the 
Regulators, praying a redress of grievances, as the only means to 
prevent bloodshed. He replied that he would answer next day by 

This petition and Tryon's reply, as well as many other original 
documents procured from the offices in London, never before . 
published, the reader will find under the chapter (I) ob Alamance ,/ 

By dawn the next day the royal forces left the camp, and within 
half a mile of the Regulators, formed the line of battle, 16th May, 


The Governor in reply to the petition, informed them by a mes- 
senger, that he had pursued every measure to redress their griev- 
ances without success. Nothing now was left but an immediate 
submission ; a promise to pay taxes ; a return to their homes ; and 
a solemn assurance that they would no longer protect those indicted 
from a fair trial. He allowed them one hour to consider this reply. 

The royal forces, according to Governor Tryon's own report (now 
for the first time published, in the following pages, see Alamance), 
amounted to upwards of eleven hundred; the Regulators under 
Husbands, Hunter, and Butler, to two thousand. 

The Regulators told the messenger of the Governor to return and 
say that " they defied him, and battle was all they wanted." 

The Governor then sent a magistrate and officer with a proclama- 
tion, commanding them to disperse within one hour. 

The Regulators refused to listen to him, and cried out for battle, 
and advanced on the royal forces. 

The Governor then sent his aid, Philemon Hawkins, to inform the 
Regulators that unless they delivered up Husbands, Hunter, Howell 
and some others, and disperse, he would fire upon them. 

The regulators replied, " Fire and be d d." 

The Governor then ordered his troops to fire, which was not im- 
mediately obeyed. Rising in his stirrups, inflamed with anger, he 
ao-aiu orders " Fire — Fire on them or fire on me." 

'^The action became general, and for a few moments was warm. 
After a conflict of two hours, the Regulators fled, leaving twenty 
dead and several wounded. The loss of the royal forces in killed, 
wounded, and missing, was sixty-one men. One officer was killed, 
and one dangerously wounded. 

Thus ended the battle of Alamance. Thus, and here, was the 
tlrst blood spilled in these United States, in resistance to exactions 
of English rulers, and oppressions by the English government. 

'•'The Great Wolf of North Carolina" showed his blood-thu'sty 


temper, by acts of revenge, cruelty, and barbarity. He hung Cap- 
tain Few the next day, without a trial, on a tree. 

Tryon marched on the 21st to Sandy Creek, where he encamped for 
a week. Crossing Deep River and Flat Swamp, the army marched 
to Reedy Creek. Here being joined by General Wad'dell, Governor 
Tryon returned on 9th June by Black Jack, Buffalo, Big Trouble- 
some, in Rockingham County, and Back Creek to Hillsboro', 
which he reached on the 14th. 

At a special court held for trial of the prisoners for high 
treason, taken in the battle of Alamance, they were convicted 
and sentenced to death. The execution of six of them was de- 
layed until the king's pleasure was known. On the 19th the others 
were executed. 

After this, Tryon dismissed his army and returned to Newbern 
on the 24th, and on the 30th took shipping for New York, to which 
colony he had been appointed Governor. 

Herman Husbands, although a reward was offered for him by 
Tryon, escaped. He settled in Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh. He 
returned to North Carolina after the Revolutionary War, on busi- 
ness, but remained only a short time. His two sons settled on a 
large tract of land on Deep River, near the Buffalo Ford. His 
daughter married a man by the name of Wright. 

He is stated to have been concerned in the Whisky Insurrection 
of Pennsylvania, in 1794, and associated with Gallatin, Bracken- 
ridge and Bradford, on a Committee of Safety. For this he was 
apprehended. From the influence of his friends, among whom was 
the Rev. David Caldwell, of Guilford county (who happened at this 
time to be at Philadelphia), Dr. Benjamin Rush, and others. Hus- 
bands was released. On his way home, he died at a tavern near 

Under the head of Alamance County, in this work, many rare, 
valuable and interesting documents will be found, never before pub- 
lished, which place the objects, end, and intents of the Regulators 
in a true color. The curious will examine carefully these records, 
as they throw a flood of light upon the history of our State, which 
has been obscured by misrepresentation and neglect. 

They were copied under the eye of the Hon. George Bancroft, 
from originals on file in London, in the Office of the Board of Trade 
and Plantations. By his kindness they are here presented to the 
people of the State. I feel the deep obligations that I am under 
to Mr. Bancroft, and the State of North Carolina deeply feels her 
obligations to him as the only historian who has done her justice. 



FROM 1771 TO JULY 4, 1776. 

Administration of Josiah Martin, November 1771 to 1775 — Last of the royal 
governors in North Carolina — His life and character — Parliamentary usages 
of "the olden times"— The powers of the governor — "A king, aye, every 
inch a king" — Difficulties arise between the governor and the Assembly, as 
to the attachment laws and appointment of judges — Courts of law closed- 
First popular Assembly meets at Newborn, on the 25th of August, 1774 — 
John Harvey, Moderator — Names of the members — Its resolves — It adjourns 
and another is called in April, 1775 — Governor Martin fulminates a procla- 
mation against " such disorder and anarchy," March 1, 1775 — The Colonial 
and the Popular Assemblies meet at the same time and place — "Passage of 
arms" between the Governor and the Assembly — The Governor, in his 
speech to the Colonial Assembly, denounces these meetings of the people 
and particularly the unwarrantable appointment of delegates to attend a 
Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, then in agitation, as highly inju- 
rious and " particularly offensive to the King" — The Assembly reply that 
"the right of the people to assemble and remonstrate is not to be doubted," 
and pass resolutions "approving of the General Congress at Philadelphia, 
to assemble September 4, 1774" — Whereupon, Governor Martin dissolves 
the Assembly — The last which ever sat under the royal governme_nt in 
North Carolina — Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, May 1775-— 
Governor Martin retreats on board of his Majesty's ship-of-war Cruiser, in 
the Cape Fear River ; and the royal government_terminates forever in North 
Carolina — Provincial Congress meets at Ilillsboro', August, 1775 — Troops 
raised for military operations — Civil government exercised by a Provincial 
Council— District Committees of Safety ; and County Committees — Names 
of the committee-men in each district— Battle of Moore's Creek, in New 
Hanover County, February 27, 1776— Tories defeated under Gen. McDonald 
— Provincial Congress meets at Halifax, April 4th, 1776 — Names of mem- 
Ijers — Names of general, field, battalion, and county officers — This body 
instruct their delegates in the Continental Congress, in April, 1776, to vote 
for Independence — Committees of Safety appointed — Adjourned on the 14th 
of May, 1776 — Provincial Council of Safety meets at Wilmington, on the 6th 
of June, 1776 — General Rutherford, of Rowan, marches with one thousand 
nine hundred men, against the Overhill Cherokees (now Tennessee), reduces 
them, burns their towns, and destroys their crops — Provincial Council of 
Safety meets in July, at Halifax — The national Declaration of Independ- 
ence reaches them while in session — Their proceedings, and some account 
of the first celebration, in North Carolina, of the Declaration of Inde- 

James Hasel, being the first named of the Council, on the de- 
parture of Governor Tryon, qualified as Governor in July, 1771. 
He soon resigned the reins of government to Josiah Martin, who 
had been commissioned by the crown, and who arrived in North 
Carolina, at Newborn, on the 11th August. 

Like his predecessor, Governor Martin was by profession a sol- 
dnr. He had risen, in the British Army, to the rank of Major; 


and was an Englishman by birth. He was brother to Samuel 
Martin, a member of the British Parliament, -who was distinguished 
by a duel, in 1763, with the celebrated John Wilkes. His cha- 
racter was not deficient either in firmness or talent. 

In his administration of the colony, he seems to have found him- 
self too strictly fettered by his instructions from the crown to be 
of service to the country. In endeavoring to carry out the one, he 
lost the favor of the other. He misconceived, when the storm of 
popular feeling was raised, both the means of calming its anger and 
averting its fury. 

Had he lived in less troublesome times, his administration might 
have been peaceful and prosperous. But Providence had decreed 
that this country should be free from all foreign dominion, and 
that Martin should be the last of the royal governors in and over 
North Carolina. 

Governor Martin met the legislature, for the first time, in the 
town of Newborn, in Nov., 1771. 

To this age, the forms of electing and assembling the legislative 
body, the homage paid to the Governor, as the representative of 
the Sovereign, and the power and influence of the governor are 
curious, and useful to show the improvements that our free institu- 
tions have suggested and carried out. 

The Governor had the power with advice of his council, to con- 
vene the legislature, at pleasure, the upper branch of which was 
called the council, appointed by the crown ; the speaker, or president 
of which was the first named in the list, and was, in the absence of 
the Governor, the executive of the colony. The council was the mere 
echo of the Governor, since they were both appointed by the same 
authority; their records show few instances where they ever differed 
from the Governor on any question of policy. The Governor had the 
power to prorogue, or dissolve the Assembly, and had an unquali- 
fied veto on all their acts. The Governor had also the appointment of 
the associate judges of the superior courts, the sheriffs of the courts, 
and the clerks of the superior courts. He was indeed a sovereign, 
" aye, every inch a king." By his order, writs were issued by the 
clerk of the crown, to the sheriffs of the several counties, directing 
them to hold elections in each county, and the number to be elected; 
and the place of assembling ; which writs were duly executed, and 
returns made of the persons elected, to the clerk of the crown. At 
the time and place appointed, the members assembled, their cre- 
dentials were read, and qualification took place, which was done in 
the presence of two of the council, appointed for this purpose by 
the Governor. Two of the members then waited on his Excellency, 
to say that the house was organized, and awaited his commands. 
The Governor then summoned the members to the palace ; then, he 
directs them to return and elect a Speaker. This being done, two 
members then wait on his Excellency, to know when he would 
receive them, to present their Speaker. The house is summoned 
by the private secretary of the Governor, to make their immediate 


attendance at tlie palace. Tliey o.bey, and formally present their 
Speaker, in person and by name, " whom his Excellency is pleased 
to approve." Then he proceeded, after pledging "in form to sup- 
port the house in all their just rights and privileges," to address 
them on such matters as suggest themselves deserving the consi- 
deration of the representatives of the people. To which address 
there was a formal reply in writing, by a committee of the House, 
and then the House was ready to proceed to business. 

Compare this fanfaronade of ceremony and homage to power and 
place, with our simple organization of the present day ; and it 
Avill be no longer wondered why our forefathers in 1776, stripped 
the Governor of all the paraphernalia of privilege and power in the 
constitution, and so reduced the executive authority as hardly to 
leave any semblance of its former grandeur, or even the power of 
an ordinary justice of the peace. Thus vibrating from one extreme 
to the other. 

The House addressed Governor Martin to pardon (Herman Hus- 
bands, Rednap Howell, and William Butler excepted) all persons 
concerned in the late insurrection. He replied that he already 
anticipated their wishes as far as his power extended. The six 
Regulators under sentence of death received the king's absolute 

An angry and protracted conflict between the Governor and 
the legislative body occurred on the subject of the attachment 
laws, and the appointment of judges ; so serious, that for a long 
time the colony was without laws or judges. The commissions of 
the judges expired with the session of the legislature (Martin 
Howard, chief justice, Maurice Moore and Richard Henderson, 
associates), and the bill organizing the courts failing to meet with 
the approbation of the Governor, he first prorogued for three days 
the Assembly, and finally dissolved it. 

" There were at this time no courts at all in being,'' was the re- 
mark of Mr. Quincy, at this time traveling through North Caro- 

The whole colony was in a state of anarchy and confusion. 
The courts were closed ; public crime and private injustice had no 
check. To the minds of the people, their wrongs were caused by 
the obstinacy of the Governor, and produced a, feeling of deep 
resentment against the government. 

These grievances were not confined to North Carolina. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons, John Harvey, laid be- 
fore the house resolutions of the House of Burgesses of Virginia 
(1773), resolutions of the 12th March last, also letters from 
the speakers of the lower houses of several other provinces, re- 
questing that a committee be appointed to inquire into the en- 
croachments of England upon the rights and liberties of America. 

Tlie House came to a resolution that "such example was worthy 
ot imitation, by which means communication and concert would 


be established among the colonies ; and that they will at all times 
be ready to exert their efforts to preserve and defend their rights."* 

John Harvey (Speaker), Robert Howe, Cornelius Harnett, Wil- 
liam Hooper, Richard Caswell, Edward Vail, John Ashe, Joseph 
Hewes, and Samuel Johnson were appointed this committee. 

This is the first record of a legislative character which led to 
the Revolution. The names of the committee show its import- 
ance ; the part they afterwards took, as will be seen, proves the 
sincerity and fidelity with which they discharged their important 

The next year (August, 1774), the Governor issued his procla- 
mation, complaining that the meetings of the people were held 
without legal authority — that resolutions had been entered into, 
and plans concerted, derogatory to the authority of the King and 
Parliament, tending to excite discontent among the people, and 
requiring the people to forbear attending any such meetings, and 
ordering the king's oflBcers to oppose such meetings to the utmost 
of their power. 

But the people would meet. The first assemblage independent 
of royal authoi-ity, of their representatives in North Carolina, oc- 
curred at Newborn on 2oth August, 1774. 

Excited at this state of affairs. Governor Martin summoned his 
ever faithful and obsequious council, and consulted on the steps 
proper to be taken. They advise him that " nothing could be 

This Assembly or Congress as it was called, is an epoch in our 
history. It was not a conflict of arms or force, but it was the 
first act of that great drama, in which battles and blood formed 
only subordinate parts. 

Provincial Congress 
of North Carolina, which met at Newborn, 25th August, 1774. 

Counties. Members. 

^ A f Sam'l Spencer, 

1. Anson . . ' { \\t rru 

i Wm. Thomas. 

2 Bpavfnrf i ^^^^^' ^^"^ond, 

•^ 1^ ihos. Respiss. 

o T>7 ■; ^ William Salter, 

6. Bladen . . • < iti i^. n-i 

I Walter Gibson. 

A Ti f -i- / W™- Person, 

5. Brunswick . . Robt. Howe. 

6. Bertie . . . John Campbell. 

James Cook, 

f, /v Lemuel Hatch, 

7. Craven . . • -^ t i t i 

Joseph Leech, 


Rich'd Cosdell. 


* See Journals of 1773. Martin, vol. ii. 305. 
f Divided in 1799 into Franklin and Warren. 




8. Carteret . 

9. Currituck . 

10. Chowan 

11. Cumberland 

12. Dobhs^ . 

13. Duplin 






Halifax . 


Johnston . 




New Hanover 












* Divided in 1791 i 
chi nged to Greene. 


Wm. Thompson, 
Sol. Perkins. 

t,than Joyce, 
m'l Jarvis. 
Samii^ Johnston, 
Thomas Oldham, 
Thomas Benbury, 
Thomas Jones, 
Thomas Hunter. 
Farquard Campbell, 
T. Rutherford. 
Richard Caswell, 
Wm. McKennie, 
Geo. Miller, 
Simon Bright. 
Thos. Gray, 
Thos. Hicks, 
James Kenan, 
Wm. Dickson. 
Thos. Person, 
Memucan Hunt. 
Rothias Latham, 
Samuel Smith. 
Nigholas Long 
Willie Jones. 
Needham Bryan, 
Benj. Williams. 
Benj. Patton. 
E. Smithwick. 
John Ashe, 
Wm. Hooper. 
Allen Jones. 
Thos. Hart. 
Wm. Gray. 
John Harvey, 
Benj. Harvey, 
Thos. Harvey, 
Andrew Knox, 
J. Whidbee, Jr. 
Jos. Jones, 
Edw'd Everigin, 
Joseph Reading. 
John Simpson, 
Edw'd Salter. 

1791 into Lenoir and Glasgow, which latter in 1799 was 





27. Mowan 

28. Tnjon* . 

29. Tyrrell . 


30. Hewhern . 

31. Edenton . 

32. Wilmington 

33. Bath ' . 

34. Halifax 


Will. Kennon^ 
Moses Win slow, 
Sam'l Young. 
David Jenkins, 
Robert Alexander. 
Geo. Spruill, 
Jeremiah Fraser. 

Abner Nash, 
Isaac Edwards. 
Jos. Hewes. 
Francis Clayton. 
AVm. Brown. 
John Geddy. 

Of this body, John Harvey of Perquimans was chosen Speak- 
er, or Moderator. 

An examination of the acts of this Assembly, evinces the utmost 
loyalty to their plighted vows of allegiance so often expressed, and 
yet the most clear conception of the rights of freemen; the jealousy 
with which these rights were regarded, and fixed purpose by which 
they would be maintained. 

Their journal is still preserved. The preamble to their resolu- 
tions declares their regard to the British constitution, and their 
allegiance to the House of H«nover ; but that allegiance from them 
should meet with protection from the government ; that no person 
should be taxed without his consent freely given in person, or by 
his representative ; that the tax on tea and other articles by the 
British Parliament, was illegal and oppressive. The Boston port 
act, the act sending persons to England for trial for offences com- 
mitted here, were denounced as unconstitutional ; and they so- 
lemnly bound themselves after 1st January next, not to purchase 
any goods from England or send any produce there for sale. 

The Assembly approved of the plan of a General Congress in 
Philadelphia in. September, and elected as members, William 
Hooper, of Orange County ; Joseph Hewes, of Edenton ; Richard 
Caswell, of Dobbs County ; who were instructed to express the firm 
determination of the people against all unconstitutional oppression. 

They then adjourned, empowering the Moderator to convene the 
deputies as occasion might require. 

Such was the first Assembly of the people of North Carolina, in 
a representative character in opposition to the Royal Government. 

These men have long since gone to their final account ; but 
their names, characters, and services, should be held ever in grate- 
ful remembrance by their countrymen. North Carolina is proud 
of their names, for with them is associated the most unsullied 
patriotism, uncalculating resistance to oppression, and chivalric 

* Divided into Lincoln and Rutherford in 1791. 


daring. A short sketcli of the life of many will appear in another 
portion of this work ; an extended narrative of their services, 
will afford ample material to the future historian and biographer. 

Governor Martin visited New York in September, 1774, and on 
his return the following February, 1^ issued a proclamation against 
the purchase by Judge Henderson from the Cherokee Indians of 
certain lands, as being in violation of law. 

The Colonial Assembly was called in April, 1775, at Newborn; 
and John Harvey, moderator of the late convention of deputies, 
issued in February, a notice to the people to elect delegates, to 
represent each town and county in convention, to be held at the 
same time and p^ce, by virtue of authority vested in him by the 
late Congress or Convention. 

This roused the indignation of Governor Martin, and he Issued 
his proclamation on 1st March, 1775, denouncing the meeting as 
" tending to introduce disorder and anarchy to the destruction of 
the real interests of the people.'' 

Notwithstanding these denunciations of the Governor, the people 
quietly elected members to the convention, many of whom were 
members of the Assembly. These bodies both met at the same 
place, at the same time (4th April, 1775). Col. John Harvey 
was re-elected president of the Colonial Assembly. 

Governor Martin, in his speech to the Assembly, expressed " his 
concern at this extraordinary state of affairs. He reminded the 
members of their oath of allegiance, and denounced the meeting 
of delegates chosen by the people, as illegal, and one that he 
should resist by every means in his power." Particularly did he 
inform them that "the unwarrantable manner of appointing dele- 
gates to attend a Congress at Philadelphia, then in agitation, would 
be highly offensive to the King." 

In the dignified reply of the House, the Governor was informed 
that the right of the people to assemble and remonstrate against 
grievances was undoubted. They passed resolutions approving of 
the proceedings of the Continental Congress at Philadelphia (4th 
Sept., 1774), and declared their determination to use what in- 
fluence they had to carry out the views of that body. Where- 
upon, the Governor, by advice of his council, dissolved the Assem- 
bly, by proclamation, after a session of four days. 

Thus was dissolved all legislative intercourse between the Go- 
vernor and the legislature, and here terminated the royal rule of 
England ; for a short time afterwards Gov. Martin took refuge, 
first in Fort Johnston, and afterwards on board of a ship of war in 
the Cape Fear River, the Cruiser. For his ofiicial dispatches, 
dated June, 1775, procured from London, see Mecklenburg County. 

(Chapter li., vol. ii.) ;,!, -i^r-ns 

Governor Martin, after the battle of Moore's Creek (Feb. 1 h b), 
in which the Loyalists, under General MacDonald, were defeated 
by Caswell, embarked with Sir Peter Parker, and arriveil at 
Charleston. He was present at the battle of Guilford with Lord 


CornwalHs, in March, 1781. He went to England soon after this 
battle. Sijbsequently he returned to New York, and died at 

The Provincial Congress met at the same place, and elected 
John Harvey again as Moderator. This convention or congress 
approved of the measures of the Continental Congress, and reap- 
pointed the same delegates to attend. 

This was the second time of meeting of the representatives of the 
people, in opposition to the Royal Power in North Carolina. 

About this time (May, 1775), the people of Mecklenburg moved^ 
in their sovereign capacity, the question of independence, and took 
a much bolder and more decided stand than either the Colonial or 
Continental Congress had as yet attempted ; and while this step 
evinces the spirit of that chivalric county, it is one of the boasted 
recollections of the State of North Carolina, ever to be cherishedy 
never to be forgotten. 

It has been seen that it was on her shores that (in 1584) the 
first Anglo-Saxon anchor rested in these United States.! Her 
whole history since has been shown to be one continued and deter- 
mined resistance to oppression. It is now proved that she was the 
first openly to cast off the English yoke, and, relying on the truth 
and justice of her cause, and on the God of David, she threw the 
gauntlet of defiance in the teeth of the Goliah power of England. 

That at this time throughout the whole length and breadth of 
these colonies the spirit of liberty was abroad, is not to be doubt- 
ed. Urged by wrongs and oppression, with " war in each heart 
and freedom on each brow," the colonists were ripe and ready for 
the conflict ; but that the people of Mecklenburg should at this 
period of darkness, doubt, and danger, in a remote portion of 
country, unmolested by the presence of their oppressors, or actual 
perpetration of injury : without concert with other States, with- 
out assurances of support from any quarter, and then and there 
" dissolve the political bands which connected them with the 
mother country/' and then declare themselves " a free and inde- 
pendent people, and of right ought to be sovereign and self-govern- 
ing," is a subject full of moral sublimity and heroic daring. It is 
justly a source of elevating pride to the State of North Carolina. 

The public mind had been much excited at the attempts of Gov. 
Martin to prevent the meeting of the Provincial Congress, or Con- 
vention, at Newbern, and his arbitrary and oppressive conduct in 
dissolving the Assembly when only in session four days, leaving 
them unprotected by courts of law, and all other important busi- 
ness undone. The people began to think that since the authorities 
constituted by law failed in their legitimate duty, that it was time 
to provide safeguards for themselves, and to throw off all allegi- 
ance to powers that ceased to protect their liberties or property. 

To this omission of duty was added the actual commission of 

* Sabine, History of the Loyalists. f See page 24. 


wrong. The haughty assumption of power on the part of the 
Government to inflict taxation on the people without representa- 
tion or their consent, Boston harbor was blockaded by British 
troops, and others awed by the pr(»ence of men and arms. The 
people of North Carolina felt deeply the crisis of our Government. 
None more keenly than the citizens of Mecklenburg. 

On the 20th May, a convention, comi^osed of delegates from 
different portions of the county, met at Charlotte. Abraham 
Alexander was called to the chair, and John McKnitt Alex- 
ander appointed secretary. 

The Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, a Presbyterian clergyman, 
Dr. Ephm. Brevard, and William Kennon, Esq., an attorney-at- 
law, addressed the convention. 

The news of the battle of Lexington arrived at this time, which 
had occurred just one month and a day previous; and the wanton 
sacrifice of American blood by English troops added fresh fuel to the 
flame of virtuous indignation that now swelled their patriotic bosoms. 

The resolutions, from the pen of Dr. Ephraim Brevard, are as 
follows : — 

CHARLOTTE, 20th OF MAY, 1775. 

1. Resolved: That whosoever directly or indirectly abets, or in 
any w^ay, form, or manner countenances the unchartered and dan- 
gerous invasion of our rights, as claimed by Great Britain, is an 
enemy to this country — to America— and to the inherent and un- 
alienable rights of man. 

2. Resolved: That we do hereby declare ourselves- a free and 
independent people ; are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and 
self-governing association, under the control of no power, other 
than%hat of our God and the general government of the Congress: 
To the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to 
each other our mutual co-operation, OUR LIVES, OUR FORTUNES, 
and OUR MOST sacred honor. 

3. Resolved: That as we acknowledge the existence and control 
of no law or legal officer, civil or military, within this county, we do 
hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of life, all, each, and every one 
of our former laws, wherein, nevertheless, the crown of Great 
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, or 
authorities therein. 

4. Resolved: That all, each, and every military officer in this 
county is hereby reinstated in his former command and authority, 
he acting conformably to their regulations. And that every mem- 
ber present of this delegation, shall henceforth be a civil officer, 
viz : a justice of the peace, in the character of a committee man, 
fo issue process, hear, and determine all matters of controversy, 
a,*^cording to said adopted laws, and to preserve peace, union, and 
harmony in said county, to use every exertion to spread the love 


of country and fire of freedom throughout America, until a more 
general and organized government be established in this province. 


JoHX McKnitt Alexande^^, Secretary. 

Ephraim Brevard, Charles Alexander, 

Hezekiah J. Balch, Zaccheus Wilson, 

John Phifer, Waightstill Avery, 

James Harris, Benjamin Patton, 

William Kennon, Matthew McClure, 

John Ford, Neil Morrison, 

Richard Barry, Robert Irvin, 

Henry Downe, John Flennegin, 
Ezra Alexander, • David Reese, 

William Graham, John Davidson, 

John Queary, Richard Harris, 

Hezekiah Alexander, Thomas Polk, sen'r. 
Adam Alexander, 

It was forwarded to the Continental Congress, at Philadelphia, 
by Capt. James Jack, and a copy also to Samuel Johnston, mode- 
rator of the Provincial Congress, at Hillsboro', and was laid before 
that body by him, on the 25th Aug. 1775. 

Gov. Martin issued his proclamation on the 8th of August, 1775, 
on board of his Majesty's ship of war the Cruiser, denouncing 
the Mecklenburg declaration of independence. 

These papers are extracted from the document publishied in 
182ft, by the General Assembly of North Carolina. More import- 
ant and documentary evidence will be found under the head of 
Mecklenburg County, from records procured from London. These 
names and these characters deserve a perpetual remembrance in our 
State and nation. Efforts are being made to procure the biogra- 
phy of each, and have in part been successful. Men must obey 
the fiat of nature, and die ; but such elevated actions, and devoted 
patriotism can never die. Our State to all time will delight to 
cherish their memories as a proud record of the past, and a glowing 
incentive to the future. It is to be hoped that some son of Meck- 
lenburg will undertake this pious and patriotic duty, and rescue 
from oblivion the memories of the signers of the Mecklenburg De- 
claration of Independence. 

This important paper is dear to every North Carolinian. The 
20th of May is a sacred festival within her borders, and efforts are 
being made to erect in the place where this event occurred, a 
monument to perpetuate its memory.* 

North Carolina was now without any government, except that 
of its own choice. The utmost exertion was necessary to sustain 
this position. 

* A memorial, in vol. ii. chapter li. Mecklenburg County, from the citizens 
of this section of the State to the General Assembly. 


Samuel Jolanston, of Chowan County (the late moderator, John 
Harvey having died), summoned a meeting of the delegates at 
Hillsboro', on 21st August, 1775. 

Delegates were chosen in every county and town, accordingly, 
by the people, and they met at the time and place appointed. 
One hundred and eighty-four members took their seats. This was 
the third meeting of an assembly of the people in North Carolina, 
opposed to the Royal Government. 

On motion of Richard Caswell, Samuel Johnston was elected 
President, Andrew Knox, Secretary, James Glasgow, Assistant. 

On the 24th, the Congress declared that the people of North 
Carolina would pay their due proportion of expense in training a 
Continental Army, and appointed a committee to prepare a system 
of government for the province. 

This was a most important point of the history of North Caro- 
lina. The Governor had abandoned the reins of power. In a 
proclamation dated 8th Aug. 1775, secure on board of his floating 
palace, he had denounced by his proclamation this very assembly, 
as "one of the black artifices of falsehood and sedition," and the 
assembly returned this courteous message by resolving that " the 
proclamation was a false, scurrilous, malicious and seditious libel," 
and directed it to be burnt by the common hangman. 

Thus all hopes of reconciliation had now ended. The sword 
was drawn and the scabbard cast away. 

Two regiments of five hundred men were raised by order of the 

The following officers were appointed : — 


James Moore, Col. ; Thomas Clark, Major ; Francis Nash, Lt. 
Col. ; Wm. Williams, Adjutant. 

Captains — William Davis, William Picket, Henry Dickson, 
Thomas Allen, Robert Rowan, George Davidson, Alfred Moore, 
John Walker, Wm. Green, Caleb Grainger. 

Lieutenants — John Lillington, William Berryhill, Hg^ekiah 
Rice, Joshua Bowman, Hector McNeil, Wm. Brandon, Lawrence 
TKompson, Abraham Tatum, Wm. Hill, Thomas Hogg. 

^Ensigns — Neil McAllister, James Childs, George Graham, 
Maurice Moore, Jr., Henry Neill, Robert Ralston, John Taylor, 
Berryman Turner, Henry Pope, Howell Tatum. 


Robert Howe, Col. ; John Patton, Major ; Alex. Martin, Lt. 
Col. ; Dr. John White, Capt. and Adjutant. 

Captains — James Blount, John Armstrong, Chas. Crawford, 
Hardy Murfree, Plenry Irwin Toole, Nathan Keais, Simon Bright, 
Michael Payne, John Walker. 

Liey^tenants — John Grainger, Robert Smith, John Herritage, 


Clement Hall, Edw'd Vail, Jr., Jos. Tate, William Fenner, John 
Williams, James Gee, Benj. Williams. 

Ensigns — Henry Vipon, Whitmel Pugh, John Oliver, Philip 
Lowe, William Gardner, Benj. Cleaveland, Jas. Cook, William Cas- 
well, Jos. Clinch, John Woodhouse. 

Dr. Isaac Guion, Chirurgeon to the 1st Reg. 

Dr. Wm. Parton, do. to •2d Reg. 

The names of these officers are particularly noticed, as these 
were called into active service out of the State in the Continental 

In each district ten companies of fifty men, called a battalion, 
were raised, called Minute men. 

Field officers and Minute men appointed by the State Congress 
(1775) for each district. 

Edenton District. — Edward Vail, Col. ; Andrew Knox, Lt. 
Col. ; Caleb Nash, Major. 

Netvhern District. — Richard Caswell, Col. ; William Bryan, 
Lieut. Col. ; James Gorham, Major. 

Wilrtiington District. — Alex. Lillington, Col. ; Robt. Ellis, Lt. 
Col. ; Samuel Swann, Major. 

Halifax District. — Nicholas Long, Col. ; Henry Irwin, Lt. 
Col. ; Jethro Sumner, Major. 

Hillsboro' District. — James Thackston, Col. ; John Williams, Lt. 
Col. ; James Moore, Major. 

Salisbury District. — Thomas Wade, Col. ; Adlai Osborne, Lt. 
Col. ; Joseph Harbin, Major. 

Edward Vail, of Chowan, was appointed to the command of the 
battalion of the Edenton District. 

Richard Caswell, of Dobbs, Newbern District. 

Alex. Lillington, of New Hanover, Wilmington District. 

Thomas Wade, of Anson, Salisbury District. 

James Thackston, of Cumberland, Hillsboro' District. 

Nicholas Long, of Halifax, the Halifax District. 

Such was the military organization of the State. 

Tift* Civil Government was vested in : — 

I. A Provincial Council for the whole State. 

II. A District Committee of Safety for each district. 

III. County and Town Committees, for each county and town. 

I. The Provincial Council was composed of one chosen by the 
whole Congress, who was, de facto., governor; and two persons 
from each district, chosen by the delegates thereof. 

They were to meet quarterly, had power to call out the militia, 
to reject or suspend officers, fill vacancies, draw on the treasury 
for all moneys necessary for the service ; and, in fact, to do all such 
things as were necessary to secure, protect, and defend the colony. 

The court house, in Johnston County, was the first place of 
their assembling, and they had power to fix other times and places. 


The members of this council were Samuel Johnston, chairman, 
(chosen by the Congress.) 

Cornelius Harnett, and Samuel Ashe, Wilmington District. 
Abner Nash, and James Coor, Newhern District. 

Thomas Jones, and Whitmel Hill, Edenton District. 

William Jones, and Thomas Jones, Halifax District. 

Thomas Person, and John Kinchen, Sillshoro District. 

Samuel Spencer, and Waightstill Avery, Salishury District. 

II. The Committee of Safety was composed of a president and 
twelve members in each district, chosen by the delegates from each 

This committee was to meet quarterly in the principal towns of 
the district, and were authorized to receive information, censure, 
and punish delinquents ; and, with the Provincial Council, had 
co-ordinate power to compel debtors about to remove to give security 
to their creditors^ and had a superintending power over 

III. The County and Town Committees, appointed by the 
'freeholders of each county, twenty-one members for the county, and 
fifteen for each of the towns of Edenton, Newbern and Wilmington, 
and seven for each of the other towns, to be elected by the freehold- 
ers. These committees were to appoint by ballot out of their mem- 
bers, seven persons to act as a committee of secrecy, intelligence 
and correspondence, who were to correspond with the Provincial 
Council, the Committee of Safety, and others, to take up and ex- 
amine all suspected persons, and to exercise a general and particular 
care over the interests of the people, that they received no detriment. 

With the latter (committees of the counties), the real executive 
power of the State rested in these troublesome times; promptly 
and summarily did they exercise their powers. They held a strict 
police and rigid censorship over their respective counties, and did 
not hesitate to put in jail, or to the whipping-post, all persons con- 
victed of disrespectful language towards the cause of American 
liberty. They issued orders to ravage the estates of violent Tories, 
and appropriate the proceeds to the common treasury. 

They executed all orders of the Continental Congress, the Pro- 
vincial" Council, and the District Committees of Safety. They had 
a test oath to which all persons had to subscribe, which was para- 
mount to the oath of allegiance to the English crown. 

The delegates for each district appointed the following persons 
as District Committees of Safety : — 

Edenton District. — Luke Sumner, Wm. Gray, John Johnston, 
Thomas Benbury, Gideon Lamb, Joseph Jones, Miles Harvey, Law- 
rence Baker, Kenneth McKenzie, Stevens Lee, Charles Blount, 
Isaac Gregory, and Day Ridly. 

Netvhern District. — Alexander Gaston, Richard Cogdell, John 
Easton, Major Croom, Roger Ormond, Edward Salter, George 
Burrow, William Thompson, William Tisdale, Benjamin Williams, 
R' chard Ellis, William Brown, James Glasgow. 

Wilmington District. — Frederick Jones, Sampson Mosely, 


Archibald McLaine, Richard Quince, Thomas Davis, William 
Gray, Henry Rhodes, Thomas Rutledge, James Kenan, Alexander 
McAllister, George Mylne, John Smith, Benjamin Stone. 

Halifax District. — Allen Jones, Rev. Henry Patillo, James 
Leslie, John Bradford, David Sumner, William Eaton, Drury Lee, 
John Norwood, James Mills, William Haywood, Duncan Lamon, 
William Bellamy, John Webb. 

Eillshoro' District. — William Taylor, Joseph Taylor, Samuel 
Smith, John Atkinson, John Butler, William Johnston, John 
Hinton, Joel Lane, Michael Rodgers, Ambrose Ramsey, Mial 
Scurlock, John .Thompson, John Lark. 

Salisbury District. — Griffith Rutherford, John Brevard, John 
Crawford, Hezekiah Alexander, James Auld, Benjamin Patton, 
William Hill, John Hamilton, Charles Galloway, William Dent, 
Robert Ewert, Maxwell Chambers. 

, The thanks of the Convention to the delegates in the Continental 
Congress (Caswell, Hooper, and Hewes) were formally presented 
by the President for their honorable and patriotic conduct, on 2d 
Sept., 1775. 

On being appointed one of the Treasurers of the State, Richard 
Caswell resigned his appointment as delegate to the Continental 
Congress, and John Penn, of Granville County, was appointed his 

The public finances were in much disorder. The Convention 
ordered, on the 7th Sept., $125,000 in bills of credit. Richard 
Caswell, Samuel Johnston, Andrew Knox, and Richard Cogdell 
were to superintend the printing and sign the bills, and deliver 
them over to the two treasurers. Samuel Johnston for the North- 
ern division and Richard Caswell for the Southern. 

An address was adopted unanimously by this Convention, on 
the 8th September, to the people of the British empire, declaring 
the views of this body as to the existing state of affairs. It was 
extensively circulated and did much good. It was the production 
of Wm. Hooper, who reported it as chairman of a committee com- 
posed of Maurice Moore, Robert Howe, Richard Caswell, and 
Joseph Hewes. 

Premiums were voted for manufacture of saltpetre, gunpowder, 
and other articles. The people of North Carolina had determined 
to throw off the foreign yoke and be free in every respect. 

After a session of a month, this Congress adjourned on the 19th 

The first meeting of the Provincial Council was organized at 
the court house, in Johnston County, on the 18th Oct., 1775, 
by the appointment of Cornelius Harnett, of Wilmington, as 
President, and James Green as Clerk. 

Their proceedings were entirely of a warlike nature. Applica- 
tions for appointments, demands for ammunition and arms, and the 
raising of troops, occupied their attention and fills their journal. 

Intelligence was received by the Council that the people of New 


Hanover had assembled in a large body and protested against the 
proceedings of the late Provincial Congress, as revolutionary and 
rebellious. The Council instructed the President (Mr. Harnett), 
John Ashe, and Samuel Ashe, to explain the acts of the Congress, 
and endeavor to maintain concert and harmony. These zealous 
friends of liberty faithfully performed their mission ; the discon- 
tented were satisfied, and returned to the support of the cause of 

A second meeting of the Provincial Council was held at the court 
house, in Johnston County, on 18th December, 1775, and Corne- 
lius Harnett presided. 

The Sheriff of Halifax, Mr. Branch,* brought before the council 
Walter Lamb and George Massenbird, as enemies to the country, 
and prayed punishment upon them as Tories. The council ordered 
Lamb to be committed for trial before the comnjittee of safety for 
Halifax ; and the other, being penitent, took the test oath and was 

The efforts of Governor Martin, still in the Cape Fear River on 

board the ship of war Cruiser, excited the vigilance of the council. 

At their previous meeting in October, they had recommended the 

, committee of safety for the district, to use their endeavors to cut 

off all communications between the governor and the people. 

The committee of safety for districts Wilmington Newbern, 
and Edenton, were directed to procure immediately an armed ves- 
sel each. 

The Scotch on the banks of the Cape Fear (and its tributaries 
the Deep and Haw Rivers) were approached by the emissaries of 
Governor Martin. He represented to them that the colony would 
be subdued ; that Sir Henry Clinton was to come south, reinforced 
by heavy armaments from England, under Sir Peter Parker and 
Lord Cornwallis. He issued a commission of General to one of 
their chiefs (Donald McDonald). 

The Council recommended, 1775, that "all communications from 
or to Governor Martin, or the ship of war, should be opened by 
the Committee of Safety." 

It appointed, on 21st December, committees in each district to 
attend to the state of arms, with authority to purchase more, if 

It raised two more battalions of minute men, in the district of 
Salisbury, and appointed 

Griffith Rutherford, Colonel ; John Phifer, Lieutenant- Colonel ; 
John Paisly, Major — 1st battalion. 

Thomas Polk, Colonel ; Adam Alexander, Lieutenant- Colonel ; 
Charles McLean, Major — 2d battalion. 

The proceedings of this session of the council are marked with 
great enei'gy and patriotism. 

The next session of the Provincial Council was at Newbern, on 
the 28th February, 1776, which was called to devise measures of 

* The father of Gov. John Branch, now of Enfield. 


concert and union between the southern colonies. Abner Nash 
and John Kinchen, were sent to Charleston ; Thomas Jones, Sa- 
muel Johnston, and Thomas Person, appointed to confer with the 
Committee of Safety for A^irginia. 

At this time, Donald McDonald, a Scottish Highlander, who had 
received the commission of general from Governor Martin, erected 
the royal standard at Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, and soon 
rallied about fifteen hundred men. 

Colonel James Moore, at the head of the first continental regi- 
ment, and some militia of Cumberland, took the field against 
McDonald. Moore was posted near the bridge on Rocky River, 
about twelve miles from Cross Creek, and fortified it ; determining 
to prevent any junction of McDonald with Governor Martin, or 
the expected reinforcements from abroad. 

Colonels Caswell and Lillington at this time commanded the 
minute men of the districts of Newbern and Wilmington, and 
joined by some volunteers, marched to Moore's Creek, near where 
it joins South River, in New Hanover County. 

McDonald advanced towards Colonel Moore's camp, and sent 
him a communication, with the governor's proclamation, to lay 
down his arms, and take the oath of allegiance ; Colonel Moore 
(after delaying to allow the militia time to assemble) declined his 
proposal, and replied, " that as he was engaged in a noble and 
glorious cause, the defence of the rights of man; he invited 
General McDonald to join him, and enclosed a copy of the test." 

The forces of Caswell and Lillington now increasing, McDonald 
endeavored by rapid marches to unite with Sir Henry Clinton, 
who had just arrived in the Cape Fear River, with Lord William 
Campbell, the royal governor of South Carolina, and strong re- 

He crossed South River, on the banks of which Caswell and 
Lillington were encamped with about one thousand men, consisting 
of the Newbern battalion of minute men, the militia from Craven, 
Johnston, Dobbs (now Green and Lenoir), and Wake, and a de- 
tachment of the Wilmington battalion of minute men. Here he 
encamped for the night, and determined to attack them in the 
morning. Lillington and CasAvell were equally ready and eager 
for the conflict. 

This night the small stream of South River only separated the 
belligerent camps ; the watch-fires of both were plainly visible to 
each. Like on the famed and bloody field of Agincourt : — 

*' From camp to camp, through the foul womb of night, 
The hum of either army stilly sounds ; 
That the fixed sentinels almost receive 
The secret whispers of each other's watch. 
Fire answers fire — 
Give dreadful note of preparation."* 

By the dawn of day, 27th February, 1776, the royal forces were 

* Henry V,, Act I. 


in motion ; the shrill notes of their pibroch were heard summoning 
their belted chiefs with their clans to battle. 

Our troops had removed the planks from the bridge, had been 
under arms all night, and were ready to receive them. 

An active and brisk fire commenced on both sides of the stream, 
which for a moment was severe and fatal, when the Scottish leader, 
Colonel McLeod, in attempting a gallant charge across the bridge, 
was killed. His troops were confused by the loss of their leader, 
and the unexpected absence of the planks on the bridge. Availing 
themselves of these advantages, our troops charged in turn, with 
great animation across the stream, and engaged the whole force of 
the enemy. After a gallant resistance, the royal troops were 
routed, and their general, McDonald, taken prisoner. 

A number of prisoners were taken, a large amount of ammunition 
and arms of various kinds, and thirteen wagons with horses, and a 
box of guineas, containing £15,000 sterling. 

Colonel Moore arrived on the field soon after the battle with his 

The Provincial Congress, which met soon after (4th April, 
1776), at Halifax, upon the call of the President, Samuel Johnston, 
granted parole to General MacDonald. The laurels gained by this 
early passage of arms, were made more bright by the generous 
conduct of the victors. 

This battle was most important in its eff'ects. Had the Tories 
effected a union with Clinton, the Avhole country would have been 
at their mercy; Gen. Clinton issued a proclamation on board of the 
Pallas transport, in Cape Fear River, on 5th May, 1776, declaring 
that a most wicked and unprovoked rebellion existed in his Ma- 
jesty's province of North Carolina, to the total subversion of all 
lawful authority," requiring all congresses and committees to be dis- 
solved, and offering pardon to all persons who should obey, and lay 
down their arms, " except Cornelius Harnett and Robert Hoive.'' 

This had no effect. He landed on General Howe's plantation, 
in Brunswick County, on the 12th, with nine hundred men under 
Lord Cornwallis, afterwards so famed in the Revolutionary War, 
in the South — ravaged and plundered the same, and treated with 
great brutality some women, who were left in the house. After 
burning some mills in the neighborhood, they again embarked, 
and despairing of all success in North Carolina, with thirty ships, 
he left the coast on the 29th, and sailed for Charleston, having on 
board Governor Martin, the last of the royal governors. 

The Provincial Congress met at Halifax, 4th April, 1776 
(the fourth meeting of the people in a representative capacity op- 
posed to the Royal Government in North Carolina). 

The following persons were elected and appeared, viz : — 

Counties. Members. 

f Samuel Spencer, Daniel Love, John Crawford, James 

1. Anson | Picket, and John Childs. 

2. Beaufort Roger Ormond, Thomas Respiss, Jr., and John Cooper. 




3. Bladen 

4. Bertie 

5. Brunswick 

6. Bute* 

7. Craven 

8. Carteret 

9. Currituck 

10. Chowan 

11. Cumberland 

12. Chatham 

13. Duplin 

14. I>o6&st 

15. Edgecombe 

16. Granville 

17. (??«7/orcZ 

18. S;/(7e 

19. Hertford 

20. ^aZi/aa; 

21. Johnston 

22. Mecklenburg 

23. Martin 

24. New Hanover 

25. Nortliampton 

26. Onslow 

27. Orange 

28. Perquimans 

29. Pasquotank 

30. Pt« 

31. Rowan 

32. ,Si«Ty 

33. TyrreK 

34. y^jron? 

35. TFa^•e 

( Nathaniel Richardson, Thomas Robertson, James 
I Council, Maturan Colvill and Thomas Amis. 
John Campbell, John Johnston, Charles Jacocks. 

(■ Green Hill, "William Alston, William Person, Thomas 

I Sherrod, and Philemon Hawkins. 

f James Coor, Lemuel Hatch, John Bryan, William 

I Bryan, and Jacob Blount. 

] William Thompson, Solomon Shepard, and John Back- 

I house. 

] Samuel Jarvis, James White, James Ryan, Gideon 

I Lamb, and Solomon Perkins. 

j Samuel Johnston, Thomas Benbury, Thomas Jones, 

I John B. Beasly, and Thomas Hunter. 

I David-Smith, Alexander McAllister, Farquard Camp- 

1 bell, Thomas Rutherford, and Alexander McCoy. 

rAmbrose Ramsay, John Thompson, Joshua Rosser, 

I Jeduthan Harper, and Elisha Cain. 

Thomas Gray, and William Dickson, 
r Richard Caswell, Abraham Shepard, George Miller, 
I Simon Bright, and William McKinnie. 
j William Haywood, Duncan Lemond, Elisha Battle, J 
( Henry Irwin, and Nathan Boddie. 
I Thomas Person, John Penn, Memucan Hunt, John 
I Taylor, and Charles A. Eaton, 
f Ransome Southerland, William Dent, and Ralph Gor- 
I rell. 

I Rotheas Latham, Joseph Hancock, John Jordan, and 
\ Benjamin Parmelly. 

Robert Sumner, Matthias Brickie, Lawrence Baker. 
I John Bradford, James Hogan, David Sumner, Joseph 
I John Williams, and Willis Alston. 

Samuel Smith, Jr., Needham Bryan, Jr., Henry Rains. 

John Phifer, Robert Irwin, John McKnitt Alexander, 
f William Williams, Whitmel Hill, Kenneth McKenzie, 
I Thomas Wiggins, Edward Smithwick. 
I John Ashe, John Devane, Samuel Ashe, Sampson 
I Mosely, and .John Hollingsworth. 
I Allen Jones, Jeptha Atherton, Eaton Haynes, Drury 
I Gee, Samuel Lockhart, Howel Edmunds. 
] George Mitchell, Benjamin Doty, John Spicer, John 
I King, and John Norman. 

J.John Kinchen, .James Saunders, John Butler, Na- 
I thaniel Rochester, Thomas Burke, 
f Miles Harvey, William Skinner, Thomas Harvey, Chas. 
1 Blount, and Charles Moore. 

Thomas Boyd, Joseph Jones, William Gumming, 
Dempsey Burges, and Henry Abbot. 

John Simpson, Edward Salter, William Robeson. 

Griffith Rutherford, Matthew Locke. 

Archibald Corry. 

f Joel Lane, John Hinton, John Rand, William Hooper, 
I and Tignal Jones. 

* Bute was divided in 1779, into Warren and Franklin, 
t Dobbs was divided in 1791, into Glasgow and Lenoir. Glasgow was 
changed in 1799, to Greene. 

X Father of Hon. Wm. H. Battle. 

^ Tryon was divided in 1791, into Lincoln and Rutherford. 


Towns.— Bath, William Brown ; Edenton, Joseph Hewes ; Newbern, Ab- 
ner Nash;* Wilmiugton, Cornelius Ilarnet ; Halifax, Wilie Jones ; Hillsboro', 
William Johnston ; Salisbury, David Nesbit ; Campbelton, Arthur Council. 

Allen Jones proposed Samuel Johnston for President, Tvho 
■was unanimously chosen. 

James Green was appointed Secretary, John Hunt, assistant, 
and Francis Lynaugh and Evan Swann, Door Keepers. 

Six Brigadier Generals were created at this session, viz. : on the 
22d of April. 

John Ashe, for the District of Wilmington. 

Edward Vail, " " Edenton. 

Richard Caswell, " " Newbern. 

Allen Jones, " " Halifax. 

Thomas Person, " " Hillsboro'. 

Griffith Rutherford, " " Salisbury. 

Four regiments in addition to the two already raised were 
created, and as the colonels of these, James Moore and Robert 
Howe, had been promoted to the rank of Brigadier Generals in the 
Continental Army, the following appointments were then made : — 

Regiments. Colonels. Lieut. Colonels. Majors. 

1st. Francis Nash.f Thomas Clarke, William Davis. 

2d. Alexander Martin, John Patton, John White. 

3d. Jethro Sumner, William Alston, Samuel Lockhart. 

4th. Thomas Polk, James Thackston, William Davidson. 

5th. Edvrard Buncombe, Henry Irwin, Levi Dawson. 

6th. Alex'r Lillington, William Taylor, Gideon Lamb. 

The other officers of the 1st and 2d Regiments, have already 

been recorded. The following were appointed captains in the re- 
maining regiments : — 

3d Reg't. 1st. William Brinkley. 2d. Pinkithan Eaton. 

3d. John Gray. 4th. William Barrot. 

5th. Jacob Turner. 6th. George Grandbury. 

7th. James Cook. 8th. James Ennet. 

4th. Reg't. 1st. Roger Moore. 2d. John Ashe. 

3d. Jerome McLean. 4th. Robert Smith. 

5th. William Temple Cole. 6th. Thomas Harris. 

7th. Joseph Phillips. 8th. John Nelson. 

Dr. Robert Hall, Chirurgeon of 3d Regiment ; Dr. Hugh Boyd, 
4th Regiment ; Dr. Samuel Cooley, 5th Regiment ; Dr. Wm. Mc 
Clure, 6th Regiment. 

Paymasters. — James Hogan, of 3d Regiment, also of the three 
companies of Light Horse ; Samuel Ashe, 1st Regiment ; Jacob 
Blount, 2d Regiment ; Hezekiah Alexander, 4th Regiment ; Thomas 
Benbury, 5th Regiment ; Nathaniel Rochester, 6th Regiment. 

Commissaries. — William Kennon, 1st Regiment ; Robert Salter, 
2d Regiment ; John Webb, 3d Regiment ; Ransom Southerland, 4th 
Regiment; Peter Mallet, 5th Regiment; Thomas Hart, 6th Regi- 

* Father of Hon. Frederick Nash. t ^'^^cle of the same. 


Officers of the Battalions ordered to be raised, appointed by the 
House : — 

Edenton District — Peter Simon and John Pugh Williams, Captains ; An- 
drew Duke and Thomas Witmel Pugh, 1st Lieutenants ; Nehemiah Long and 
Joseph Clayton, 2d Lieutenants ; Benjamin Bailey and Elisha Rhodes, En- 
signs ; Jerome McLaine, Thomas Grandbury, and Kedar Ballard, Captains ; 
Jacob Pollock and John Grandbury, 1st Lieutenants ; Whitmel Blount and 
Zephaniah Burgess, 2d Lieutenants ; Wm. Knott, Ensign ; Rodger Moore, 
Captain ; William Goodman, 1st Lieutenant; Beniajah Turner, 2d Lieutenant; 
Abel Mosslander, Ensign. 

Halifax District. — William Brinkly and Pinkithan Eaton, Captains; 
Isaac Privat and James Bradly, 1st Lieutenants; Christopher Lucky and 
Robert Washington, 2d Lieutenants ; William Etheridge and Joseph Mont- 
fort, Ensigns ; John Gray and Jacob Turner, Captains ; Joseph Clinch and 
Daniel Jones, 1st Lieutenants ; Matthew Wood and Alsop High, 2d Lieute- 
nants; William Linton and Benjamin Morgan, Ensigns. 

Hillsboro' District. — Philip Taylor and Archibald Lytle, Captains; John 
Kennon and Thomas Donoho, 1st Lieutenants ; Dempsey Moore and William 
Thompson, 2d Lieutenants ; Solomon AValker and William Lyttle, Ensigns; 
James Emmett, Captain ; William Clements, 1st Lieutenant. 

Wilmington District. — John Ashe, Jr. and John James, Captains ; Charles 
Hollingsworth and Daniel AVilliams, 1st Lieutenants ; Mark McLainy and 
John McCan, 2d Lieutenants ; David Jones and Edward Outlaw, Ensigns ; 
Griffith John McKee, Captain ; Francis Child, 1st Lieutenant. 

Newhern District. — Simon Alderson and John Enloe, Captains ; William 
Groves and George Suggs, 1st Lieutenants ; John Custin and Henry Cannon, 
2d Lieutenants; James McKenny and Shadrack Wooten, Ensigns; William 
Cassel and Reading Blount, Captains ; Henry Darnell and Benjamin Cole- 
man, 1st Lieutenants ; John Sitgreaves and John Allen, 2d Lieutenants ; 
John Bush and Thomas Blount, Ensigns; Benjamin Stedman, Captain; Robert 
Turner, 1st Lieutenant; John Eborn, 2d Lieutenant ; Charles Stewart, Ensign. 

Salisbury District. — Robert Smith and William Temple Cole, Captains ; 
William Brownfield and James Carr, 1st Lieutenants; William Caldwell and 
David Craig,* 2d Lieutenants ; Thomas McClure and Joseph Patton, Ensigns ; 
Thomas Haines and Jesse Saunders, Captains ; Thomas Picket and William 
Clover, 1st Lieutenants ; John Madaris and Pleasant Henderson,! 2d Lieute- 
nants ; John Morpis and Thomas Grant, Ensigns; William Ward, Captain; 
Christopher Gooding, 2d Lieutenant; John Whitley, 1st Lieutenant; Richard 
Singletary, Ensign; Willis Pope, 2d Lieutenant; John Hopson, Ensign; 
George Mitchell and Austin Council, Captains ; Amos Love and Thomas 
White, 1st Lieutenants ; Benjamin Pike and Thomas Armstrong, 2d Lieute- 
nants ; Reuben Grant and Denny Porterfield, Ensigns; James Farr, 2d Lieu- 
tenant; Jamas Coots, Ensign ; Joseph Phillips and John Nelson, Captains; 
James Sheppard and William Dent, Jr., 1st Lieutenants ; Micajah Lewis 
and James Starrat, 2d Lieutenants ; William Meredith and Alex. Nelson, 
Ensigns; John Baptiste Ashe, Captain; George Dougherty, 1st Lieutenant; 
Andrew Armstrong, 2d Lieutenant ; Joshua lladley. Ensign ; James Cook, 
Captain ; Adam Hampton, 1st Lieutenant; .John Walker, Jr., 2d Lieutenant; 
Adam McFadden, Ensign, 


\st Company. — John Dickerson, Captain ; Samuel Ashe, Jr., Lieutenant ; 
Abraham Childers, Cornet. 

2d Company. — Martin Pfifer, Captain ; James Sumner, Lieutenant ; Valen- 
tine Beard, Cornet. 

'id Company. — James Jones, Captain ; Cosimo Madacy, Lieutenant; James 
Armstrong, Cornet. 

* Father of Burton Craig, Esq., of Salisbury. 

t Father of Dr. Pleasant Henderson, of Salisbury, and of Mrs. H. C. Jonea. 
















Charles Medlock, 

Thomas Eaton, 

John Bryan, 
IloUowell Williams, 
Alex'r McAllister 

Thos. Routledge, 
Exum Lewis, 

Jas. Martin, 
Willis Alston, 
Wm. Bryan, 
Mecklenburg Adam Alexander, 
New Hanover Xnihonj Ward, 
Northampton^ va.. Eaton, 
John Butler, 
Jas. Saunders, 
Thos. Boyd, 
Isaac Gregory, 
Francis Locke, 
[ C. Beckman, 

(So. Reg' t) 
(No. Reg't) 



(2d Reg't) 



(2d Reg't) 


Lieut. Colonels. 
David Love, 

Wm. Alston, 

Lemuel Hatch, 
Solo. Perkins, 
Ebenezer Folsome 

Martin Caswell, 
Simon Gray, 

1st and 2d Majors. 

I Wm. Picket, 
\ Geo. Davidson, 
j Wm. Brown, 
I Henry Bonner, 
j Thos. Sherwood, 
I Green Hill. 

f John Bryan, Jr. 
I John Tilman. 
Asahel Simmonds. 

f David Smith, 
' I Philip Alston, 
Matthew Jones. 

f Jas. Moore, 

I Robt. Dickson. 

f Wm. McKennie, 


as. Glasgow^ 

j Jonas Johnston, 

I Thos. Hunter. 

Thornton Yancy. 

f Thos. Owen, 

I Thos. Blair. 

f Jas. Hogan, 

I Sam'l Weldon. 

J Sam'l Smith, 

] John Stevens. 

John Davidson, 

Geo. A. Alexander. 

Henry Young, 

Thos. Bloodworth. 

T i,i.i, AiU *. f Howell Edmunds, 

JephthaAtherton, { prury Gee. 

f Robt. Abercrombie, 
I Hugh Tennen. 
( John Paine, 
I Thos. Hatrison. 
■ Othneil Lascelles, 

John Paisley, 
David Sumner, 
John Smith, 
John Phifer, 

N. Rochester, 
Wm. Moore, 
Spencer Ripley, 
Dempsy Burgess, 
Alex'r Dobbins, 
Chas. McDowell, 


Clement Crook, 
Thos. Beatty, 

John Casey. 
Joshua Campbell, 
Peter Daugh. 
Jas. Brannon, 
Jas. Smith. 
Hugh Brevard, 
Geo. Wilfong. 
Jos. Winston, 
Jesse Walton. 
Jos. Spruill, 
Andrew Long. 
Jacob Costner. 

Jas. Long, 
A. Hampton, 

This finished the military organization of the State. The names 
of these men are preserved, that they be known, as men who, in 
"times that tried men's souls," stood up for their country and our 

This body passed April 12th, 1776, the follo^iDg resolution 

unanimously : — 


''Besolved, That the Delegates from this Colony in the Con- 
tinental Congress be impowered to concur with the delegates from 
the other colonies, in declaring Independence and forming foreign 
alliances; reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of 
forming a constitution and laws for this colony." 

This showed the spirit of North Carolina, and proves that more 
than two months before the event was declared in Congress, that 
she was ready as a State to dissolve the bands that bound her to 
the mother country. 

On the 1st of May, William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and 
John Penn, were appointed delegates to the Continental Congress. 

And these names are signed to the Declaration of Independence, 
4th of July, 1776. It is not very flattering to our State pride 
that not one of these were natives of the State. 

William Hooper, from Wilmington, was born in Boston, June 
17th, 1742, a lawyer by profession, and an able writer. He died 
in October 1790. 

Joseph Hewes, from Edenton, born in New Jersey, in 1735, a 
merchant. Died November 10th, 1779. 

John Penn, from Granville, born in Caroline County, Virginia, 
May 17th, 1741, a lawyer. He died in September, 1788. 

Every member from Virginia, and every member from South 
Carolina, who signed the Declaration, were natives of their re- 
spective States. 

The House, on the 11th, made choice of one, and the members 
from the districts of twelve persons to serve as 

Wilie Jones, Chairman. 
f James Coor, 

Mu-hem I John Simpson. 

■m , f Thomas Jones, 

Udenton | whitmel Hill. 

rj j.f (Thomas Eaton, 

Malijax I Joseph j^hn Williams. 

-rrrn ■ . f Comelius Harnett, 
Wdmmgton | gamuel Ashe. 

\ John Hand. 

CI T ^ f Ilezekiah Alexander, 

Salisbury | ^^j^j^^ ^^^^^^^ 

The formation of a Constitution engaged the attention of this 

On the 28th of April, the House had under consideration certain 
resolutions as a foundation for a civil government. But the more 
urgent business of preparing the State for defence from the enemy, 
so engrossed the attention of the Assembly that the matter was post- 
poned until the next meeting of the delegates. 

On the 14th of May, 1776, this body adjourned. 

The Council of Safety met at Wilmington, on the 5th of 
June, 1776. Cornelius Harnett was again chosen President, and 
James Glasgow, and James Green, Jr., Secretaries. Measures to 
put down the Tories chiefly occupied their attention. 

Early in July, Gen. Rutherford, at the head of nineteen hundred 
men, crossed the ^Mountains against the Cherokees. He was accom- 



panied by Benjamin Cleaveland, of Wilkes, as one of his Captains, 
and William Lenoir,* of the same county. He was harassed on 
his march by the savages lying in ambush ; no general action en- 
sued. He succeeded in vanquishing them without serious loss, 
destroyed their crops and provisions, laid waste their farms, and 
compelled them to sue for peace, f 

The Council of Safety met in July, 1776, at Halifax. 

On the 22d of July, the Declaration of Independence reached 
them. The council unanimously resolved " that the committee of the 
respective counties and towns in this State, on receiving the Decla- 
ration of Independence, do cause the same to be proclaimed in the 
most public manner." 

The Council set apart the first day of August, as a day for pro- 
claiming the Declaration at the Court House in Halifax. 

It was a proud day for the ancient borough. 

" And Belgium's capital had gathered then 
Her beauty and her chivalry." 

Bright shone the glorious sun, as if nature rejoiced at the birth 
of a mighty nation ; at noon, Cornelius Harnett ascended a stage 
in front of the court house, and read the words of that instrument, 
that so many millions have since heard, which gave life to our own 
nation, and has proved a beacon of liberty to others. 

When he had finished, the people gave one long united shout of 
joy, the loud cannon responded, and the glorious tidings was pro- 
claimed, that "these Colonies were, and ought to be, sovereign, 
free, and Independent States." 

And here ends the first series of these sketches. 

* See the Biography of Gen. Lenoir, Wilkes, vol. ii."chap, Ixxx. 
t See Biography of Gen, Eutherford, Rowan, vol. ii. chap. Ixvii. 




The Constitution, by whom, when, and where formed — Congress of the State 
meets at Halifax, on the 12th of November, 1776 — Names of the members 
— Richard Caswell, President — Committee appointed to form a Constitu- 
tion — Names of committee — Richard Caswell elected Governor, and the 
names of the Council of State. 

North Carolina early took steps to organize a civil form of 

Before the Declaration of Independence by Congress at Phila- 
delphia, the Provincial Congress of North Carolina, then assembled 
at Halifax (on the 13th of April, 1776), appointed a committee of 
its ablest men to prepare a civil constitution. This was no easy 
duty. To take up arms, and to contend against tyranny and op- 
pression, was not difficult ; but to create a new government, based 
upon principles distinct and different from all the forms to which 
the people had been accustomed ; to give to the hand of power that 
strength which was necessary for the full execution of the law, and 
at the same time prevent oppression ; to reserve to the people all 
their proper rights, and yet check anarchy and confusion ; demanded 
great sagacity. 

The committee, consisting of such men as Samuel Johnston, Cor- 
nelius Harnett, Samuel Ashe, William Hooper and others, could not 
agree upon any form of a constitution ; and after much debate and 
frequent postponements, in this body, the question was adjourned 
by the appointment of Thomas Burke, Richard Caswell, and others 
as a committee to propose a temporary form of government until 
the next session." 

The system of the Council of Safety was adopted, and the Coun- 
cil recommended to the people to elect, on the 15tli of October, 
delegates to a Congress appointed to assemble at Halifax, on the 
12th of November following, which was "not only to make laws, 
but also to form a Constitution which was to be the corner-stone 
of all law ; and, as it was well or ill ordered, would tend to the 
happiness or misery of the State." 



This body met at the time and place recommended. 
The following delegates appeared: — 


1. Anson 

2. Beaufort 

3. Bladen 

4. Bertie 

5. Brunswick 

6. Bute 

7. Craven 

8. Carteret 

9. Currituck 

10. Chowan 

11. Cumberland 

12. Chatham 

13. IJofefts 

14. Duplin 

15. Edgecombe 

16. Granville 

17. Guilford 

18. ^?/(fe 

19. Hertford 

20. Halifax 

21. Johnston 

22. Mecklenburg 

23. iforzliw 

24. ^ew Hanover 

25. Northampton 

26. Onslow 

27. Orange 

J Thomas Wade, David Love, William Picket, George 
I Davidson, Charles Robertson. 

I John Barrow, Thomas Respiss, Thomas Respiss, Jr., 
[ Francis Jones, Robert Tripp. 

f Thomas Pugh, John Johnston, William Gray, Noah 

I Hinton, Zedekiah Stone. 

I Maurice Moore, Cornelius Harnett, Archibald McLean, 

I Lewis Dupree, William Lord. 

I James Denton, Thomas Eaton, Philemon Hawkins, 

I Benjamin Sewall, Benjamin Ward. 

[James Coor, William Bryan, John Bryan, Christopher 

I Neale, John Tilghman. 

( Solomon Shepard, Brice Williams, William Borden, 

\ John Easton, Thomas Chadwick. 

I Samuel Jarvis, James White, Kedar Merchant, Hol- 

( lowell Williams, Thomas Williams. 

I James Blount, Thomas Benbury, Thomas Jones, Luke 

( Sumner, Jacob Hunter. 

Ambrose Ramsey, John Birdsong, Mial Scurlock, 
Isaiah Hogan, Jeduthan Harper. 

Richard Caswell, Simon Bright, Abraham Sheppard, 

Benjamin Exum, Andrew Bass. 
' James Kenan, Thomas Gray, William Dickson, Wil- 
liam Taylor, James Gillaspie. 

William Haywood, Elisha Battle, Jonas Johnston, Isaac 

Sessums, William Horn. 
' Thomas Person, Robert Lewis, Memucan Hunt, Thorn- 
ton Yancey, John Oliver. 

David Caldwell, Joseph Hinds, Ralph Gorrell, Charles 

Bruce, Isham Browder. 
' Joseph Hancock, John Jordan, Benjamin Parmerle, 
William Russel, Abraham Jones. 

Lawrence Baker, William Murfree, Robert Sumner, 
Day Ridley, James Wright. 

John Bradford, James Hogan, AVillis Alston, Samuel 
Weldon, Benjamin McCulloch. 

Needham Bryan, Jr., Samuel Smith, Jr., John Stevens, 
Henry Rains, Alexander Averyt. 

John Pfifer, Robert Irwin, Zaccheus Wilson, Hezekiah 
Alexander, Waightstill Avery. 

William Williams, Whitmell Hill, Thomas Hunter, 
John Hardison, Samuel Smithwick. 

John Ashe, Samuel Ashe, John Devane, Sampson 
Mosely, John IloUingsworth. 

Allen Jones, Jephtha Atherton, James Ingram, How- 
ell Edmunds, Robert Peaples. 

John Spicer, Thomas Johnston, Benejah Doty, Edward 
Starkey, Henry Rhodes. 

James Saunders, William Moore, John McCabe, John 
Atkinson, John Paine.* 

* These seats were vacated, and on the 16th of December, 1776, Thomas 
Burke, Nathaniel Rochester, Alexander Mebane, John Butler, and John , 
McCabe, took their seats from Orange. 


Counties. Members. 

28 Prrmnmnn', J Benjamin Harvey, Miles Harvey, Thomas Harvey, 
zo. j-etquimans , ^yjnj^^^ Hooper, William Skinner. 

29. Pasquotank \ ^^^^ ^'^^^*' l^evotion Davis, Isaac Gregory, Demsey 

^ ( Uurgess, Lemuel oawyer. 

oQ p-f, (Benjamin May, William Robson, James Gorham, 

( George Evans, Edward Salter. 
31 Poi a i Griffith Rutherford, Matthew Lock, William Sharpe, 

I James Smith, John Brevard. 
32. Surry 

90 ji .11 ( Peter Wynn, Jeremiah rrazier,Isham Webb, Stephens 

'^ ' " 1 Lee, Benjamin Blount. 

nA rp, (Joseph Harden, Robert Abernathy, William Graham, 

•' 1 AVilliam Alston, John Barber. 

"^^ TV hfi \ '^'^?<^^^ Jones, James Jones, Michal Rogers, John Rice, 

I Britain Fuller, W^illiam Brown. 

Towns. — Bath, Parker Quince ; Brunswick, Thomas Hadley ; Campbelton, 
Joseph Hewes ; Edenton, Willie Jones; Halifax, William Johnston; Hills- 
boro', Abner Nash ; Newbern, David Nisbet; Salisbury, William Hooper ; 

On motion of Allen Jones, Richard Caswell was elected president 
of the body. 

On the 13th, a committee was appointed consisting of Mr. Caswell, Thomas 
Person, Allen Jones, John Ashe, Abner Nash, Willie Jones, Thomas Jones, 
Mr. Bright, Mr. Neale, Samuel Ashe, Mr. Haywood, Gen. Rutherford, Mr. 
Abbot, Luke Sumner, Thomas Respiss, Jr., Mr. McLean, Mr. Hogan, and 
Mr. Alexander, to form a bill of rights, and constitution for the State. 

Mr. Hewes, Mr. Harnett, Mr. Sharpe, Mr. Spear, Mr. Avery, Mr. Eaton, 
Birdsong, Irwin, Hill, and Coor, were added afterwards. 

On the 6th of December, Thomas Jones reported that the form 
of the constitution was ready. 

On the 18th, the Constitution with the Bill of Rights was adopted ; 
it was believed to be the production of Thomas Jones, Thomas Burke, 
and Richard Caswell. 

By an ordinance of this body the following officers were elected : — 

Richard Caswell, Governor of the State. 
James Glasgow, Secretary of State. 

Cornelius Harnett, Edward Starkey, 

Thomas Person, Joseph Leech, 

William Day, Thomas Eaton, 

William Haywood, Counsellors of State. 

Thus was the good old ship fairly launched upon the ocean of 
existence, under the auspices of patriotism. The debates that 
occurred, the difficulties encountered, the trials and conflicts of dif- 
ferent vieAvs, are not recorded here. Our book is intended to be 
one of facts, carefully examined and correctly stated. 

But at this point of our labors, we cannot but pause, and admire 
the form of that constitution, that introduced system in " an un- 
tried state of being" — order, where before chaos existed. That it 
was not perfect, is certainly true, for it was amended by the people 
since (1835), and will be again. But the great principles it incul- 
cates, the spirit of liberty it breathes, the trials of those who aided 


its establisliment, command alike our respect, gratitude and ad- 

" Thou too, sail on, ship of State, 
Sail on, Union ! strong and great ; 
Humanity, with all its fears. 
With all the hope of future years, 
Is hanging breathless on thy fate ! 
We know what masters laid thy keel, 
What workmen wrought thy ribs of steel, 
Who made each mast, and sail, and rope, 
What anvils rang, what hammers beat, 
In what a forge, in what a heat 
Were shaped the anchors of thy hope." 


Life, character, services, and death of Richard Caswell, first Governor of 
North Carolina under the Constitution. 

Richard Caswell was born in Maryland on the 3d of August, 

From tlie pecuniary mishaps of his father, who was a respecta- 
ble merchant, he was early thrown upon his own resources. By 
nature bold, ardent and ambitious, such difficulties, instead of 
embarrassing, only added energy to his character. 

At the age of seventeen, in 1746, he left his home to seek his 
fortunes in the then colony of North Carolina. Rearing letters to 
Gov. Johnston, the royal governor, from the Governor of Maryland, 
he was fortunate to receive aid from him by employment in one of 
the public offices. 

Subsequently, he was appointed deputy surveyor of the colony, 
and clerk of Orange County Court.* By his enterprise, industry, 
and prudence, he soon acquired fame, friends, and fortune. 

He located in Lenoir County (then Dobbs County), and^ united 
himself in marriage with Mary Mcllweane. She died, leaving one 
son, William. 

He afterwards married Sarah, the daughter of Wm. Herritage, 
an eminent attorney, under whom he had studied law. He had 
obtained a license and practiced the profession with great success. 
His first appearance on the political stage was as member of the 
Colonial Assembly, from Johnston County, in 1754. 

So acceptable were his services that he continued to represent 
the county until 1771. 

^ Extract from records of Orange County, 12th June, 1753. 

•'Richard Caswell, gentleman, brings into court a commission from the lion, 
James Murrah, Esq., Secretary and Clerk of the Crown of said Province, ap- 
pointing him Clerk of the said County, and Clerk of the Peace, which, being 
allowed, he took the several oaths, and subscribed the test." 


In 1770 and 1771 he was chosen speaker of the House of Com- 

He was also colonel of the militia of his county, and as such 
commanded the right wing of Gov. Tryon's forces in the hattle of 
Alamance (16th May, 1771), which was the first time that he ex- 
perienced the conflict of arms, which was so congenial to his tem- 
per, and in which he became so distinguished. 

When the attempts of England to subjugate the colony became 
no longer doubtful, Caswell did not hesitate to choose between 
the rights of the people and the oppressions of sovereignty. In 
1774 he was appointed one of the delegates to Congress, with Wm. 
Hooper and John Hewes. He attended as delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress, at Philadelphia, in 1774-5-6, and received the 
thanks of the Provincial Congress for his fidelity. On being 
appointed, with Samuel Johnston (in Sept., 1775), one of the 
treasurers of the State, the disordered finances of which demanded 
his care, he resigned his seat in the Continental Congress. 

But his military spirit was not inactive. In conjunction with 
Colonel Lillington, he assembled the minute men of Dobbs (of 
which he was Colonel) and the adjacent counties, to prevent the 
junction of the Tories under Gen. McDonald with Gen. Clinton, 
in the Cape Fear, and in the battle at Moore's Creek, in New 
Hanover, on the 27th of February, 1776, he overcame and routed 
them, took their general prisoner, and completely subdued them. 

In April, 1776, he was appointed, by the Provincial Congress, 
Brigadier General of the Newborn District, and in November 
following, took his seat as a member of the Provincial Congress at 
Halifax. He was elected President of that body, unanimously, 
which assembly formed our present State Constitution. 

He received the thanks of the Congress for his gallantry at 
Moore's Creek. By an ordinance of the same, was elected Gover- 
nor of the State, which he held during the stormy and perilous pe- 
riods of 1776, 1777, and 1778. He refused any compensation for 
his services. 

He conducted, with singular fidelity, the State through his term 
as Chief Magistrate. After his' term as Governor had expired, his 
active spirit brooked no repose, for we find him seconding the friends 
of liberty on the field of battle, and was with the North Carolina 
troops at Camden (16th August, 1780), which had not terminated 
so disastrously to America, and the fame of General Gates, had 
the councils of Caswell and De Kalb (who fell in that ill-fated con- 
flict) been heeded. 

In 1782, he was called again to the financial department of the 
State, and was elected Comptroller-General, at the session of which 
he was Speaker of the Senate. 

He continued the discharge of both duties, until 1785, when he 
was ao-ain elected Governor of the State; a circumstance which 
proves the unbounded popularity of Caswell, and the grateful esti- 
mate of his patriotic services by the State. 


The General Assembly of 1787 elected him a delegate to the con- 
vention which was to meet at Philadelphia in May, that year, to 
form the Federal Constitution ; and conferred on him the extraor- 
dinary power, in case of his inability to attend, to select his succes- 
sor. This important trust was not accepted by him ; but he dele- 
gated Wm. Blount, whose name is appended to that instrument. 

In 1789, he was elected Senator from the County of Dobbs (now 
Lenoir and Greene) to the General Assembly, and also a member 
of the State Convention, which assembled in Fayetteville on the 
third Monday in November, 1789, which ratified the Federal Con- 
stitution (it having been rejected by a Convention which met at 
Hillsboro' on the 21st of July, 1788). 

He attended the meeting of the General Assembly at Fayetteville 
in November, and was elected Speaker of the Senate. But his 
course was run. His exalted services and patriotic exertions did not 
exempt him from calamity and misfortune. His youngest son was 
lost at sea, on his passage from Charleston to Newbern. This 
calamity was heightened by the opinion that he was captured by 
pirates and murdered. This, and other events, threw a cloud over 
his mind, from which he seemed never to have recovered. While 
presiding in the Senate on the 5th of November, 1789, he was struck 
with paralysis ; and after lingering speechless, until the 10th, he 
expired, in the sixtieth year of his age. ^^•■ifc--^i-* 

Messrs. Blount, Skinner, and Bloodworth, of the Senate, and 
Messrs. Davie, Stokes, Blount, Locke, Hawkins, and Person, of the 
House, were appointed a Committee of Arrangements to superin- 
tend his funeral ; an eulogium was pronounced over his remains, 
and his body was conveyed to his family burial-place in Lenoir, 
and there interred. 

These facts, with an examination of his acts and services, will 
afford some future pen an opportunity of writing the biography 
of the first Governor of North Carolina under our constitution, 
and the Annals of our State, commencing from his military career 
in 1771, at Alamance, to the close of the Revolutionary war. 

His character does not claim the meed of distinguished literary 
renown, or brilliant eloquence ; but his acquirements were extensive, 
and his knowledge deep and accurate. Nathaniel Macon, who had 
been in Congress during the days of Washington, Adams, Jeffer- 
son, Madison, and Monroe, to the time of Jackson, declared in 
the convention of 1835, that " Governor Caswell, of Lenoir, was one 
of the most powerful men that ever lived in this or any other coun- 
try."* It is recorded of him that he committed to memory the 
whole four books of Blackstone, so as to be able to recite accurate- 
ly any portion of the text from memory, verbatim. 

As a statesman, his patriotism was unquestioned, his discern- 
ment was quick, and his judgment sound ; as a soldier, his courage 
■was undaunted, his vigilance untiring, his success triumphant, 

* Cotton, Life of Macon, 178. 


His character and his career, more than any of our revolution- 
ary worthies, resembles that of the Father of his country. 

Like Washington, his early education was rather solid than showy ; 
for both in early life were employed as surveyors. 

Like Washington, when loyalty was a duty consistent with liberty, 
he fought for the authorities of the country, for both were in the 
field under the royal banners, and both as colonels of regiments: 
the one under Braddock, the other under Tryon at Alamance. 

Both refused from the State any compensation for their services. 
Both were always equal to every position in which they were placed, 
and faithfully discharged every trust committed to their charge. 

Providence assigned to one a higher and more conspicuous posi- 
tion. If Virginia is proud of Washington, North Carolina may 
justly be proud of her Caswell. 

" How sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
With all their country's honors blest! 
When Spring, with dewy lingers cold, 
Returns to deck their hallowed mould, 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod. 

By fairy hands their knell is rung, 

By forms unseen their dirge is sung ; 
^^^^^^There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray, 
^"^"^^xo bless the turf that wraps their clay; 

And Freedom shall awhile repair. 

And dwell a weeping hermit there." 

Durincr the administration of Governor Caswell, the western dis- 
trict of North Carolina revolted and formed a separate govern- 
ment, independent of the State. As this event has escaped the 
notice of every author of her history, and is full of incident 
deeply interesting, we give it a separate chapter. 


State of Frankland, its rise, progress, and fall. 

It may strike the reader of the present day with some surprise 
that there was once a State called Frankland, in honor of Benjamin 
Franklin, the philosopher and patriot. Of its history, much is re- 
corded, but, perhaps, little is known in the present day. It may 
be curious as well as instructive, to trace the origin, rise, and down- 
fall of this ancient sovereignty. 

By the charter of Charles II., granted to the Earl of Clarendon, 
Duke of Albemarle, Lord Craven, and others, in 1663, all the ter- 
ritory from the Virginia line on the north, to the south as far as 
the Biver Matthias, in Florida; from the Atlantic on the east, "to 


fhe west, as far as the South Seas, was given and granted to have, 
use, and enjoy, and in as ample manner as any Bishop of Durham, 
in our kingdom of England, ever heretofore have held, used, or 
enjoyed, to them, the said Earl of Clarendon and others, and their 
heirs forever." 

Without any examination into the title of "the right merrie 
monarch," Charles II., to grant this munificent domain, as perhaps 
it might appear as defective as the title of another royal character 
in Sacred History,* who took our Saviour up into an exceeding 
high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and 
the glory of them, and said unto him, "All these things will I give 
thee," when his majesty had not a single foot for himself; yet we 
cannot but remark, on examination of the map, that the present 
territory of the United States, in her recent acquisitions by treaty, 
from Mexico, just comprehend the chartered limits of ancient Caro- 
lina in 1663. 

As once this lovely domain belonged to our country, it is but 
natural that it should seek its original position. It is stated by 
some writer, when analyzing the affections of our natures, that the 
love we bear to the softer sex is only a just effort of man's nature 
to reunite to himself that portion of him, which, during sleep, was 
taken from him ; and again "they twain shall be one flesh." 

May not fancy carry out the analogy to nations as well as 
natures ? 

For a long time, under the rule of the Lords Proprietors, the 
dominion only extended over Albemarle County. In 1664, the 
county extended from the Virginia line north to Cape Fear River 
on the south, and skirting along the sea coast, extended only a 
short distance west. 

In 1729, when the Lords Proprietors surrendered to the crown 
(except Lord Granville) all their" franchises and rights, under 
charter of Charles II., the precincts of North Carolina were Curri- 
tuck, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Chowan, Craven, Beaufort, Bertie, 
Hyde, and Carteret.* 

Their territory was then nearly as it now exists. This is stated 
on the authority of Williamson, f A more accurate author, as to 
the dates and facts, makes a primary division of the State into 
three Precincts. | 

I. Albemarle, including Currituck, Pasquotank, Chowan, Ber- 
tie, and Tyrrell. 

II. Bath, including Beaufort, Hyde, Craven, and Carteret. 

III. Clarendon, in which was New Hanover, comprehended the 
whole western part of North Carolina and Tennessee, then, an un- 
known land, inhabited only by savages and beasts of prey. 

Whatever may have been the chartered rights of North Carolina, 

* Matthew, iv. 8. _ . 

t Williamson's History of North Carolina, vol. ii. 246. 
X Martin, i, 303. 


in 1776, she only claimed jurisdiction as far west as the Mississippi 

Even this claim, from the great distance of the seat of govern- 
ment, the natural barrier of almost impenetrable mountains, rapid 
and deep rivers, and the savage natives, was never fully exercised, 
and was destined to be surrendered by her. 

The close of the Revolutionary War found the United States 
involved in heavy responsibilities. Harassed by debt, importuned 
by creditors, and conscious of the justice of these claims. Congress 
devised many plans ; one was to solicit the States, owning vacant 
lands, to throw them into common stock to pay off this common 
debt of justice, honor, and gratitude. 

This appeal did not fall idly on the State of North Carolina, 
alive as she always has been to the calls of justice; and indignant 
at the least suspicion of repudiation or perfidy. 

In 1784, the General Assembly in April, at Hillsboro', among 
other acts for the relief of the general government, ceded her west- 
ern lands, and authorized her dele2;ation in Congress to execute a 
deed ; provided. Congress would accept this offer within two years. 
This act, patriotic and self-sacrificing, was worthy of the State ; 
and although not then accepted by Congress, vras the real source 
of the civil commotion Avhich we are about to record. 

The fearless pioneers of the west, who had gone to the wilder- 
ness, had suffered incredible hardships. Many were murdered by 
the savages ; some had their wives and children massacred ; and all 
had suffered in privation and property. 

They viewed with much suspicion the act of 1784 ; and on the 23d 
August, 1784, a convention met at Jonesboro', of which John 
Sevier was chosen president, and Langdon Carter, clerk. They 
resolved that a person be dispatched to Congress to press the ac- 
ceptance of the offer of North Carolina, and adjourned to meet 
again at the court house, in Washington County, on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1784. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina met at Newborn on 
the 22d October, 1784, and repealed the act of the former session, 
in consequence of which the convention at Jonesboro' broke up in 

On the 14th of December, 1784, when the people were assembled 
at Jonesboro', John Sevier mounted the steps, and read a letter 
from Joseph Martin, who had just returned from the General As- 
sembly of North Carolina, which informed them that the Legisla- 
ture had granted to the people of western North Carolina a general 
court, formed their militia into a brigade, appointed him a brigadier 
general, and repealed the cession act of last session. " Our griev- 
ances," said he, "are redressed, and we have nothing more to com- 
plain of ; my advice is to cease all efforts to separate from North 
Carolina, but remain firm and faithful to her laws." 

This history forms but another example in our career, that " re- 
volutions take no hachivard step.'' Feeble hands or feebler heads 


may set a ball in motion, which will prostrate all who oppose its 
career, and if it, as in Sevier's case, gives a momentary elevation, 
ends in the final overthrow and disgrace of its projectors. 

The spirit of the people was roused. In December 14th, 1784, 
a convention of five delegates from each county met at Jonesboro'. 
John Sevier was made president of this convention. They formed 
a constitution for the State of Frankland, which was to be re- 
jected or received by another body, "fresh from the people," to 
meet at Grreenville in November, 1785. This body met at the 
time and place appointed ; the constitution was ratified ; Langdon 
Carter was Speaker of the Senate ; William Cage Speaker of the 
House of Commons. John Sevier was chosen Governor ; David 
Campbell, Joshua Gist, and John Henderson, Judges of the Supe- 
rior Court. Other officers, civil and military, were appointed. 

The General Assembly of the State of Frankland, by a commu- 
nication signed by both speakers, informed Richard Caswell, Esq., 
Governor of North Carolina, that the people of the counties of 
Washington, Sullivan, and Greene, had declared themselves sove- 
reign, and independent of the State of North Carolina. 

Governor Caswell was a soldier and a statesman. He was not 
of a temper to brook such high-handed measures. He issued, on 
the 25th of April, 1785, his proclamation "against this lawless 
thirst for power." 

In this paper, written with great force and perspicuity, he states 
that the act of cession had been repealed ; its repeal voted for by 
those now engaged in the present revolt ; that the authority of North 
Carolina, executive, judicial, and legislative, had exercised a tender 
regard for the people of the west ; and had granted them judges to 
decide on their property and rights, and military officers to protect 
them. He denounced the revolt as a rank usurpation, the general 
government deriving no benefit (the object of the cession act of 
1784) ; the revenues of North Carolina had been seized, and the 
authority of law defied. These measures would bring down ruin to 
themselves and dishonor to the country. He warned all persons 
concerned in this revolt to return to their duty and allegiance to 
the State, and pay no obedience to the self-created authority of 
Frankland, unknown to the constitution and unsanctioned by law. 
He closed by informing them that the General Assembly of North 
Carolina would soon be in session, before Avhich all these unlawful 
acts would be laid ; advising them to bring forward their grievances 
then, let their terms of separation be known, their proportion of 
the public debt acknowledged, and such plans as were consistent 
with the honor of the State would generally be granted. But, if 
this advice wq-s not heeded, "they might be assured that the spirit 
of North Carolina was not so damped, or her resources so exhausted, 
that means, even to blood, would be resorted to to reclaim her re- 
fractory citizens, and preserve her dignity and honor." 

But the state of Frankland did not heed this Avarning, so properly 
expressed, and so dignified in its character and tone. It proceeded 


to erect new counties, levy taxes, appropriate money, form treaties 
with the Indians, and exercise all the powers and prerogatives of a 
Sovereign State- 
Mr. Cage was elected treasurer, and Stokely Doncldson, sur- 
veyor ; Daniel Kennedy and William Cocke, generals, and the lat- 
ter (William Cocke), to represent their case to the Congress of the 
United States. The imposing parade of office, the host of new offi- 
cers, and their dignities and powers, were formidable obstacles to 
the restoration of the rule of North Carolina.* 

The scarcity of money was severely felt. The salary of the 
governor was £200, annually ; a judge, <£150 ; the treasurer, £40 ; 
to be paid from the treasury. The taxes were to be paid into 
the treasury, in the circulating medium of Frankland, such as they 
had, viz. : — " Good flax linen ten hundred, at three shillings and 
six pence per yard ; good clean beaver skins, six shilhngs each ; 
raccoon and fox skins, at one shilling and three pence ; deer skins, 
six shillings ; bacon at six pence per lb. ; tallow at six pence ; good 
whiskey, at two shillings and sixpence a gallon." 

This has given rise to some humor at the expense of the State 
of Frankland. It was referred to, in debate in our House of Com- 
mons, 1827, by II. C. Jones, and in Congress some years ago by 
the Honorable Daniel Webster ; which was replied to by Honorable 
Hugh L. White. It was pleasantly stated that the salaries of the 
governor and judges were paid in fox skins, and the fees of the 
sheriff and constables, in mink skins, and that the governor, the 
sheriffs and constables were compelled to receive the skins at the 
established price. 

Even this primitive currency was, by the ingenuity of man, 
extensively counterfeited, by sewing raccoon tails to opossum skins ; 
opOssum skins being worthless, and abundant, and raccoon skins 
were valued by law, at one shilling and three pence. 

As a necessary consequence, public opinion was divided between 
the advocates of the new State, and the adherents to the State of 
North Carolina. 

The General Assembly of North Carolina, assembled at Newbern, 
in November, 1785, passed an act, to bury into oblivion the conduct 
of Frankland, provided they returned to their allegiance, and ap- 
pointed elections to be held in the different counties for members to 
the General Assembly of North Carolina, and also appointed civil 
and military officers to support those already appointed. The next 
year, 1786, presented a strange state of affairs ; two empires ex- 
tended at the same time over the same territory, and over the same 

Courts were held by both governments, military officers appoint- 
ed by both, to exercise the same powers. John Tipton headed 
the party for North Carolina, and John Sevier, the Frankland 

* History of Tennessee by Haywood, 150. 


Provocation on one side, was followed by outrage on the other, 
which was repelled with greater violences. Court was held at Buf- 
falo under authority of North Carolina, and at Jonesboro' (only ten 
miles distant) under authority of Frankland. 

While court was sitting at Jonesboro' this year, for Washington 
County, Colonel Tipton, with a party, entered the court house, 
seized the papers, and turned the justices out of the house. Colonel 
Sevier's party retaliated and turned Thomas Gurly, the clerk, out 
of court, sitting for North Carolina, in the same county. In 1786 
in Greene County, Tipton broke up a court held under authority of 

Tipton and Sevier met at Greensboro', when an altercation arose, 
and Sevier struck Tipton with a cane ; they instantly clinched,^ and, 
after several blows, were separated without much damage to either, 
or victory on either side. We are quaintly informed that had they 
been uninterrupted, the laurels acquired by Sevier on King's Mount- 
ain would have been dimmed by the stalwart arm of Tipton. This 
illustrious example was followed by their adherents, and "feats of 
broils and battle" were no uncommon occurrence. 

The next year taxes were imposed by both administrations, but 
the people most innocently pretended that they did not know to 
whom to pay ; so paid to neither. Thus deprived of one of the 
chief means of government, the aifairs of Frankland was approach- 
ing to its end. Tipton and Sevier were both residents of Wash- 
ington County. Sevier was a brave soldier ; he had proved his 
valor on King's Mountain ; but he was seduced by the allm-ements 
of office and ambition — 

" The sin whereby the angels fell." 

He applied to Dr. Franklin for advice and support ; to the Governor 
(Matthews) of Georgia, and to Virginia ; from none did he receive 
any aid or advantage. He realized, with fearful truth, the fable 
of Gay — 

" The child who many fathers share, 

Hath rarely known a father's care ; 

And he who on many doth depend, 

Will rarely ever find a friend." 

In Sept. 1787, the Legislature of Frankland met for the last time at 
Greenville. John Menifee was Speaker of the Senate, and Charles 
Robinson, Speaker of the House. They authorized the election of 
two representatives to attend the Legislature of North Carolina ; 
and one of the judges of Frankland was elected (David Campbell), 
and her treasurer (Landon Carter), the other. 

The people also, in this year, elected members. Davidson, 
Greene, Washington, Hawkins, and Sullivan, sent members to 
the General Assembly of North Carolina, which met at Tarboro' 
on the 18th of November of that year. Thus acknowledging the 
authority of North Carolina. 

Had this been done earlier, how much labor would have been 


saved, trouble, strife, and quarrels. Truly is the Divine injunction 
worthy of all acceptance :* "Agree with thine adversary quickly, 
while thou art in the way with him ; lest at any time the adversary 
deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, 
and thou be cast into prison." 

Had the party of Sevier accepted the liberal, fair, and just pro- 
position of Governor Caswell, in 1785, as stated previously, how much 
pain and trouble would have been spared to this country, and how 
much personal suffering to himself. With all his virtues, honesty, 
and former public service, he was, at this time, a doomed man. 

On the return of the members from the Assembly at Tarboro', 
in February, 1788, it was soon understood that Frankland was no 


An execution against the estate of General Sevier had been 
placed in the hands of the sheriff, and levied on his negroes o« 
Nolichucky River. These were removed, for safe keeping, to the 
house of Colonel Tipton. 

Brave in his character, obstinate and headstrong, Sevier raised 
one hundred and fifty men, and marched to Tipton's House, 
on Watauga River, eight miles east of Jonesboro'. Tipton had 
information of Sevier's design only time enough to obtain the aid 
of some fifteen friends, who were with him on Sevier's arrival. 

Sevier, with his troops and a small cannon, demanded the uncon- 
ditional surrender of Tipton and all in the house. _ Tipton had bar- 
ricaded the house, and in reply to the unceremonious demand, sent 
him word "to fire and be d d." He then sent a written sum- 
mons to surrender ; this letter Tipton forwarded forthwith to the 
Colonel of the County for aid ; this aid, through Robert and Thomas. 
Love, was promptly afforded. The house was watched closely- A 
man by the name of Webb was killed, a woman wounded in the 
shoulder, and a Mr. Vann. While, from extreme cold, Sevier's 
guards were at the fire, a large reinforcement from Sullivan County, 
under Maxwell and Pemberton, passed the guard and joined the 
beleaguered household. The moment the junction was formed, they 
sallied out with shouts ; a tremor seized the troops of Sevier, who 
fled in all directions at the first fire of Tipton. Pugh, the High 
Sheriff of Washington, was mortally wounded and many taken 
prisoners. Sevier himself escaped ; his two sons, James and John, 
were prisoners. 

The blood of Tipton was roused to such a heat that he was deter- 
mined forthwith to hang these young men. Nothing but the 
earnest supplications of his own men prevented the execution of 
this rash design. Had he at this time taken Sevier, no power of 
earth could have saved him. 

Judge Spencer, one of the judges of the State of North Carolina, 
holding court at Jonesborough, issued a bench warrant against 
Governor Sevier for high treason (1788). 

* Haywood's History of Tennessee, 177. 


In October, Colonels Tipton, Love, and others apprehended Se- 
vier at the house of Mrs. Brown, near Jonesborough. Tipton was 
armed, and swore that he would kill Sevier ; and Sevier really 
thought he would do so. Tipton was, however, with much exertion, 
pacified. Handcufis were placed upon Giovernor Sevier, and he 
was carried to Jonesborough. From thence he was carried, under 
strong guard, to Morganton, in Burke County, North Carolina, and 
delivered to William Morrison, the sherifi" of Burke. 

As he passed through Burke, Gen. Charles McDowell and Gen. 
Jos. McDowell (the latter who was with him in the battle at King's 
Mountain, and fought by his side) became his securities for a few 
days, vmtil he could see some friends. He returned punctually, 
and upon his own responsibility the sheriif allowed him time to 
procure bail. His two sons, with friends, came to Morganton pri- 
vately, and under their escort he escaped. 

Thus the career of the first and last Governor of FranMand ter- 
minated. But with all his defects, John Sevier had many virtues. 
He was fearless to a fault ; kind to his friends, and hospitable to all. 
This gave him great weight among the people, and although in the 
General Assembly of North Carolina (Fayetteville), in 1788, gen- 
eral oblivion and pardon were extended to all concerned in the late 
revolt, John Sevier was specially excepted in the act, and debarred 
from all offices of trust, honor, or profit. 

The next year (1789), so great a favorite with the people was 
Sevier, that he was elected from Greene, to represent that county 
in the Senate of the General Assembly of North Carolina. He 
appeared at Fayetteville at the time appointed for the meeting 
of the Legislature (2d Monday of November). 

Such was the sense of his worth, or his contrition for the past, 
that the Legislature passed early an act repealing the section dis- 
qualifying him from any office ; and on his taking the oath of alle- 
giance, he was allowed his seat. Thus were the difficulties settled. 

North Carolina had ever been willing to allow her daughter to 
set up for herself when of lawful age and under proper restrictions. 
Cherishing this feeling, she was never unjust towards her fair and 
lovely offspring. 

On the 25th of February, 1790, as authorized by a previous act 
of the General Assembly, passed in the year 1789, Samuel John- 
ston and Benjamin Hawkins, Senators in Congress, executed a deed 
to the United States in the words of the cession act ; and on the 
2d of April of that year, Congress accepted the deed, and Ten- 
nessee was born. 

By proclamation, dated September 1, 1790, Governor Martin 
announced that the Secretary of State for the United States, had 
transmitted to him a copy of the act of Congress, accepting the 
cession of North Carolina for this district of the western territory, 
and the inhabitants of said district "would take due notice thereof, 
and govern themselves accordingly." 

The parting of the mother and daughter, like that of all indulged 


and unruly daughters from a venerable mother, was joyful to both 
parties. Both were happier in the separation, and may both be 
equally prosperous ! 


Governors of North Carolina, from Richard Caswell, 1776, 
to David S. Reid, 185L 

1779. Abner Nash, of the County of Craven, succeeded Rich- 
ard Caswell as Governor of North Carolina, in December, 1779. 

Under the head of the county of each, the reader will find some 
sketch of the life, character and services of each, as far as the 
author has been enabled to procure information. 

1781. Thomas Burke, of Orange County, was elected in July, 

1782. Alexander Martin, of Guilford County- 
1784. Richard Caswell, of Lenoir, again. 
1787. Samuel Johnston, of Chowan County. 
1789. Alexander Martin, of Guilford, again. 
1792. Richard Dobbs Spaight, of Craven. 
1795. Samuel Ashe, of New Hanover. 

1798. William R. Davie, of Halifax. 

1799. Benjamin Williams, of Moore. 
1802. James Turner, of Warren. 

1805. Nathaniel Alexander, of Mecklenburg. 

1807. Benjamin Williams, of Moore, again. 

1808. David Stone, of Bertie. 

1810. Benjamin Smith, of Brunsmck. 

1811. William Hawkins, of Warren. 
1814. William Miller, of Warren. 
1817. John Branch, of Halifax. 

1820. Jesse Franklin, of Surry. 

1821. Gabriel Holmes, of Sampson. 
1824. HuTCHiNGS G. Burton, of Halifax. 

1827. James Iredell, of Chowan. 

1828. John Owen, of Bladen. 
1830. Montfort Stokes, of Wilkes. 
1832. David L. Swain, of Buncombe. 
1835. Richard Dobbs Spaight, of Craven. 

These were elected by the General Assembly. The convention 
of 1835, having amended the constitution, the election of the Gover- 
nor was transferred to the people, and, in August, 1836, the first 
election was held, and Edward B. Dudley, of New Hanover, was 
elected. He was inaugurated on the 1st of January, 1837. 


1841. John M. Morehead, of Guilford. 

1845. Wm. a. Graham, of Orange. 

1849. Charles Manly, of Wake. 

1851. David S. Reid, of Rockingliam. 


Judiciary of North Carolina— Its history— Lives and characters of jNIartin 
Howard, Chief Justice ; Maurice Moore; and Richard Henderson, Associate 
Judges, under the royal government — The Judges of North Carolina, from 
1776 to 1851— The Attorney-Generals, the Secretaries of State, the Trea- 
surers of State, and the Comptrollers, from 1776 to 1851 — These statistics 
are relieved by a specimen of legal vrit worthy of preservation. 

No less important than military affairs is the judicial history of 
any country. Valor may vindicate rights and redress wrongs ; but 
unless these are guarded by faithful and competent civil officers, 
the welfare of the community suffers. 

A history of the bench and bar of North Carolina, the charac- 
ter and services of the profession, would be most interesting. Of 
itself, it would fill volumes. No class of our community, during 
our revolutionary struggles, entered into the dubious and danger- 
ous contest more fearlessly than did the lawyers of that day. The 
declaration of our independence was written by a lawyer ; our ap- 
peals to the justice of the English nation w^ere written by members 
of this profession ; a majority of the first Congress were the same ; 
twenty one of the fifty-six signers to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence were lawyers ; the whole committee to Avhom the subject of 
independence was referred were lawyers, except one. In our own 
State, the early and angry discussions between the Colonial Judges 
and Governor Tryon, the exertions of Hooper and others in coun- 
cil, and Caswell, Davie, and others, in the field, prove the devo- 
tion, sincerity, and patriotism of the profession of the law. 

The colonial history of the judiciary under the proprietary and 
regal governors of North Carolina did not allow the profession that 
weight in the community that its importance merited. With des- 
potic governors, and among a vagarious and restless population, 
rules of action declaring rights and prohibiting wrongs, were but 
little regarded. 

By the fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669), drawn 
«p by John Locke, it was declared "to be a base and vile thing to 
plead for money or reward" in any of the courts of law. 

One of the complaints of the Assembly against Gov. Dobbs, in 
1760, was that he had "for the fee of four pistoles, granted 
licenses to plead law, to ignorant persons." 

Williamson informs us that to 1708, there had been but two exe- 


cutions for capital oifences in the State, and not until 1722 were 
there any court-houses in North Carolina. 

Such was the state of anarchy just before our Revolution (1773), 
that Mr. Quincy, of Boston, who was traveling through the State, 
says " that there were no courts in being. No one can recover a 
debt except before a magistrate."* 

This was owing to the conflict of opinion between Martin and 
the Assembly, as regards the power of the Governor to appoint 
judges, and the rights of the people under the attachment laws. 

Our previous pages have shown that under the proprietary go- 
vernment, in 1716, the judicial power was vested in 
I. Precinct Courts; 
II. General Courts; 

III. Courts of Chancery. 

The first was held in each precinct by four justices, appointed 
and commissioned by the Governor ; the second, by the Chief 
Justice and seven assistants ; and the third, by the Governor and 
the deputies of the Lords Proprietors. 

In 1746, under the royal government, the judiciary was remodeled, 
and " the General Court" was held twice a year by the Chief Jus- 
tice and three associates, at Newborn. 

The Chief Justice was appointed and commissioned by the Crown, 
and the Associate Judges by the Governor and Council. 

In 1767, the Province was divided. into six Judicial Districts: 
Wilmington, Newborn, Edenton, Halifax, Hillsboro, and Salisbury ; 
Courts were held twice a year in each place by the Chief Justice and 
two Associate Justices. 

County Courts were established in each and every county at the 
same time. 

The first edition of the laws was by Swann, published in 1752, 
called "yellow jacket;" the second, by Davis, in 1765; the third, 
by same, in 1773 ; the fourth, by Judge Iredell, in 1790 ; the fifth, 
by Martin, in 1803 ; the sixth, by Potter, Taylor and Yancy, in 
1821 ; the seventh, by Battle, Iredell and Nash, in 1836 ; the eighth, 
now being done under care of Hon. R. M. Saunders, Hon. Asa Biggs 
and B. F. Moore, Esq. (late Attorney-General of the State), 1851. 

Martin Howard was appointed by the crown to succeed George 
Berry, whose melancholy fate we have recorded during the admin- 
istration of Governor Tryon, as Chief Justice, and Maurice Moore 
and Richard Henderson, Associate Justices, under the act of 1767; 
these held their offices until 1773, when the law expired. From 
the altercations between the Governor and Assembly, and the troubled 
times in political matters, the courts were closed. 

" Inter arma leges silent."t 

The character of ^Tartin Howard, as it appears on the record, 
is that of a tyrant. Forced by popular indignation to fly from Rhode 

* Memoirs of Josiah Quincy, Jr., p. 123. 
f Among arms, laws are silent. 


Island, where he was one of the royal judges, he sought quiet in the 
retirement of North Carolina. 

Here he was appointed one of Governor Try on' s counsellors, and 
on the death of Judge Berry, Chief Justice of the colony, hy the 
recommendation of Tryon. He was the willing tool to " The Bloody 
Wolf of Carolina." His oppressive conduct in the trial of the 
Regulators at Hillsboro', and ferocious temper, associate him in 
history with Jeffreys, and other judicial despots. 

From Sabine's "American Loyalists,"* I learn that, in 1774, 
" Howard's judicial functions ceased, in consequence of the tumults 
of the time's. The suspension from office of one who was notoriously 
destitute of not only the virtues of humanity, hut of all sympathy 
with the community in which he lived, was a matter of much joy. 
In 1775 he was present in council, and expressed the highest detest- 
ation of unlawful meetings, and advised Governor Martin to forbid 
the assembling of the convention in Newborn." 

In July 1777 he left North Carolina for the north. He died 
in exile diu-ing the Revolution. 

Maurice Moore's character presented a favorable contrast. 
Deeply imbued with the true spirit of liberty, although his duty 
might cause him to sit in judgment upon the Regulators, yet 
his feelings deeply sympathized with their oppressed condition. 
The following letter (extracted from Herman Husband's book) will 
show that he was strongly suspected of countenancing the condition 
of the Regulators. Of one thing we are assured, that the Judge 
and the Governor entertained the most bitter animosity towards 
each other. 

Springfield, August 12ih, 1768. 
To Colonel Edmund Fanning : 

Dear Sir — As much as I hate writing, I am determined to 
scratch this side down with a bad pen and worse ink, on the subject 
of the insurrection in your county, which I am sorry to hear has 
grown formidable ; and much more so, fthat it is ascribed to me as 
its author and encourager. 

I have been caluminated before, but never so capitally as in this 

I assure you it gives me much concern, in spite of the consola- 
tion which a clear conscience affords me. I never knew, or even, 
as I know of, ever saw any man or men engaged in this unlucky 
affair, except Hunter and Howell, and I made you fully acquainted 
with the advice I gave them ; but I shall say no more on this head. 
I have blackened my page, and must conclude my letter with assur- 
ino; you I esteem you, and am your most obedient, &c., 


Judge Moore addressed to Governor Tryon a letter of great 
length, signed Atticus,t which, while it shows the true character of 

* Lorenzo Sabine's American Loyalists, 369. Boston, Little & Brown, 1847. 
f See Jones's Defence of North Carolina, p. 57. 


Tryon, in its real and odious colors, proves that he wielded the pen 
of a Junius in invective and severe sarcasm. 

Judge Moore was a true friend to his country. He was, after 
Independence was declared, in the General Assembly, and asso- 
ciated on important committees. He was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Congress which met at Hillsboro', in August 1775. He, 
with William Hooper, Richard Caswell, Robert Howe, and Joseph 
Hewes, were a committee to address the citizens of the British 
empire on the wrongs of America and the oppressions of England. 

The importance of the subject, the illustrious names associated 
with Judge Moore, proves the high appreciation of his talents, 
patriotism, and virtues by his associates. He was the father of 
the late Judge, Alfred Moore, who was distinguished as a soldier 
and a statesman, and for whose biography the reader is referred to 
Brunswick County. He died in 1777 ; at the same time his brother, 
Colonel James Moore, died, on his way to join the army of the 
north, under General Washington. (See Brunswick County, vol. xi. 
chap, viii.) 

Richard Henderson, the remaining Colonial Judge, was the 
son of Samuel Henderson. He was born in Hanover County, Vir- 
ginia, on the 20th of April, 1735. His ancestors by his father's side 
were from Scotland, and his mother's side (Williams) from Wales. 

His father came to Granville County about 1745 ; and subse- 
quently was appointed the sheriff of that county. The duties in 
which his son was employed afforded that practical knowledge of 
men and things, for which Judge Henderson was distinguished in 
after life. His early education was as good as the state of the 
country afforded. 

He read law with his cousin, the late Judge Williams, for twelve 
months. When he applied for license to the Chief Justice of the 
colony, whose duty it was to examine applicants, and on his cer- 
tificate a license to practice was issued by the Governor, he was 
asked how long he had read, and what books ? When the limited 
time was stated, and the number of books that he had read, the 
Judge remarked that it was useless to go into any examination, as 
no living man could have read and digested the works he had 
named, in so short a time. With great promptness and firmness, 
young Henderson replied, that it was his privilege to apply for a 
license, and the Judge's duty to examine him ; and, if he was not 
qualified, to reject him; if qualified, to grant the certificate. The 
Judge, struck with his sensible and spirited reply, proceeded to a 
most scorching examination. So well did the young man sustain 
himself, that the certificate was granted, with encomiums upon his 
industry, acquirements, and talents. 

He soon rose to the highest ranks of his profession ; and honors 
and wealth followed. 

A vacancy occurring on the bench, he was appointed by the 
Governor a Judge of the Superior Court. He sustained this digni- 
fied position with fidelity and credit, during an excited and interest- 


ing period. He was forced on one occasion to leave Hillsboro' by 
the disturbances of the Regulators.* 

The troubled times shut up the courts of justice. 

In 1774 the Cherokee Indians offered for sale their lands. He 
formed a company with John Williams and Leonard Hendly Bullock, 
of Granville ; William Johnston, James Hogg, Thomas Hart, John 
Lutterell, Nathaniel Hart and David Hart, of Orange County, and 
made a treaty on the banks of the Watauga River. He purchased 
from the Indians, for a fair consideration, all their lands south of 
the Kentucky River, beginning at the mouth or junction of said 
river with the Ohio to its source, thence south into Tennessee, until 
a westwardly line should cross the Cumberland Mountain so as to 
strike the ridge which divides the waters of the Tennessee River from 
those of the Cumberland, and with that ridge to the Ohio River, and 
with that river to the mouth of the Kentucky River aforesaid; in- 
cluding a large portion of the States of Tennessee and Kentucky. 

The company took possession of the lands on the 20th of April, 
1775 ; the Indians appointing an agent, John Farrar, to make a 
delivery according to law. 

The Governor of North Carolina, Martin, issued his proclama- 
tion in 1775 declaring this purchase illegal. The State subse- 
quently granted 200,000 acres to the company in lieu of this. 

The State of Virginia declared the same, but granted the com- 
pany a remuneration of two hundred thousand acres, bounded by 
the Ohio and Green Rivers. 

The State of Tennessee claimed the lands, but made a similar 
grant to the company in Powell's Valley. 

In 1779 Judge Henderson was appointed a commissioner to extend 
the line between Virginia and North Carolina into Powell's Valley. 
His associates on this commission, were Oroondates Davis, John 
Williams of Caswell, James Kerr, and William Bailey Smith. A 
difficulty arose as to the true latitude of 36° 30", and the commis- 
sion was closed. 

This same year, Judge Henderson opened a land office, at the 
French Lick, now Nashville, Tennessee, for the sale of the com- 
pany's lands. 

In the summer following he returned home, where in the bosom 
of his friends and family, he enjoyed the evening of life in peace 
and plenty. On the 30th of January, 1785, he died at his seat in 
Granville, loved and esteemed by all who knew him. 

He left (by his marriage with Elizabeth Keeling, a stepdaughter 
of the late Judge Williams) six children, Fanny, born 1764, who 
married Judge McCay, of Salisbury; Richard, born July 1766; 
Archibald, born August 1768 ; Elizabeth, who married Alexander, 
born 1770; Leonard, born 1772; and John Lawson Henderson, 
born 1778. 

* See deposition of Ralph McNair, and letter of Judge Henderson, and de- 
position of Waighstill Avery (procured from State Paper Offices in London), 
now for the first time printed. (Chap, on Alamance, vol. ii. chap, i.) 


All four sons studied the same profession for which their father 
had been so distinguished ; and their reputation did not disgrace 
their ancestor. Richard died at the early age of 30, but gave every 
promise of distinction, had his life been spared;* Archibald was the 
head of his profession, in Western Carolina, a distinguished member 
of Congress, and the legislature (see Rowan County).f Leonard 
was one of the first lawyers of his day, and attained the eminence 
of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina ; and 
John, the youngest son, was blessed with a clear mind, and was 
distinguished for his learning; but^ from a diflBdence of manner, 
never exerted himself to use those means to attain the eminence of 
his illustrious brothers. He was a member of the legislature from 
Salisbury, Comptroller of the State in 1825, and died at Raleigh in 
1843, while attending to his duties as Clerk of the Supreme Court. 

The Judiciary early received from the State Congress that atten- 
tion its importance deserved. 

The first General Assembly that met under the State Constitu- 
tion, at Newbern, in April, 1777, revised the whole statute law; 
and superior courts were held semi-annually at Wilmington, New- 
bern, Edenton, Halifax, Hillsboro', and Salisbury. Three Judges 
were elected (John AVilliams, of Granville, Samuel Ashe, of New 
Hanover, and, Samuel Spencer, of Anson). 

INIorganton was established as a Judicial District, in 1782 ; and 
Fayetteville, in 1787. 

Equity jui'isdiction was given by act of 1782. 

In 1790 a fourth Judge was added ; the State divided into two 
ridings, and a Solicitor-General was appointed. 

In 1806, Superior Courts were established in each county, and 
two additional Judges and four Solicitors were appointed ; another 
Judgo has been added since, and this system continues to this 
day. One of the Judges of the Superior Court semi-annually 
holds a court in each county in the State, and a Solicitor to prose- 
cute in behalf of the State. The Judges cannot twice ride the 
same circuit in succession. They are . elected by the legislature 
during good behavior ; and each receives a salary of one thousand 
nine hundred and fifty dollars a year, which cannot be diminished 
during their continuance«n office. 

When the business demands, the Judge may appoint a special 
term to hear and end the suits in any county. The Governor spe- 
cially appoints some Judge for this purpose, for which he receives 
ninety dollars. The appeal lies from these decisions to the 

SUPREME court. 

This tribunal was created in 1818, as it exists at present. Pre- 
vious to this, the Judges of the Superior Courts were directed (act of 
1799) to meet to settle questions of law and equity at Raleigh twice 

* The father of Archibald Henderson, of Salisbury, and Mrs, N. Boyden. 
t See Sketch of his Life. (Chapter, Granville.) 


a year, and was called the Court of Conference. By act of 1805, 
it was styled the Supreme Court. By the act of 1818, the Judges 
of the Superior Courts were excused from this duty and confined to 
circuits, and three Judges were elected by the Legislature, who hold 
their offices during good behavior, who meet twice a year in the city 
of Raleigh, and once a year at Morganton, to determine questions 
of law and equity. 


John Louis Taylor^ of Cumberland, elected 1818, died Jan. 1829. 

Leonard Henderson, of Granville county, elected 1818, died Aug. 

John Hall, of Warren, elected 1818, resigned Dec. 1832. 

John D. Toomer, Cumberland county, appointed June, 1829, re- 
signed 1829. 

Thomas Ruffin, of Orange county, elected 1829. 

Joseph J. Darnel, of Halifax county, elected 1832, died Feb. 

William G-aston, of Craven county, elected 1833, died 1844. 

Frcderiek Nash, of Orange county, appointed 1844. 

William II. Battle, of Orange county, elected 1848, resigned 
Dec. 1848. 

liichmond 31. Pearson, of Davie county, elected 1848. 

At present Thomas Ruffin, Frederick Nash and Richmond Pear- 
son, are the Judges of the Supreme Court of North Carolina. 

For sketches of the lives and characters of the judges, the reader 
is referred to the respective counties from which they are appointed. 


TO 1851. 

1777 to 1790. John Williams, of Grranville County, died Octo- 
ber, 1799. Samuel Ashe, of New Hanover, elected Governor 
in 1795. Samuel Spencer, of Anson, died 1794. 

1790. Spruce McCay, of Rowan, died 1808. 

John Haywood, of Halifax, elected 1794 ; resigned in 1800. 

Alfred Moore, of Brunswick, elected in 1798 ; appointed Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, December 
10th, 1799. 

John Louis Taylor, of Cumberland, elected in 1798 ; appointed 
Judge of the Supreme Court of North Carolina in 1818; died 
February, 1829. 

Samuel Johnston, of Chowan, appointed February 10th, 1800 ; 
resigned November 18th, 1803. 

John Hall, of Warren, elected in 1800 ; appointed Judge of 
Supreme Court in 1818; resigned December, 1832 ; died 1833. 

Francis Locke, of Rowan, elected in 1803 ; resigned February 
7th, 1814. 

David Stone, of Bertie, elected in 1795, resigned in 1798, 
and elected in 1806 ; elected Governor in 1808. 


Samuel Lowrie, of Mecklenburg, elected in 1806 ; died Decem- 
ber, 1818. 

Blake Baker, of Warren, appointed in 1808 ; commission expired 
December, 1808 ; appointed August 11, 1818 ; died in 1818. 

Leonard Henderson, of Granville, elected in 1808 ; resigned in 
1816 ; elected Judge of the Supreme Court in 1818 ; died August, 

Joshua Granger Wright, of New Hanover, elected in 1808 ; died 
in 1811. 

Senry Seaivell, of Wake, appointed July 5th, 1811 ; commission 
expired in 1811 ; appointed in 1818 ; resigned in 1819 ; elected in 
1832 ; died in 1835. 

Edward Harris, of Craven, elected in 1811 ; died 1813. 

Duncan Cameron, of Orange, appointed February, 1814 ; re- 
signed November, 1816. 

Thomas Ruffin, of Orange, elected 1816 ; resigned December, 

1818 ; appointed July 15, 1825; resigned in 1828; elected Judge 
of the Supreme Court in 1829. 

Joseph J. Baniel, of Halifax, appointed March, 1816 ; elected 
Judge of the Supreme Court in 1832 ; died February, 1848. 

Robert H. Burton, of Lincoln, appointed March, 1818 ; resigned 
in 1818. ^ •-;• ■.• 

John Paxton, of Rutherford, elected in 1818 ; died in 1826. 

John D. Toomer, of Cumberland, elected in 1818 ; resigned in 

1819 ; appointed Judge of the Supreme Court in 1829 ; commission 
expired December, 1829 ; elected in 1836 ; resigned in 1840. 

Frederick Nash, of Orange, elected in 1818 ; resigned in July, 
1826 ; elected in 1836 ; transferred to the Supreme Court in 1844. 

Archibald B. Murphy, of Orange, elected in 1818 ; resigned in 

James Iredell, of Chowan, appointed March, 1819 ; resigned 
May, 1819. 

John R. Bonnel, of Craven, appointed in 1819 ; resigned in 

Willie P. Mangum, of Orange, elected in 1819, resigned in 1823 ; 
appointed May 18, 1826 ; commission expired in 1826 ; elected in 
1828 ; elected Senator to Congress in 1830. 

William Norwood, of Orange, appointed Aug. 17, 1820; re- 
signed in 1836. 

G-eorge E. Badger, of Wake, elected in 1820 ; resigned in 1825. 

Robert Strange, of Cumberland, elected in 1826 ; elected Senator 
to Congress in 1836. 

James Martin, of Rowan, elected in 1826 ; resigned in 1835. 

David L. Swain, of Buncombe, elected in 1830 ; elected Go- 
vernor in 1832. 

^Thomas Settle, of Rockingham, elected in 1832. 

* Those marked *, constitute the present Judges of the Superior Courts of 
Law and Equity for North Carolina. 


Romulus M. Saunders, elected in 1835 ; resigned in 1840. 

Edward Hall, of Warren, appointed February, 1810 ; conimis- 
sion expired January, 1841. 

*Joh}i 31. Dick, of Guilford, elected in 1835. 

*JoJiH L. Baily, of ^Pasquotank, elected in 1836. 

Richmond M. Pearson, of Davie, elected in 1836 ; transferred to 
the Supreme Court in 1848. 

*David F. CaldioeUj of Rowan, appointed in 1844. 

*Matt1iias E. Manly, of Craven, elected December, 1840. 

Augustus Moore, of Chowan, appointed in 1848 ; resigned the 
same year. 

* Wm. H. Battle, of Edgecombe, appointed in 1840 ; appointed to 
the Supreme Court in 1848 ; resigned in December, 1848 ; elected 
to the Superior Court in January, 1849. 

"^Jolm W. Ellis, of Rowan, elected in 1848, 


Waiglitstill Avery, of Burke County, elected in 1777 ; resigned 
in 1779. 

Blake Baker, of Edgecombe, elected in 1794 ; resigned in 1803. 

Rutchins Cf. Burton, of Halifax, elected in 1810 ; resigned in 
November, 1816. 

William Drew, of Halifax, elected in 1816 ; resigned in Novem- 
ber, 1825. 

John R. J. Daniel, of Halifax, elected in 1834. 

* William Eaton, Jr., of Warren, in 1851. 
Oliver Fitts, of Warren, in 1808. 

John Haywood, of Halifax, in 1791. 
James Iredell, of Chowan, in 1779. 
Robert R. Jones, of Warren, in 1828. 
Alfred Moore, of Brunswick, in 1790. 
William 3Iiller, of Warren, in 1810. 
Rugh 3Ic Queen, of Chatham, in 1840. 
Bartholomeio F. 3Ioore, of Halifax, in 1848. 
Romulus 31. Saunders, of Caswell, in 1828. 
Edivard Stanly, of Beaufort, in 1847. 
Renry Seawell, of Wake, in 1803. 
John L. Taylor, of Cumberland, in 1808. 
James F. Taylor, of Wake, in 1825 ; died in June, 1828. 
Spier Wliitaker, of Halifax, elected in December, 1842. 


James Gflasgow, of Dobbs County, in 1777. 
William White, of Lenoir, in 1778 to 1810. 

* William Rill, of Rockingham, from 1811 to present date. 


Richard Caswell, for the northern part ; Samuel Johnson for the 
southern part, 1776. 

* At present in commission. v 


Memucan Hunt, of Granville, 1777. 
John Haywood, of Edgecombe, 1787. 
John S. Haywood, of Wake, 1827. 
William S. Rohards, of Granville, 1827. 
Hohert H. Burton, of Lincoln, 1830. 
William S. Mhoon, of Bertie, December, 1830. 
Samuel F. Patterson, of Wilkes, 1835. 
jDaniel W. Courts, of Surry, Jan. 1837. 
Charles L. Hinton, of Wake, April, 1839. 
John H Wheeler, of Lincoln, 1843. 
Charles L. Hinton, 1845. 
^Daniel W. Courts, 1851. 


Comptroller's department established in 1782. 
John Craven, of Halifax, 1783. 
Samuel G-oodtvin, of Cumberland, December, 1808. 
Joseph Hawkins, of Warren, December, 1825. 
John L. Henderson, of Rowan, 1827. 
James Cirant, of Halifax, November, 1827. 
Nathan Stedman, of Chatham, November, 1834. 
William F. Collins, of Nash, December, 1836. 
* William J. Clarke, of Wake, 1851. 

A History of the Bench and Bar of North Carolina will, we 
trust, at some period be published. Its members have been, at all 
periods, the firm friends of popular rights, and ready defenders of 
the privileges of the many against the encroachments of the few. 
They, as a body, are remarkable for their assiduity, fidelity, and 
poverty. The following is preserved as a specimen of " the genuine 
Attic," copied from the Greensboro' Patriot many years since. The 
names are familiar to western North Carolina. 

In one of our western courts, while Mr. James R. Dodge (now 
Clerk of the Supreme Court), a relative of the Hon. Washington 
Irving, was making a speech, a triumvirate (Messrs. Swain, Hill- 
man, and Dews) perpetrated, "with malice aforethought," this jeu 
d'esprit, which Mr. Dodge found lying on his table before him 
when he had finished his speech. 


" Here lies a Dodge, who dodged all good, 
And dodged a deal of evil, 
Who, after dodging all he could, 
lie could not dodge the Devil." 

He read the paper, and impromptu replied — 


" Here lies a Hillman and a Swain, 
Whose lot let no man choose ; 
They liv'd in sin, and died in pain, 
And the Devil got his Dews" (dues). 

* At present in commission. 




A list of the members of the Continental Congress • from North Carolina, 
before the adoption of the Constitution (formed at Philadelphia, in May 

. 1787) ; and a list of the Senators and Representatives in Congress, from 
this State, from 1789 to 1851 ; with the ratio of representation for each 
decade, and the number of members in the House — Present Congressional 
districts by act of 1846, and the members of each. 

The Continental Congress first met at Philadelphia, Septem- 
ber 5th, 1774. In January, 1785, it met at New York, which con- 
tinued to be the place of meeting until the adoption of the con- 
stitution. General Washington was inaugurated President at this 
place, on 30th April, 1789. 


Ashe, John B. 
Bloodworth, Timothy 

Blount, William 

Burke, Thomas 
Burton, Robert 
Caswell, Richard 
Curaming, William 
Harnett, Cornelius 

Hawkins, Benjamin 

Hews, Joseph 

Hill, Whitmill 
Hooper, William 

From To 

1787 1788 

1786 1787 

1782 1783 

1786 1787 
1777 1781 

1787 1788 
1774 1776 
1784 1784 

1777 1780 
1781 1784 
1786 1787 
1774 1777 
1779 1780 

1778 1781 
1774 1777 

Johnston, Samuel 
Jones, Allen 
Jones, Willie 

Nash, Abner 

Penn, John 

Sitgreaves, John 
Sharpe, William 
Spaight, Richard D. 
Swan, John 
Williams, John 

Williamson, Hugh 

White, Alexander 

From To 

1780 1782 

1779 1780 

1780 1781 

1782 1784 

1785 1786 
1775 1776 

1777 1780 
1784 1785 
1779 1782 

1783 1785 
1787 1788 

1778 1779 
1782 1785 
1787 1788 

1786 1788 

*Badger, George E. 
Bloodsworth, Timothy 
Branch, John 
Brown, Bedford 

Franklin, Jesse 

Graham, William A. 
Hawkins, Benjamin 
Haywood, William H. 
Iredell, James 
Johnston, Samuel 


Those marked * are at present in Congress, 1851. 
In. Out. I 

1855 I Locke, Francis 
1801 Macon, Nathaniel 


*Mangum, W. P. 



1813 Martin, Alexander 

1843 i Stokes, Montfort 

Stone, David 


Strange, Robert 
Turner, James 




























Alexander, Evan 
Alexander, Nathaniel 
Alston, Willis 

Alston, Willis, Jr., 

Arrington, A. H. 
Ashe, John B. 
*Ashe, William S. 
Biggs, Asa 
Barringer, Daniel L. 
Barringer, Daniel M. 
Bethune, Laughlin 

Blackledge, William S. 

Bloodworth, Timothy 

Blount, Thomas 

Branch, John 
Bryan, Nathan 
Bryan, John H. 
Bryan, Joseph H. 
Burgess, Dempsy 
Burton, Hutchins G. 
Bynum, Jesse A. 
Boyden, Nathaniel 
Caldwell, Green W. 
■^Cald-well, Joseph P. 
Carson, Samuel P. 
Clark, James W. 
Clark, Henry S. 
Cocaran, James 
Cor.ner, H. W. 
Crudup, Josiah 

Culpepper, John 

*Clingman, Thomas L. 

*Daniel, J. R. J. 
Davidson, William 
Davrson, William G. 
Dobbin, James C. 

Deberry, Edmund 

*Dockery, Alfred 

Dickens, Samuel 
Donnell, R. S. 
Dixon, Joseph 
Dudly, Edward B. 
Edwards, Weldon X. 

Fisher, Charles 

Forney, Daniel M. 






\ 1825 










( 1821 



\ 1805 



















J 1813 

1 1819 

I 1823 

j 1843 

1 1847 






\ 1833 



1 1851 







1 1839 





























































Forney, Peter 
Franklin, Jesse 
Franklin, Meshack 
Gaston, William 
Gatlin, Alfred M. 

Gillespie, James 

Graham, James 

Grove, William B. 

Hall, Thomas H. 

Hawkins, M. T. 
Henderson, Archibald 
Hill, John 
Hill, William H. 
Hines, Richard 

Holland, James 

Holmes, Gabriel 

Hooks, Charles 

Johnson, Charles 
Kenan, Thomas 

Kennedy, William 

King, William R, 

Lock, Matthew 
Long, John 
Love, William C. 
Macon, Nathaniel 
Mangum, W. P. 
McBride, Archibald 

McDowel, James 

McFarland, Duncan 
McKay, James J. 

McNeil, Archibald 

Mebane, Alexander 
Mitchell, Anderson 
Montgomery, William 
Montford, George 
*Morehead, James T. 
Murfree, William H. 
Outlaw, George 
*Outlaw, David 
Owen, Jas. 
Pettigrew, E. 
Pearson, Joseph 
Pickens, Israel 
Potter, Robert 
Purviance, Samuel D. 
Rayner, Kenneth 

Rencher, Abraham 

Reid, David S. 

( 1795 
1 1819 




In. Out. 

Saunders, R. M. 

Sawyer, Lemuel 

Sawyer, S. T. 
Settle, Thomas 
Sevier, John 
Shadwick, William 
Sheppard, Charles B. 
Sheppard, William B. 

Shepperd, A. H. 

Smith, James S. 
Slocumb, Jesse 
Speight, Jesse 
Spaight, R. D. 
Spaight, R. D. Jr., 
Stanford, Richard 

Stanly, John 


1 1841 

f 1807 









f 1829 

\ 1841 



- 1817 










*Stanly, Edward 

Steele, John 
Stuart, James 
Stone, David 
Tatum, Abs. 
Turner, Daniel 
Vance, Robert B. 
*Venable, Abraham W. 
Walker, Felix 
Washington, Wm. II. 
Williams, Benjamin 
Williams, Lewis 
Williams, Marmaduke 
Williams, Robert 
Williamson, Hugh 

Winston, Joseph 

Wynns, Thomas 
Yancy, Bartlett 

f 1837 
■ 1849 































f 1793 
■ 1803 










House of Representatives composed of 65 members. 
" " " 105 

<( << << 241 

" " " 181 





TO 4th march, 1853. 

District. Counties. 

1, Cherokee; 2, Macon; 3, Haywood; 4, Buncombe;") 

5, Henderson ; 6, Rutherford ; 7, Burke ; 8, Mc'Dowell; V 
9, Yancy; 10, Cleaveland; 11, Caldwell. ) 

1, Ashe: 2, Wilkes; 3, Surry; 4, Davie; 5, Rowan; I 

6, Iredell ; 7, Catawba. ] 
1, Lincoln; 2, Gaston; 3, Mecklenburg; 4, Union; 5, | 

Anson ; 6, Stanly ; 7, Cabarrus ; 8, Montgomery ; 9, V 

Richmond ; 10, Moore. ] 

1, Stokes; 2, Rockingham; 3, Guilford; 4, Randolph; I 

I 5, Davidson. j 

( 1, Granville ; 2, Caswell ; 3, Person : 4, Orange : 5, ] 

i Chatham. J 

1, Wake; 2, Franklin; 3, Warren; 4, Halifax; 5,1 
Edgecombe; 6, Nash : 7, Johnston. j 

1, Cumberland ; 2, Robeson ; 3, Columbus ; 4, Bladen ; | 

5, Brunswick; 0, New Hanover; 7, Sampson; 8, VWm. S.Ashe 
Duplin; 9, Onslow. ] 

1, Wayne ; 2, Greene ; 3, Lenoir ; 4, Jones ; 5, Craven ; 

6, Carteret; 7, Beaufort; 8, Pitt; 9, Washington ; 
10, Tyrrell; 11, Hyde. 

1, Martin; 2, Bertie; 3, Hertford; 4, Northampton; 
5, Gates; 6, Chowan; 7, Perquimans; 8, Pasquo- 
tank; 9, Currituck; 10, Camden. 







Thomas L, 

Joseph P. 


James T. 


Abraham W. 


J. R. J. 






Press op North Carolixa, from 1749 to 1851 — Account of some of the editors, 
and list of the papers now published in North Carolina (1851). 

" Beneath the rule of men 

Entirely great, the pen is greater than the sword. 

Behold the arch enchanter's wand ! Itself is nothing ! 

But catching sorcery from a master hand, 

And aided by the gigantic power of the press, 

It paralyzes the thrones of monarchs, 

Gives liberty and life to oppressed millions, 

And strikes the broad earth breathless. 

Take away the sword ! 

States can be saved without it" — Bulwer. 

The colonial history of our State did not present a favorable 
field for the press. 

The Proprietary rulers first, and Royal Governors afterwards,, 
regarded the press as dangerous to their powers and prerogatives. 
The instructions of Lord Eflfingham, as Governor of Virginia, were 
" not to suflFer in the colony, under any pretence whatever, the use 
of a printing press."* And Sir William Berkley, one of the pro- 
prietors of North Carolina, returned thanks to Heaven " that there 
was not a printing office in any of the southern provinces." 

Under different auspices and a more progressive age, how diifer- 
ent do the descendants of this very people conduct the early settle- 
ments of a country. Scarcely does the American set his foot down 
on any soil, when a press is set up, and a newspaper is established, 
informing every portion of the nation of the character, condition, 
and prospects of the country. " The United States in 1834," 
says Tymperly, "with a population of (then) 13,000,000, had 
more newspapers than all Europe together, with a population of 


Printing^ was introduced into North Carolina in 1749, by James 
Davis, who set up a press at Newborn. His first paper was called 
The North Carolina Gazette, "with freshest advices foreign and 
domestic." It was weekly, on a sheet of post sized folio. 

The first book ever printed in North Carolina was by him, in 
1752, a revisal of the acts of the General Assembly, a small folio. 
From the hue of the leather in which it was bound, it received the 
name of " Yellow Jacket." 

* Williamson, vol. i. 165, 

t Tyniporly's Encyclopcedia of Literary and Typographical Anecdote. 

% Martin, ii. p. 54. 


The G-azette continued about six years. On the 27th of May, 
1768, it again appeared, and continued until the Revolution. ' 

Davis was a Virginian by birth ; and postmaster at Newbern. He 
held a commission as a magistrate under Governor Tryon. 

The second press set up in North Carolina was at Wilmington, 
in 1763, by Andrew Stewart, called the CajM Fear G-azette and 
Wilmington Advertiser. The paper was discontinued in 1767. 

Stewart was an Irishman by birth, lived several years in Philadelphia, 
and was accidentally drowned in 1769, while bathing in the Cape 
Fear River. 

This paper was succeeded by the Cape Fear Blercury, published 

October 1767, by Adam Boyd, and continued to the Revolution. 

Boyd was an Englishman, and a true friend to liberty. lie was much 

respected, and one of the Committee of Safety in "Wilmington, 1775. 

. • His name appears in their proceedings as a leading member of the. 

committee of correspondence. In 1776 he exchanged the press for 

the pulpit. 

In 1776 newspapers were printed at Newbern, Wilmington, 
Halifax, Edenton, and Hillsboro'. Had copies of these papers 
been preserved, as is the case now in some States, in the archives 
of the State Library, the history of that period would have been 
better known. 

In 1812 newspapers were printed at Raleigh, Newbern, Wil- 
mington, Edenton, Tarboro', Murfreesboro', Fayetteville, and War- 
renton. Not a single paper west of Raleigh. 

The following is the list of newspapers printed in North Caro- 
lina at this date, January 1st, 1851 : — 

1. Albemarle Sentinel, Edenton, edited by 

Thomas C. Manning. 
Born in Edenton, aged 25, by profession a lawyer ; Whig in politics. 

2. AsHViLLE Messenger, Ashville, J. M. Edney. 

Born in Henderson County, aged 36, by profession music teacher, 
house and sign painter, auctioneer, to the ancient town of Ash- 
ville ; Whig in politics, 

3. Ashville News, Ashville, T. AY. Atkin. 

Native of Tennessee, aged 29, practical printer. 

4. Carolina Watchman, Salisbury, 

J. J. Bruner and S. W. James. 

J. J. Bruner, native of Rowan, born in 1817, printer by profession. 
Samuel W. James, born in Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1819, and a 
printer by profession. Whigs. 

6. Carolina Republican, Lincolnton, J. M. Newsom. 

Native of Maryland, 44 years old, teacher by profession; Democrat. 

6. Christian Sun, Pittsboro', ( ) Committee. 

7. Charlotte Journal, Charlotte, T. J. Holton. 

Native of Richmond, Ya., 47 years of age, a printer by profession ; 
AVhig in politics. 



8. Communicator, Fayetteville, William Potter, 

Mr. Potter is a native of Raleigh, aged 43 ; profession, preacher and 
printer. Temperance paper. 

9, Deaf Mute, Raleigh, TV. D. Cooke, 

10. Fayetteville Observer, E. J. Hale and Son. 

Mr. Hale is a native of Randolph County, born in 1802, printer by 
profession ; Whig in politics. 

11. GoLDSBORo' Patriot, "W. Robinson. 

Mr. Robinson is a native of Ireland, aged 36 years, by profession a 

12. GoLDSBORo' Telegraph, W. F. S. Alston. 

Wesley Fletcher Skidmore Alston is a native of Wake, born in 1822, 
by profession a planter. 

13. Granville Whig, Oxford, George Wortham. 

14. Greensboro' Patriot, Swaim and Sherwood. 

Lyndon Swaim, 38 years old, farmer by profession until 21, when 

he went to profession of printer. 
Michael S. Sherwood is about 32 years old, printer by profession ; 

Whigs in politics. 

15. Halifax Republican, C. N. Webb. 

Mr. Webb, born in Brunswick County, Va., aged 38 years, practical 

16. Hillsboro' Recorder, D. Heartt. 

Mr. Heartt is a native of Connecticut, born November 1783, printer 
by profession ; commenced the Recorder in 1820. He is now post- 
master at Ilillsboro'. Whig in politics. 

17. Hornets' Nest, Charlotte, L. S. Badger. 

Mr. Badger is a native of Virginia, about 28 years old. 

18. Journal of Temperance, Elizabeth City. 

19. Lincoln Courier, Thomas J. Eccles. 

Mr. Eccles, born in Ireland in 1823, practical printer ; came to 
Charleston at one year of age ; Democrat. 

20. Methodist Pulpit, Greensboro', Charles F. Deems. 

21. Milton Chronicle, C. N. B. Webb. 

Mr. Webb is a native of Virginia, aged 37, his " profession is printer, 
publisher, and postmaster.'' 

22. IMouNTAiN Banner, Rutherfordton, T. A. Hayden. 

Mr. Ilayden is a native of Florida, aged 42. Mr. Wilson, who has 
succeeded him, is a native of Caswell, about 30 years old, and a 
lawyer by profession. 

23. North Carolina Standard, Raleigh, W. W. Holden. 

W. W. Holden is a native of Orange County, now about 32, prac- 
tical printer ; studied law and obtained license, but left the bar 
for the press ; a Democrat. 

24. North Carolinian, Fayette-sdlle, William H. Bayne. 
Mr. Bayne was a native of Georgetown, D. C, aged 36, a practical 


inter, and a Democrat, lie died August 1851. 



25. North Carolina Herald, Ashboro', R. H. Brown. 

Native of Randolph, "young and aspiring," no profession. 

26. Newbernian^ Newbern, William D. Maybew. 

Native of Massachusetts, aged about 40 years, educated at Wash- 
ington College, Lexington, Rockbridge, Va. Removed to Wash- 
ington, N. C, in 1831, and took charge of the Academy in that 
place. Studied lavr under John S. Hawks, Esq., and obtained 
license to practice in 1836. Married in Newbern, and removed 
to that place in 1837. In 1844 bought out the Nevrbernian (a 
continuation of the Spectator) ; Whig in politics. 

27. North State Whig, Wasbington, H. Dimmock. 

Native of Maine, lawyer, and Whig. 

28. Old North State, Elizabeth City, S. D. Poole. 

29. Primitive Baptist, Raleigb, Burwell Temple. 

30. Plymouth Times, William Eborn. 

Native of Beaufort, 25 years old, Whig. 

SI. People^s Press, Salem, Blum & Sons. 

32. Patriot and Republican, Goldsboro', W. B. Gulick. 

William B. Gulick was born in New Jersey, aged 36, graduated at 
Princeton in 1844 ; no profession but that of editor ; a Democrat. 

33. Raleigh Register, Seaton Gales. 

Mr. Gales is a native of Wake, aged about 25, by profession an 
editoi-, a Whig. This paper was established in October 1799, 
by Joseph Gales, his grandfather. He is the publisher of the 
first daily paper ever attempted in North Carolina. 

34. Raleigh Star, T. J. Lemay. 

Native of Granville, about 49 years old, a practical printer and 
preacher ; Whig in politics. 

35. Southern Democrat, Grabam, J. W. Lancaster. 

Mr. Lancaster is a native of Edgecombe, educated at the University, 
graduated in 1843, lawyer by profession, and a Democrat. 

36. Spirit of the Age, A. M. Gorman. 

Native of Raleigh, aged 37, printer by professioa. Devoted to tem- 

37. Tarboro' Free Press, George Howard, Jr. 

38. Villager, Plymoutb, W. Eborn, editor. 

39. Wilmington Herald, Talcott Burr. 

Native of Rhode Island, born 1802, practical printer. 

40. Wilmington Journal, Fulton and Price. 

James Fulton is a native of Ireland, 26 years of age, profession 

editor; Democrat. 
A. L. Price is a native of North Carolina, 36 years of age, profession 

printer, and a Democrat. 

41. Wilmington Commercial, T. Bering. 

Thomas Loring is a native of Massachusetts, aged 62, practical 
printer and editor. 

42. Wadesboro' Argus, Samuel Fulton. 


43. Weldon Patriot, R- B. Parker. 

[This list may be imperfect, although efforts have been made to per- 
fect it. Any correction will be thankfully received and noticed, 
should another edition be called for.] 

Of these, 1 is tri-weekly, 4 semi-weekly, the balance weekly or 


Literary institutions of North Carolina— Their history, progress, and pre- 
sent condition— Queen's Museum, at Charlotte, 1770— University, incor- 
porated in 1789, and located at Chapel Hill, 1792— Corner-stone laid in 
October 1793— Commenced tuition, 1795— Life and character of Dr. Joseph 
Caldwell ; and a list of its graduates from 1798 to 1851— Davidson College, 
in Mecklenburg County, commenced in 1838 : its present faculty and 
alumni, from 1840— Wake Forest College, in Wake County; its trustees 
and faculty— Female institutions, common schools, and Literary Fund of 
the State. 

The early history of the State presents hut few institutions, where 
the benefits of a liberal education could be obtained. 

In 1736, the Governor (Johnston), in his address to the Legisla- 
ture bewailed the deplorable condition of the province in which no 
provision had been made, "or care taken to inspire the youth with 
generous sentiments, worthy principles, or the least tincture of lite- 

In 1754, an act was passed to establish a public seminary, but it 

proved abortive. 

In 1764, an act was passed to erect a school-house in Newbern, 
and in 1767 Trustees were incorporated. 

At the end of the Royal Government (1775), Martin says that 
" Literature was hardly known. There were in the whole province 
but two schools, those of Newbern and Edenton. In the first a 
wooden building, in which the meetings of the Lower House of the 
Legislature were occasionally held." 

When reading the resolves of the Provincial Congress, the Pro- 
vincial Councils, the District Committees of Safety, and the addresses 
which they published to the country, the purity of the language, the 
simplicity and beauty of style, the cogency of argument are so re- 
markable that they cannot be surpassed by the most polished pro- 
ductions of the present age. 

Even the handwriting of the men of '75, as exhibited in the 
Journals, will bear a fair comparison with those of this day, and per- 
haps surpass them in ease and plainness. 

This proves that our forefathers had not been inattentive to the 
objects of practical education. 

In 1770, a charter was obtained from the Provincial Assembly 
to incorporate the Queen s Museum at Charlotte. 


The charter not receiving the royal sanction was amended ; and 
again passed in 1771 ; it was repealed by the King. But it 
flourished without a charter ; and in 1777 it was incorporated by the 
General Assembly of the State by the name of Liberty Hall. 

The Trustees were Isaac Alexander, M. D., President; Thomas 
Polk, Thomas Neal, Abraham Alexander, Waightstill Avery, 
Ephraim Brevard, M. D., John Simpson, Adlai Osborne, John Mc 
Knitt Alexander, Rev. Da-\dd Caldwell, James Edmonds, Thomas 
Reese, Samuel E. McCorkle, Thomas Harris McCaule, and James 

The latter were Presbyterian Ministers, and the school was under 
the supervision of this highly respectable denomination. 

The first meeting of the Trustees was held at Charlotte, January 
3d, 1778. Lots were purchased in the town of Charlotte belonging 
to Col. Thomas Polk. The revolutionary war closed the school, and 
the troops of Cornwallis occupied its halls. 

Rev. David Caldavell, about the year 1767, opened a school in 
Guilford county. He was a native of Pennsylvania, graduated at 
Princeton, in 1761, and a Presbyterian Minister. (See Guilford 
county.) This school was conducted with great success. "His log 
cabin served for many years to North Carolina, as an Academy, a 
College, and a Theological Seminary." Many who were here edu- 
cated have become distinguished as statesmen, lawyers, physicians 
and divines. 

The Constitution adopted at Halifax, 18th Dec, 1776, declared 
(in Section XLI.) that a school or schools shall be established, and 
" all useful learning shall be duly encouraged and promoted in one 
or more universities." Accordingly, in 1789, the University of 
North Carolina was established by incorporating Samuel Johnston 
and others Trustees, and in Nov. 1792, these Trustees located this 
Institution at Chapel Hill, in Orange county. Eleven hundred and 
eighty acres of land were conveyed to the Trustees by the citizens 
of this neighborhood. In Oct. 1793, the first lots of the village 
were sold, and the corner-stone of the College laid. The ceremonies 
were conducted with masonic honors, by Wm. R. Davie, Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of North Carolina, at the time, and 
afterwards. Governor of the State. The Rev. Dr. McCorkle, one 
of the Trustees, made an address. 

The buildings being sufficiently prepared in 1795, the Trustees 
selected Rev. David Kerr as Professor, and Samuel A. Holmes as 

Mr. Hinton James was the first student ; who arrived from Wil- 
mington, Feb. 12th, 1795. 

Public instruction commenced on the 13th. 

Mr. Kerr was a foreigner by birth, a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin, a man of piety and learning. He emigrated to this country 
in 1791, and preached in Fayetteville, in the Presbyterian Church, 
and taught school there for three years. He remained but a short 
time at the University, removing to Lumberton, and commenced the 


Study of law. He removed afterwards to Mississippi, where lie 
acquired wealth and honors (he was United States Marshal and 
Judge). He died in 1810. 

He was succeeded in the Presidency of the University of North 
Carolina, by Charles W. Harris, of Cabarrus county, who was ap- 
pointed Professor of Mathematics, and Mr. Holmes, Professor of 

Mr. Harris remained only a year at the university, preferring, 
like his predecessor, the pui'suit of his profession, and in which he 
would have attained gi-eat eminence had not death suddenly closed 
his career. He was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Caldwell, at this 
time a tutor in Nassau Hall, New Jersey, who was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in the fall of 1796. 

For forty years the destinies of the institution were directed by 
Dr. Caldwell. His history is its record. 

He was born in Lamington, New Jersey, on the 21st of April, 
1773, the day after the bui'ial of his father, who was a physician, 
and of Irish descent. He was educated at Princeton, where he 
graduated in August, 1791. 

He was employed in teaching and studying divinity until April, 
1795, when he was appointed tutor in his alma maier. His asso- 
ciate in this duty was Mr. Hobart, afterwards Bishop of New York ; 
here he remained until 1796, when he was appointed Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of North Carolina. 

In 1806 he was appointed President of the University. 
In 1811 he made an excursion throughout the State, to collect 
funds for the aid of the college, and received $12,000. 

In 1816 he received the honorary degree of D. D. from Nassau 
Hall, and also from the University of North Carolina. 

In 1824 he was sent to Em-ope to direct the construction of the 
philosophical apparatus and procure books for the library. 

He remained connected with it until his death, which occurred 
on the 27th of January, 1835. 

Tile life, character, and services of Dr. Caldwell afford inviting 
material to the biographer and historian. Connected as he was 
with the University, which he raised, by his energy, talents, and 
piety, from an obscm-e institution to the front ranks of science ; 
embalmed as is his memory in the hearts of many now scattered 
over our whole Union, who witnessed his services and enjoyed the 
benefits of his labors, it is to be hoped that some one of these will 
enter upon this pious duty. His character was one worthy of study 
and imitation. In his person, he was small and delicate. His 
expansive forehead, bushy eyebrows, his keen glance, and regular 
features evidenced strong powers of reason, great determination 
of character, invincible firmness and self-possession. 

His usefulness was not confined to the advancement of the Uni- 
versity alone. In 1827, he delivered at Raleigh a lecture on Rail- 
roads, then a new subject to the members of the Legislatm-e. 
He wrote numerous essays on Common Schools, the Deaf and 


Dumb, and the condition of the State as to internal improvement; 
which were extensiyely circulated, attentively read, and were instru- 
mental in directing public attention in North Carolina towards 
these important subjects. 
It was not his fortune 

" The applause of listening Senates to command ;" 

nor did he direct in fields of battle or of victory. But he 
discharged the important part of training those whose eloquence 
now often charms our Congress, whose talents preside in our 
courts, and whose piety enlivens our faith. 

-The warrior's name, 

Tho' pealed and chimed by every tongue of fame, 
Sounds less harmonious to the grateful mind 
Than he who fashions and improves mankind." 

He was succeeded by Hon. David L. Swain, for whose biography 
the reader is referred to another chapter. (See Buncombe.) 

JList of tJie Faculty/ at this time, and Grraduates of the Institution 

from 1798 to 1850. 

Hon. David L. Swain, LL. D., President. 

Rev. Elisha Mitchell, Professor of Chemistry. 

Rev. James Phillips, D. D., Professor of Mathematics, Mensu- 

i-ation, and Geology. 
Rev. Fordyce M. Hubbard, Professor of Latin, and Natural 

Hon. Wm. H. Battle, Professor of Law. 
Manuel Fetter, A. M., Professor of Greek. 
Rev. John Thomas Wheat, D. D., Professor of Logic. 
Rev. Albert M. Shipp, Professor of History and French. 
Charles Phillips, Tutor of Mathematics. 
AsHBEL P. Brown, Tutor of Languages. 
Kemp P, Battle, Tutor of Mathematics. 
Wm. H. Johnson, Tutor of Languages. 


1798. Wm. S. Webb, 
William Hinton, George W. Long, 
Samuel Hinton, ' Samuel A. Holmes. 
Hinton James, 

Robert Locke, 1800. 

Alexander Osborne, William Cherry, 

Edwin Jay Osborne, John Lawson Henderson, 

Adam Springs. Thomas Hunt. . 

1799. 1801. 
Francis Nash Williams Burton, Thomas Gale Amis, 
William D. Crawford, Thomas Davis Bennehan, 
Andrew Flinn, John Branch, 
Archibald Debrow Murphy, Wm. McKenzie Clarke, 
John Phifer, Francis Little Dancy, 
Wm, Morgan Sneed, John Davis Hawkins, 



Thomas D. King, 
Archibald Lytle, 
Wm. H. Murfee. 

Adlai L. Osborne, 
George W. Thorntoc, 
Cary Wbitaker. 

Chesly Daniel, 
William P. Hall, 
Matthew Troy. 

Eichard Armstead^ 
Thomas Brown, 
Willie W. Jones, 
Atlas Jones, 
James Sneed, 
Richard Henderson. 

Jos. Warren Hawkins, 
Benjamin Franklin Hawkms, 
Spruce M. Osborne. 

John Adams Cameron^ 
James Henderson, 
Durant Hatch, 
James Martin. 

Dnncan J. Campbelly 
Stephen Davis, 
John Robert Donnelly 
Gavin Hogg, 
John C. Montgomery, 
John Louis Taylor. 

_ 1808. 
John Bright BrowEy 
Eol>ert Campbell, 
John Coleman, 
Wm. James CowaHy 
Wm. Pugh Ferrand, 
Alfred M. Gatlin, 
John Giles, 
William Green, 
James A. Harrington, 
William Henderson, 
Benjamin D. Rounsavillej, 
Lewis Williams, 
Thomas L. Williams. 

John Bobbitt, 
Maxwell Chambers, 
John Gilchrist, 
Philemon Hawkins,, 

William Hooper, 
John Briggs Mebane, 
Thomas G. Polk, 
John R. Stokes, 
John C. Williams, 
Abner W. Clopton. 

Thomas W. Jones, 
James F. Taylor, 
John Witherspoon. 

John A. Ramsey. 

Daniel Graham, 
James Hogg, 
Thomas Clarke Hooper, 
William Johnson, 
Murdoch McLean, 
Archibald McQueen, 
Johnson Pinkston, 
Joseph B. J. Roulhac, 
Wm. E. Webb, 
Charles J. Wright. 

Wm. Edward Bailey, 
Wm. Spaight Blackledge, 
Thomas Wharton Blackledge, 
Archibald Fairley, 
Thomas Faddis, 
Robert Gordon, 
John H. Hinton, 
Francis Hawkins, 
George W. Hawkinst, 
Duncan McKinnie, 
Wm. L. Polk, 
John G. Roulhac, 
Abner Stith, 
Lewis Taylor. 

Wm. Augustus Boon, 
Aaron V. Browne, 
James Farrier, 
James Graham, 
John W. Graves, 
John L. Graves, 
Robert Hall, 
Tippo S. Henderson, 
John Hill, 
Charles L. Hinton, 
Charles Manly, 
James Morrison, 
Samuel Pickens, 
Thomas B. Scott, 
Tryon M. Yancey, 
Edmund Wilkins. 



John H. Bryan, 
Isaac Croom, 
George F. Graham, 
Edward Hall, 
< Lemuel Hatch, 
Francis L. Hawks, 
Kobert Hinton, 
James Hooper, 
Robert R. King, 
Mathew McClung, 
Willie P. Mangum, 
Stockley D. Mitchell, 
Mathew R. Moore, 
Priestly H. Mangum, 
Henry L. Plummer, 
Stephen R. Sneed, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Hugh M. Stokes. 

Wm. J. Alexander, 
Lawson H. Alexander, 
James A. Craig, 
Moses J. DeRosset, 
Nathaniel Daniel, 
John E. Graham, 
Mark Henderson, 
Charles A Hill, 
Joseph R. Loyd, 
John Y. Mason, 
James McClung, 
Junius A. Moore, 
John Patterson, 
James Sampson, 
Wm. B. A. WalHs. 

Richard H. Alexander, 
Hardy B. Croom, 
Goodei'um Davis, 
Samuel T. Hauser, 
John II. Hawkins, 
John M. Morehead, 
James Simeson, 
Hardy L. Holmes, 
Wm. R. Holt, 
James Murdock. 

Robert Donaldson, 
Thomas J. Green, 
*Wm. M. Green, 
Arthur J. Hill, 
Hamilton C. Jones, 
Henry Jones, 
Pleasant H. May, 
Edward J. Mallett, 
Elam J. Morrison, 

* Bishop of Mississippi. 

t Late President of the United States. 

Robert H. Morrison, 
fWm. D. Mosely, 
Peter 0. Picot, 
JJames K. Polk, 
Hugh Waddell. 

Walker Anderson, 
J. L. Brooks, 
David T. Caldwell, 
Wm. H. Haywood, 
Owen Holmes, 
Simon P. Jordan, 
James Mann, 
James T. Morehead, 
John Q. McNeil, 
Clemens C. Read, 
James H. Ruffin. 

Cyrus Adams Alexander, 
Richard Allison, 
Wm. H. Battle, 
Archibald G. Carter, 
Charles G. Donoho, 
Wm. H. Hardin, 
Jno. S. Haywood, 
Wm. M. Lee, 
James F. Martin, 
Bartholomew F. Moore, 
James H. Otey, 
Mathias B. D."Palmer, 
Malcolm G. Purcell, 
Thomas E. Read, 
Charles G. Rose, 
Wm. Royall, 
Thomas *B. Slade, 
Richard J. Smith, 
Charles G. Spaight, 
John M. Stark, 
David W. Stone, 
John C. Taylor, 
Phillip H. Thomas, 
Henry C. Williams, 
Thomas H. Wright. 

Nath. W. Alexander, 
Samuel J. Alves, 
Benj. F. Blackledge, 
Robert H. Cowan, 
Bryan Croom, 
Frederick J. Cutler, 
John R, J. Daniel, 
Nicholas J. Drake, 
Robert Galloway, 
Henry T. Garnett, 
Nath. Ilarriss, 
Wm. R. Haywood, 

t Late Governor of Florida. 



Geo. W. Haywood, 
Sam'l Ileaden, 
Pleasant Henderson, 
Thompson M. Johnson, 
Thos. J. Lacey, 
Willis M. Lee, 
Wm. K. Mebane, 
Anderson Mitchell, 
Wm. S. Mhoon, 
Wm. D. Murphy, 
Spencer O'Brien, 
Edward G. Pasteur, 
Jos. II. Saunders, 
Wm. A. Shaw, 
Sam'l II. Smith, 
Jas. Stafford, 
Jas. H. Taylor, 
G. L. Torrence. 

Jas. Bowman, 
Chas. L. Davies, 
Wm. B. Davies, 
Thos. F. Davis, 
Jno. Elliot, 
Wm. A. Hall, 
Jas. T. Hall, 
Wm. Ilardiman, 
Benj. F. Haywood, 
Fabius J. Haywood, 
Thos. Hill, 
Jno. A. Hogan, 
Joel Holleman, 
Wm. D. Jones, 
Sam'l Kerr, 
Pleasant W. Kittrell, 
Kobt. G. Martin, 
Kobt. H. Mason, 
Washington Morrison, 
Robt. N. Ogden, 
Wm. D. Pickett, 
Lucius J. Polk, 
Abraham Kencher, 
Marion Saunders, 
Jas. B. Slade, 
Benj. Sumner, 
Geo. Terry, 
Alex. E. Wilson. 

Sam'l S. Bell, 
Geo. T. Bettner, 
Alex. M. Boylan, 
Daniel AV. Courts, 
Wm. S. Chapman, 
Geo. F. Davidson, 
Jas. 11. Dickson, 
John C. Ellerbe, 
Robt. B. Gilliam, 
Thos. G. Graham, 
Isaac Hall, 
Thos. B. Haywood, 

Jas. K. Leitch, 
Edmond L. Martin, 
Hugh Martin, 
Benj. T. Moore, 
Victor M. Murphy, 
Richmond M. Pearson, 
Jno. Rains, 
Benj. S. Ricks, 
Mathias E. Sawyer, 
Alfred M. Scales, 
Sam'l Stewart, 
Thos. Sumner, 
Jas. A. Washington, 
Geo. Whitfield, 
Robt. P. Williamson, 
Wm. L. Wills. 

John Allison, 
Benj. H. Alston, 
Willis W. Alston, 
Dan. B. Baker, 
Benj. B. Blume, 
Thomas Bond, 
Robt. W. Booth, 
John Bragg, 
Jas. W. Bryan, 
Henry E. Coleman, 
Armand J. DeRosset, 
Thos. Dews, 
Richard Evans, 
Richard Fearn, 
Ervin J. Frierson, 
Wm. N. Gibson, 
Wm. A. Graham, 
Robert Hall, ' 
Hardy Holmes, 
Wm. F. Lytle, 
Mathias E. Manly, 
Augustus Moore, 
James H. Norwood, 
John W. Norwood, 
David Outlaw, 
Broomfield L. Ridley, 
David N. Sanders, 
Edw. D. Sims, 
Wm. R. Smith, 
Sam'l F. Sneed, 
Wm. A. Taylor, 
Wm. H. Thompson, 
William J. Twitty, 
John L. Wright. 

Charles E. Alexander, 
Elam Alexander, 
Albert V. Allen, 
Walter Alves, 
William E. Anderson, 
Isaac Baker, 
Allen J. Bai-bee, 
Wm. J. Bingham, 



Wm. P. Boylan, 
James 0. Bruce, 
Jesse Carter, 
John D. Clancy, 
Richard S. Clinton, 
Washington Donnell, 
John M. Gee, 
Milo A. Giles, 
Ralph Gorrell, 
Livingston Harris, 
Fred. W. Harrison, 
Jonathan H. Ilaughton, 
Samuel S. Hinton, 
William II. Hodge, 
Samuel L. Holt, 
Benjamin S. Long, 
James Martin, 
James Moore, 
Columbus Morrison, 
James E. Morrison, 
Thomas 11. Pipkin, 
Marshal T. Polk, 
Samuel W. Poplcston, 
Thomas Riddle, 
William Seawell, 
William D. Sims, 
John W. Walters, 
Burrell B. Wilkes, 
William A. Wright, 
J. J. Wyche, 
William B. Wright. 

Silas M. Andrews, 
Daniel M. Barringer, 
Henry T. Clark, 
Richard S. Croom, 
William B. Dunn, 
Henry B. Elliott, 
William H. Gray, 
Thomas S. Iloskins, 
Archibald Gilchrist, 
Samuel I. Johnston, 
Jacob A. King, 
Erasmus D. North, 
William Norwood, 
Ferdinand W. Risque, 
John Smith, 
Oliver D. Tredwell, 
Leander A. Watts, 
Thomas W. Watts, 
James M. Wright. 

Charles W. 11. Alexander, 
Robert J. Allison, 
James W. Armstrong, 
Absalom K. Barr, 
Thomas W. Belt, 
Thompson Byrd, 
William D. Crawford, 
John L. Fairley, 

Thomas P. Hall, 
Lawson F. Henderson, 
John W. Huske, 
John R. Jordan, 
Edwin A. Keeble, 
Lorenzo Lee, 
Richard H. Lewis, 
Jesse H. Lindsay, 
Alexander Macky, 
George Miller, 
Alfred 0. P. Nicholson, 
Thomas M. C. Prince, 
Robert A. T. Ridley, 
Reuben T. Saunders, 
Charles B. Shepard, 
Lewis G. Slaughter, 
James V. Thompson, 
Lewis Thompson, 
Whitmel B. Tunstall, 
John R. Williamson, 
John Winston, 
Warren Winslow, 
William H. Wooding, 
Henry Yarborough. 

Richard H. Battle, 
Edwin G. Booth, 
Henry S. Clarke, 
John P. Gaiise, 
Edwin R. Harris, 
James D. Hall, 
Thomas P. Johnston, 
James K. Nesbitt, 
Thomas J. Oakes, 
John L. Taylor, 
Henry I. Toole. 

Philip W. Alston, 
John P. Brown, 
Burton Craige, 
Thomas W. Dulany, 
William Eaton, 
James A. Johnston, 
Sidney X. Johnston, 
James E. Kerr, 
Osborne F. Long, 
David M. Lee, 
Richard M. Shepherd, 
Franklin L. Smith, 
Richard R. Wall, 
Rufus A. Yancey. 

John A. Backhouse, 
John H. Edwards, 
Rawley Galloway, 
Cicero S. Hawks, 
Richard K. Hill, 
William W. Kennedy, 



George G. Lea, 
Nathaniel McCain, 
James W. Osborne, 
WiUiam K. Ruffin, 
Aaron J. Spivey, 
Elisha Stedman, 
John M. Stedman, 
Benjamin F. Terry. 

Henry J. Cannon, 
James Grant, 
J. D. B. Hooper, 
Allen C. Jones, 
Calvin Jones, 
Alexander Mebane, 
Thomas R. Owen, 
Thomas J. Pitchford, 
Samuel B. Powell, 
Archibald A. I. Smith, 
William W. Spear, 
Jacob Thompson, 
Jesse A. Waugh, 
James Monroe Williamson. 

Thomas L. Armstrong, 
Thomas S. Ashe, 
Samuel S. Biddle, 
Thomas L. Clingman, 
Daniel G. Doak, 
James C. Dobbin, 
George Hairston, 
John L. Hargrave, 
Thomas W. Harris, 
John H. Haughton, 
Thomas B. Hill, 
Michael B. Holt, 
Cadwallader Jones, 
Thomas J. Jones, 
John H. Parker, 
Rufus M. Roseborough, 
Richard H. Smith, 
Stephen S. Sorsby, 
James 0. Stedman, 
Samuel B. Stephens, 
Thomas E. Taylor, 
Samuel A. AYilliams, 
Charles C. Wilson. 

John G. Bynum, 
William M. Crenshaw, 
P. E. A. Jones, 
Edmund W. Jones, 
Warren E. Kennedy, 
Junius B. King, 
Solomon Lea, 
William N. Mebane, 
William H. Owen, 
Julian E. Sawyer, 

Josiah Stallings, 
Addi E. D. Thorra, 
Henry J. McLin. 

Albert G. Anderson, 
Samuel R. Blake, 
William P. Bond, 
William B. Carter, 
Harrison W. Covington, 
William P. Gunn, 
Thomas G. Haughton, 
David McAllister, 
Henry W. Miller, 
Abraham F. Morehead, 
James B. Shepard, 
Samuel Williams, 
Thomas J. Williams. 

C. C. Battle, 
Rich'd B. Creecy, 
Charles R. Dobson, 
Augustus J. Foster, 
Henry L. Graves, 
Haywood W. Guion, 
Robert W. Henry, 
James H. Hutchins, 
John Paisley, 
Horace L. Robards, 
William A. Rose, 
Samuel Ruffin, 
James C. Smith, 
John G. Thompson, 
William G. Welsh. 

James A. Chrichton, 
John A. Downey, 
Ralph H. Graves, 
Thomas Gholson, 
Joseph E. Hamlet, 
William W. Hooper, 
Benjamin J. Howze, 
Thomas S. Jacobs, 
Thomas Jones, 
Robert G. McCutchin, 
Frederick N. j\L Williams, 
Henry K. Nash, 
Charles L. Pettigrew, . 

William B. Rodman, 
James Saunders, 
Lawrence W. Scott, 
Thomas Stamps, 
William L. Stamps, 
John G. Tull. 

William W. Avery, 
Augustus Benners, 
Perrin Busbee, 



Peter W. Hairston, 

George S. HoUey, 
Samuel B. Massey, 
Leonard H. Taylor, 
James G. Womack, 
Pride Jones. 

. 1838. 
Kemp P. Alston, 
H. W. Burgwin, 
Charles ■J.4i- Craddock, 
Green M. Cuthbert, 
George Davis, 
Joseph W. Evans, 
Needham W. Herring, 
Benjamin M. Hobson, 
Albert G. Hubbard, 
J. J. Jackson, 
K. H. Levris, 
AVilliam J. Long, 
Charles M. McCauley, 
John J. Ptoberts, 
Colin Shaw, 
James Summerville, 
William R. Walker, 
Wilson W. Whitaker, 
Gaston H. Wilder. 

Clarke M. Avery, 
John N. Barksdale, 
William F. Browne, 
Jarvis Buxton, 
Richard T. Donnell, 
Dennis D. Ferebee, 
John L. Hadley, 
Jos. H. Headen, 
Walter A. Huske, 
Alpheus Jones, 
Augus. C. McNeil, 
Thomas D. Meares, 
Isaac N. Tillet. 

David A. Barnes, 
Tod R. Caldwell, 
Jno. W. Cameron, 
Richard H. Claiborne, 
Ralph A. Clement, 
Jno. W. Cunningham, 
Daniel B. Currie, 
Isaac Shelby Currie, 
Wm. H. H. Dudley, 
Charles C. Graham, 
Wm. S. Green, 
Francis H. Hawks, 
William H. Henderson, 
Lucius J. Johnston, 
Wm. Johnston, 
Daniel L. Kenan, 

Jno, A. Lillington, 
Wm. Logan, 
Willis H. McLeod, 
Andrew McMillan, 
Walter W. Pharr, 
Oliver H. Prince, 
Samuel J. Proctor, 
Archibald Purcell, 
Duncan Sellares, 
Jno. P. Sharpe, 
Albert M. Shipp, 
Wm. M. Shipp, 
Thomas H. Spruill, 
Wm. Thompson, 
Calvin H. Wiley. 

Benj. F. Atkins, 
Thos. L. Avery, 
Robert F. Bridges, 
John W. Brodanax, 
Robert Burton, 
Archibald H. Caldwell, 
Wm. J. Clark, 
Wm. F. Dancy, 
Jno. S. Dancy, 
Leonidas L. Dancy, 
Jas. A. Delk, 
Robt. D. Dickson, 
John W. Ellis, 
John S. Erwin, 
Chauncey W. Graham, 
Stephen Graham, 
Wm. W. Green, 
Atlas 0. Harrison, 
Jno. D. Hawkins, 
Richard B. Haywood, 
Jno. F. Hoke, 
Angus R. Kelly, 
Jas. A. Long, 
Hector McAllster, 
Vardry A. McBee, 
Montfort McGehee, 
Andrew F. McRee, 
Saml. B. McPheeters, 
Stephen A. Norflet, 
Francis L. Pearson, 
Richmend N. Pearson, 
Charles Phillips, 
Samuel F. Phillips, 
Horatio M. Polk, 
Thomas RufEn, 
Jesse G. Shepherd, 
Robert Strange, Jr. 
James F. Taylor, 
James II. Viser, 
Samuel H. Walkup, 
Thos. B. Wetmore, 
James II. Williams, 
Jno. C. Williams. 



Richard J. Ashe, 
Rufus Barringer, 
Wm. A. Bell, 
Francis T. Bryan, 
James A. Caldwell, 
James W. Campbell, 
Robert M. Campbell, 
David Coloman, 
James L. iJiisenbery, 
Stephen S. Ureen, 
Wm. II. Ilaigh, 
Wm. W. Harris, 
Chas. P. Ilartwell, 
Wm. I. Hayes, 
Peter J. Holmes, 
John F. Jack, 
Wm. F. Lewis, 
Wm. F. Martin, 
Wm. P. McBee, 
Thos. P. Morrisy, 
Wm. S. Mullins, 
Israel L. Pickens, 
Nath. II. Quince, 
Geo. W. Kuffin, 
Jno. B. Smith, 
Ashley W, Spaight. 

Jos. J. Summeroll, 
Ruffin A\\ Tomlinson, 
Richd. D. AVilson. 

Cheslcy P. P. Barber, 
James M. Boyd, 
Jno. L. Bridges, 
Ashbcll G. Brown, 
Henry L. Clement, 
Thos. A. Covington, 
Wm. D. Cowan, 
Robt. P. Dick, 
Jas. W. Downing, 
Philo P. Henderson, 
Richard B. Hill, 
Jos. C. Iluske, 
Jas. P. Erwin, 
Thos. L. Johnston, 
Richard T. Jones, 
Rufus H. Jones, 
Michael A. King, 
J. W. Lancaster, 
Jas. A. Leak, 
Walter W. Lenoir, 
Frederick J. Lord, 
Jos. McCleese, 
Thomas L. D. McDowell, 
Bartlet Y. McNairy, 
John L. Mears, 
Jno. G. B. iMj'ers, 
Saml. J. Person, 

Jno. J. Rpcsp, 
Willis II. Saunders, 
Thos. D. Walker, 
Jno. T. Watson, 
Jno. L. Williamson, 
Clement G. Wright, 


Jno. Ballaiifant, 

Wm. F. Barbee, 

Wm. S. Battle, 

Wm. A. Blount, 

Jno. B. Borden, 

Jno. II. Bryan, 

Jno. II. M. Clinch, 

Edmond D. Covington, 

Jno. Cowan, 

Robert Cowan, 

Pleasant U. Dalton, 

Chas. F. Dewey, 

Leonidas C. Edwards, 

Alfred G. Foster, 

Robt. T. Fuller, 

Henry G. Graham, 

Jos. M. Graham, 

Ebenezer C. (Jricr, 

Robert T. Hall, 

Philemon B. Hawkins, 

Wm. Hill, 

Wm. II. Ilinton, 

Jas. Horner, 

Jas. S. Johnston, 

Gustavus A. Jones, 

Edward B. Lewis, 

Robin II. C. Jones, 

Jno. W. Long, 

Jos. McLaurin, 

Peter K. Rounsaville, 

Thos. Ruffin, 

Robt. A. Sanders, 
James G. Scott, 
Benjamin M. Smith, 
Stephen A. Stanfield, 
Walter L. Steele, 
Thomas II. C. Turner, 
George B. Wetmore, 
Exom L. Whi taker, 
James A. Wiiubish, 
Edward C. Yellowby. 

William E. Barnett, 
Jos. J. B. Batchelor, 
Charles Bruce, 
Peter G. Burton, 
Ralph P. Burton, 
Samuel P. Calvert, 
Samuel G. Cockrell, 
Thomas T. Davis, 
Edward Drunigoole, 
Edwin A. Duseubery, 



Alexander B. Hawkins, 
James P. Ilerrin, 
Eugene J. llinton, 
Owen D. Holmes, 
Pleasant A. Holt, 
II. 0. W. Hooker, 
Virginius H. Ivey, 
Frederick D. Lent, 
Langdon C. INIanly, 
Kicluxrd H. INIason, 
Thimias C. Mcllhenny, 
William T. Mcbane, 
Alexander D. Moore, 
Lucius H. Saunders, 
Reuben C. Shorter, 
Thomas T. Slade, 
Jesse P. Smith, 
De Witt C. Stone, > 
George V. Strong, 
Thomas 1. Sumner, 
Leonidas Tavlor, 
Samuel D.Wharton, 
Thomas E. Whyte. 

James S. Amis, 
Turner W. Battle, 
William K. Blake, 
Alexander F. Brevard, 
William S. Bryan, 
William F. Carter, 
John X. Daniel, 
William A. Daniel, 
William P. Duke, 
Solomon J. Faison, 
William A. Faison, 
Bichard N. Forbes, 
Edward H. Hicks, 
R. C. T. S. Hilliard, 
John L. Holmes, 
David S. Johnston, 
William B. Mears, 
Thomas U. Newby, 
Stephen F. Pool, 
Sion H. Rogers, 
James S. Ruffin, 
Frederic A. Shepherd, 
John Vicar Sherard, 
David T. Taylor, 
James R. Ward, 
Richard T. Weaver, 
Beniamin F. Whitaker, 
Owen H. Whitfield, 
Hillory M. Wilder. 

Alfred Alston, 
Joel D. Battle, 
Joseph Benjamin, 
George AV. Berry, 
Alexander J. Causler, 

Duncan L. Clinch, 
John C. Coleman, 
Thomas W.Dewey, 
Samuel J. Erwin, 
John 0. Guiou, 
Eli W. Hall, 
Thomas C. Hall, 
James W. Hicks, 
Elias C. nines, 
David llinton, 
William M. Howerton, 
John J. Kindred, 
M. Langford, 
Lionel Lincoln Levy, 
William Lucas, 
William H. 3Ianly, 
Benjamin F. Mebane, 

James L. Moseley, 
John D. Myrick, 

Edmond H. Norcom, 

James J. Pettigrew, 

John Pool, 

MatthcAV W. Ransom, 

Charles E. Shober, 

Thomas E. Skinner, 

Robert Hunter Tate, 

AVilliam S. Trigg, 

Joseph J. W. Tucker, 

Thomas Webb, 

John H. Whitaker, 

Robert H. Winborne. 

Alctor Clay Barringer, 
Geo. T. Baskerville, 
John B. Bynum, 
Richard A. Caldwell, 
John W. Cameron, 
John Xavier Campbell, 
Belficld William Cave, 
Oliver H. Dockery, 
Seaton Gales, 
Bryan Grimes, Jr., 
Benjamin S. Guion, 
Thomas H. Holmes, 
Erasmus A. Roscoe Hooker, 
James J. Iredell, 
William A. Jenkins, 
Peter II. McEachin, 
Willie P. Mangum, Jr., 
Oliver P. Meares, 
James N. Montgomery, 
Hardy INIurfree, 
Hazell Norwood, 
Lorenzo Dow Pender, 
Thomas P. Person, 
Nathan A. Ramsey, 
John K. Strange, 
Rufus S. Tucker, 
George Washington, 
John Wilson, 



Robert W. Wilson. 

Thomas M. Arrington, 
John Troup Banks, 
Kemp P. Battle, 
Benjamin Yancey Beene, 
Ephraim Joseph Brevard, 
James Pettigrew Bryan, 
John II. Corbett, 
Alexander Cunningham, 
Johnson M. De Berniere, 
AVilliam A. Dick, 
William B. Dortch, 
Henry M. Dusenbery, 
Fourney George, 
Thomas D. Ilaigh, 
Peter M. Hale, 
William E. Hill, 
Peter E. Ilines, 
Samuel T. Iredell, 
James M. Johnson, 
John M. John^n, 
William II. Jones, 
Charles E. Lowther, 
Nathaniel MoClaire, 
John C. McNair, 
Malcom McXair, 
Edward Mallet, 
William 0. Pool, 
Thomas J. Kobinson, 
Isaac B. Sanders, 
James P. Scales, 
Charles K. Thomas, 
Daniel T. Towles, 
Bryan W. Whitfield, 
John A. Whitticld, 
Needham B. Whitfield, 
George V. Young. 

Joel C. Blake, 
James F. Cane, 
Julius X. Caldwell, 
Alfred II. Carrigan, 
Edward C. Chambers, 
Julius L. Gorrel, 
Robert A. Ilairston, 
Henry Hardie, 
Madison Hawkins, 

John Hill, 
Richard Ilines, 
Benjamin R. Huske, 
William II. Johnston, 
Washington C. Kerr, 
John Manning, 
James R. Mendenhall, 
Robert H. Langford, 
Thomas Settle, Jr., 
Joseph W. Small, 
Robert L. Smith, 
Samuel E. Whitfield, 
Richard H. AVhitfield, 
Wm. J. White. 

1851. , 

Charles E. Bellamy, 
Joseph Bonner Bryan, 
David Miller Carter, 
Watkins Leigh Claiborne, 
Thos. Addis Emmett Evans, 
Bartholomew Fuller, 
Thos. Miles Garrett, 
Richard Swepson Grant, 
Julius Guion, 
Benj. Sherwood Iledrick, 
Samuel Ashe Holmes, 
iEgidius Leitch, 
Jesse Harper Lindsay, 
Malcome McDuffie, 
Neill McKay, Jr., 
Thos. T. Norcom, 
Rufus Lenoir Patterson, 
Jas. Alfred Patton, 
Wm. Marshall Richardson, 
EthL'ldred Kuflin, 
Claudius Brock Sanders, 
Joseph James Seawell, 
Francis E. Shober, 
Peter Evans Smith, 
Charles Cornelius Terry, 
Frederick Armand Toomer, 
Lowndes Treadwell, 
John Waddill, Jr., 
James Augustus Washington. 
George Washington Watson, 
John Thomas Wheat, Jr., 
Wilson Cary Whitaker, 
Edmund Webb Wilkina, 
John Lewis Woostcr. 


1. Salutatory Oration in Latin. 

CLAUDirs B. Sanders, 
, Johnston. 

2. Oration. " Early History of North Carolina.'' 

Bartholomew Fuller, 


3. Oration. " Party Spirit." 

Taos. Addis Emmett Evans, 



4. Oration. " The Infirmities of Men of Genius." 

Julius Guiox, 


5. Oration. " A Graduate's Aspirations." 

William Marshall Richardson, 


6. Oration. "Virtue alone makes Men Free." 

Tnos. Miles Garrett, 


7. Oration. "Religious Tests of Office, unjust and impolitic in a Repub- 


David Miller Carter, 


8. Oration. "Excelsior." 

Lowndes Treadwell, 

Lamar, Miss. 

9. Oration. "Socialism." 

Jesse Harper Lindsay, 



1. Oration. " Influence of Public Opinion." 

Leigh Claiborne, 

Tipton, Tcnn. 

2. Oration. "The late Crisis in our National Affairs." 

Frederick Armand Toomer, 


3. Oration. "The noblest ipotive is the Public Good." 

Charles Cornelius Terry, 


4. Oration. " Flora Macdonald." 

Malcolm James McDuffie, 


5. Annual Report. 

6. A Valedictory Oration. 

James Alfred Patton, 


Davidson College is located in Mecklenburg County, and so 
called in honor of General William Davidson, who fell in the battles 
of his country, on the banks of the Catawba, on the 1st of Feb- 
ruary, 1781. It was opened in March, 1837, Rev. R. H. Mor- 
rison, D. D., as President, and P. S. Sparrow, as Professor of 
Languages. It first operated as a Manual Labor Institution, but 
after four years' trial this system was abandoned. 

In 1838 it was chartered by the Legislature. 

By its constitution, no one is eligible as trustee, professor, or 
teacher, but members of the Presbyterian church. 

Dr. Morrison, from ill health, was compelled to resign his trust, 
and was succeeded by Rev. Samuel Williamson. He is now pastor 
of Unity and Machpelah churches, in Lincoln County. As a man, 
and as a divine, he has few equals, but no superiors. 



Mr. Sparrow was for a period aftei-wards President of Ilampdeii 
Sidney College, in Virginia, and now resides in Alabama, and is 
distinguished for his learning, piety, and eloquence. 

Its present faculty are, 

Rev. Samuel Williamson, D. D., President, and Professor of 
Chemistry, Mental and Moral Philosophy, and Rhetoric. 

Rev. Samuel B. 0. Wilson, Professor of Languages. 

Mortimer M. Johnson, A. M., Professor of Mathematics, and 
Natural Philosophy. 

Rev. E. F. Rockwell, Professor of Philosophy. 



The Literary Societies of the students are known to be under 
good regulations and highly favorable to the promotion of intellect- 
ual improvement. 

The Libraries number over a thousand volumes each, and receive 
additions every session, which, in connection with the College Li- 
brary, afford to the Students an opportunity of extensive reading. 



A. M. Bogle, 

James R. Baird, 

Wilkes T. Caston, 

Wm. S. M. Davidson, 

R. F. Johnston, 

E. C. Davidson, 

Thos. F. King, 

R. N. Davis, 

Thos. M. Kirkpatrick, 

Wm. Flinn, 

M. L. McCorklr, 

Thos. I). Houston, 

John M. Sample, 

"Wui. II. .Johnston, 

Wm. T. Savage, 

.James Knox, 

J. Robinson Shive, 

11. II. Kimmons, 

R. 0. P. Stewart, 

0. D. McNeely, 

W.-L. Torrence. 

Arch'd JS'cely. 



W'. L. Anderso'n, 

Sam'l L. Adams, 

J. M. Baker, 

Cyrus K. Caldwell, 

A. L. Crawford, 

W. P. Caldwell, 

S. C. Caldwell, 

T. E. Davis, 

J. M. Doby, 

R. W. Martin, 

W. A. Moore, 

Wm. II. Moore, 

J. L. Porter, 

James S. C. Moore, 

R. B. Price, 

M. C. McNair, 

J. P. Rosseau, 

Samuel C. Pharr, 

J. A. Stewart, 

James G. Ramsev, 

J. II. Stewart. 

R. E. Sherrill, ' 

Daniel B. Wood. 


J. J. Bossard, 


A. E. Chandler, 

n. C. Alexander, 

J. M. Davidson, 

II. W. Black, 

J. G. A. Dick, 

Wm. P. Bvnum, 

J. A. Fox, 

T. C. Crawford, 

J. M. Gill, 

W. L. Davidson, 

J. II. Houston, 

II. B. Johnson, 

S. N. Hutchison, 

T. A. Krider, 

E. N. Hutchison, 

II. R. McLean. 

M. Lingle, 

J. B. McCallum, 


J. N. McXeely, 

J. F. Allison, 

H. McNeil, 


W. M. Peacock, J. M. "Walker, 

J. n. White. A. White, 

II. II. Wilson. 


E. C. Alexander, graduated in 1848. 

W. J. Cooper, S. C. Alexander, 

J. L. Gaither, R. R. Barr, 

W. B. Henderson, S. W. Davis, 

A. I. McKni^ht, J. R. Gillespie, 

Wm. McNeill, J. M. Henderson, 

J. W. McKae, J. F. Houston, 

P. T. Peniek, A. A. James, 

W. II. Sin-Ietarv, B. F. Little, 

J. A. Williamson, J. L. Miller, 

S. Z. Williamson. G. D. Parks, 

B. C. Powell, 

GRADUATED IN 1847. A. M. Watson. 
J. S. Barr, 

W. C. Barr, graduated in 1840. 

J. T. K. Bolk, J. N. Dinkins, 

W. Black, James Douglass, 

T. F. Chambers, A. M. Erwin, 

A. Enlne, T. W. Erwin, 

R. K. Kinp;, R. H. Johnston, 

P. B. .MrLaurin, S. M. ISIcDowcll, 

E. R. Mills, W. S. Moore, 

S. K. Pharr, S, R. Spann. 
E. C. Stewart, 

Its location is salubrious, removed from the allurements of \dce, 
and amid a population iml^ued with the tenets of the church under 
whose auspices it is established, and in a fertile region, its useful- 
ness and influence will doubtless be most happy in our State. 


Rev. Joiix B. Wjiite, President, and Professor of Mathematics 
and Natural Philosophy. 

William II. Owen, A.M., Professor of Greek, Latin, and 

Rev. William T. Brookes, A. M., Adjunct Professor of Lan- 
guaf^es, and Teacher in the Academical Department. 

William T. Walters, A.B., Tutor in Mathematics. 

Benjamin W. Justice, A. B., Tutor in Natural Science. 

Rev. James S. Purify, Secretary of the Board of Trustees, and 
General Agent. 

BOARD OF trustees. 

Rev. Samuel Wait, D. D., Presi- G. C. Moore, M. D. 

dent of the Board. Samuel J. W^heeler, M. D. 

Hon. Alfred Duckcry. George W. Thompson, Esq. 

Rev. John Purify. William M. Crenshaw, M. D. 

Charles W. Skinner, Esq. Hon. Thomas Settle. 

Rev. David S. Williams. Nathaniel J. Palmer, Esq. 

Rev. Georpe M. Thompson. Rev. George W. Purify. 

David Justice, Eeq. George W. Jones, Esq. 


Jdhn Kerr, Esfj. R. W. Lawson, Esq. 

Rev. J. J. James. Sidney S. Lea, Esq. 

Kev. James McDaniel. 11. Hester, Esq. 

II(in. Calvin Graves. Hon. William A. Graham. 

Kev. William Jones. llhodes X, Ilerndon, Esq. 

George R. French, Esq. Henry F. Bond, Esq. 

J. J. Riggs, Esq. Council Wouten, Esq. 

Kev. James S. Purify. John Berry, Esq. 

Samuel S. Biddle, Esq. Rev. Elias Dodson. 

Rov. William Hooner, LL.D. A. Armstrong, Esq. 
William Russell, Esq. 

We have been furnished with but little information respecting 
this institution. It was fomnlcd by the Baptist denomination in 
1834, as an Institute or Classical Seminary, and such was its pros- 
perity that it was deemed expedient to obtain a college charter in 
1838. The number of students have varied annu;illy from 75 to 
1-50. It has had a most hapjiy inlluence upon the denomination 
that founded it, and has also contributed much to diffuse a lively 
interest in the of education throughout the State. 

The father and foun<lor of this institution is undoubtedly the 
Rev. Sa.miel Wait, D.l)., who was its first President, and continued 
so up to June, 1S4U. The Kev, William Hooper, LL.D., was his 
successor, and resigned in 1848, at which time the Rev, John R. 
White, A. >L, who had for twelve years occupied the rmfcssorship 
of Mathi-matics and Natural IMiihtsophy, was elected President. 
The institution has gradually been gaining in public fav<>r. i^ free 
from debt, and has the prospect of u speedy endowment. 

There are two literary societies connected with the institution, 
with beautiful halls and excellent libraries. There is also a choice 
cabinet of minerals, and apparatus fnr illustrating the natural 

The location is a very fortunate one. It is in Wake County, 
sixteen miles north of RaUigh, and immediately upon the Raleigh 
and Gaston Railroad. Its distance from the (listracting influence 
of towns and villages, the healthiness of the surrounding country, 
the beauty of the scenery, and the elevated character of the in- 
habitants for intelligence and jnorality, make it a fortunate location 
for a great literary institution. 

There are many other institutions in the State devoted to education. 
The Edgeworth Institute, and Methodist Female Institute at Greens- 
boro'; the Female School at Salem, under the Moravians; Saint 
Mary's School, at Raleigh, under the care of Rev, A, Smedes; the 
Chowan Collegiate Institute at Murfreesboro', in Ilertfnril County, 
under charge of Rev, M. R. Forey (Doctor Godwin C, Moore is 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees) ; and two schools at Warren- 
ton, one under care of Honorable Daniel Turner, and the other 
under Rev. Mr. Graves, are for the education of females and have 
done great service to the country. 

We regret that our limits do not allow a minute account or ex- 
tended statement of their establishment or their value. 


The great substratum of our education in North Carolina, is the 


Judge Reeves, in his work on Domestic Rchitions (published 
1810), states that during an extensive pcactice of the law in Con- 
necticut for twenty years, he had met only two persons who could 
not read and write. 

Can any lawyer of our State say the same ? 

Tlio table here given ])ro.<cnts an answer. 

Edtcation in the United States, — The following table, col- 
lated by the Ttichmond Cowpilrr, presents in a distinct form, a very 
interestinj; feature <>f the various information, obtained bv means of 
the late census of the United States. It exhibits a comparative 
view (»f the number of wliite persons over twenty years of age, in 
the different States, who cannot read or write. 













New Hampshire, 







* t 


1 Soutii Carolina, 















llhode I»»l:inJ, 

• ( 





New .Jersey, 






New York, 












< >hio, 















North Carolina, 



The humiliating fact is here presented, that in point of education 
our State is behind all the Union, and one in every sevoi white 
persons over twenty years of age, cannot read or write ! 

This fact is not recorded with any satisfaction. " More in sor- 
row than in anger," is it alluded to. Like the filial piety of the 
sons of Noah, would we rather cover the mantle of oblivion over 
her degraded position. It should rouse our statesmen and our peo- 
ple to remove the opprobrium, and stand in education, science, and 
literature, as prominent as her early history is l»right and glorious. 
"With this lauilable motive, the attention of the citizens of the State 
is called to this subject. 

It is not to be denied that the plan, as it now exists, can hardly be 
worthy of the name of a system — without a head, and without uni- 
formity of action, it fails to produce the effects beneficial to the 

rising jreneration 

In January, 1830, the General Assembly passed an act dividing 
each county into districts not more than six miles square, for the 
purpose of establishing common schools. 

At the next session, the net annual income of the literary fund 
(exclusive of moneys arising from the swamp lands) was appropriated 
to be distributed according to federal population. The literary 
fund of the State consists of — 1 . The di\idcnds from the bank stock ; 


2. Cape Fear Navigation Company ; 3. The Roanoke Na^^gation 
Company ; 4. The tax on retailers of spiritous liquors, tavern tax, 
and auctioneers ; 5. Vacant lands ; 6. All sales of swamp lands. 
The county courts appoint ten superintendents for each county, 
who select for each district the school committee men, who contract 
for a teacher, visit the schools, and " perform all such duties as 
may be necessary to the successful operation of said schools." The 
teachers of said schools to be exempt from working roads, military 
duties, or servinu on iuries while engaged in said schools. 

By act of 1840, the board of superintendents appoint the three 
school committee men ; and the court authorized to appoint on re- 
commendation of the board of superintendents " some suitable and 
competent person to ^^sit once a year each and every school district, 
to examine the condition of the schools and report the same. 

About one hundred thousand dollars a year is appropriated by the 
Literary Board, which is distributed to each county, to the Chair- 
man of the Board, and by him paid to each teacher. 

That this plan contains the germ of immense usefulness, is true. 
The defects to be remedied, and the system perfected, have engaged 
the attention of the General Assembly. The patriotic efforts of 
the Hon. Wm. B. Shepard; Mr. Wiley, of Guilford; Samuel J. 
Person, of Moore ; Mr. Barnes, of Northampton ; and others in the 
last legislature, will, we trust, be appreciated and crowned with 

Present Literary Board — Wesley JoNf:s, Wake County; W. W. 
IIOLTTX. Raleigh; II. G. Spruill, Washington County. 


Banks of North Carolina — Railroads — Canals — Turnpike and plank roads — 
Institution for Deaf and Dumb — State Hospital for Insane. 

1. Bank of Cape Fear was incorporated in 1804, with a capital of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The Mother Bank is located at Wil- 
mington. Charter was continued, and capital increased by various enact- 
ments to one million and a half. The act of 1850 further increased its capital 
five thousand shares. Charter expires Jan. 1, 18G0. The State owns 5,322 
shares of stock. 


Principal Bank at Wilmington. — Thomas II. Wright, President ; Henry R. 

Savage, Cashier ; -J. D. Gardner, Teller ; McLaurin, Ass't Teller ; J. A. 

Bradley, Book-keeper ; T. H. Hardin, Clerk. 

Branch at Washington. — John Myers, President; Benj. Runyon, Cashier; 
T. II. Hardenbergh, Teller. 

Branch at Salisbury. — D. A. Davis, Cashier. 

Branch at Salcm. — .J. G. Lash, Cashier. 

Branch at FayetteviUe. — Charles T. Ilaigh, President ; John W. Wright, 
Cashier; W. J. Anderson, Teller; Joshua Carman, Clerk; Alexander Mc- 
Lean, Clerk. 


Branch at Fakir/Jt.—W. II. Jones, Cashier ; F. C. Hill, Clerk. 
Branch at AsheciUe. — J. F. E. Ilardy, Cashier. 
Branch at Greensboro' . — Jesse II. Lindsay, Cashier. 

2. Bank of the State of North Carolina, incorporated in 1833. Raleigh. 
Capital, one million five hundred thousand dollars, of which the State owns 
five thousand shares. 


Principal Banh at Iialci'/Jt. — George W. Mordecai, President; C. Dewey, 
Cashier; S. W. Whiting, Teller; D. Du rr6, Book-keeper; T. W. Dewey, 

Fai/ettcvilh Branch. -~C. P. Mallett, President; I. Wetmore, Cashier; W. 
"Warden, Teller; ^V. Iluske, Clerk. 

Witminijton Branch. — E. P. Hall, President; W. E. Anderson, Cashier; 
William Keston, Teller; J. J. Lippitt, Clerk, 

Kewberu Branch. — George S. Attmore, President; J. M. Koberts, Cashier; 
H. C. Lucas, Teller. 

Tarhorough Branch. — James WeddcU, President; P. P. Lawrence, Cashier; 
R. Chapman, Teller. 

Elizabeth Citij Branch. — W. B. Shepard, President; J. C. Ehrin'i'hauH, 
Cashier ; W. C. Butler, Teller. 

Branch at Charlotte. — John Irvin, President; W. A. Lucas, Cashier ; W. 
A. Williams, Clerk. 

Morganton Branch. — Bobcrt C. Pearson, President; Isaac T. Avery, Cashier. 

Milton Branch. — Samuel Watkins, President; W. R. Ilill, Cashier. 

3. Merchants' Bank of Xewbern, incorporated in 1834, with a capital of 
three hundred thousand dollars. 

Charles Slovcr, President ; W. W. Clark, Cashier ; Joseph Fulford, Teller. 

4. Cohmercial Bank at Wilmington, incorporated in 1847, with a capital 
of three hundred thousand dollars. Increased in 1850, fifty thousand dollars. 

0. G. Parsley, President ; Timotliy Savage, Jr., Cashier ; John McRae, 

5. Bank of Fayettevii.le, incorporated January, 1849, with a capital of 
eight hundred thousand dollars. 

John D. Starr, President; W. J. Broadfoot, Cashier; Ilarvey Leite, Teller. 

6. Bank of Washington, Beaufort County, incorporated in 1850, with a 
capital of four hundred thousand dollars. Charter expires in 1877. 

James E. Iloyt, President ; Martin Stevenson, Cashier. 

7. Bank of Wadesdoro', Anson County, incorporated in 1850, with a capi- 
tal of two hundred thousand dollars. Charter expires in 1880. 

W. R. Leak, President ; U. B. Hammond, Cashier. 


In 1825, a Board of Internal Improvements was established, and 
the funds arising from the sales of Cherokee lands and dividends 
from stock owned by the State in the Bank of Cape Fear, set apart 
as the fund. (See Ke\-ised Statutes, p. 347.) 

Present Internal Improvement Board — Calvin Graves, of Cas- 
well ; Thomas Bragg, of Northampton. 

1. The Dismal Swamp Canal, uniting the waters of Pasquotank 
and Elizabeth Rivers in Virginia, was incorporated in 1790. 

2. Cape Fear Navigation Company, incorporated in 1796, to im- 
prove the navigation of the Cape Fear River, from Averysborough to 
the confluence of the Deep and Haw Rivers, the sum of §100,000, 


to be subscribed in shares of one hundred dollars each ; the State 
subscribed six hundred and fifty shares of stock. 

3. Roanoake Navigation Company, incorporated in 1812, improv- 
ing the navigation from Halifax to the Yu-ginia line. The State 
owns $50,000 in the stock of this Company. 

4. The Clubfoot and Harlow Creek Canal was incorporated in 
1826 ; in which the State holds thirty shares. 

5. The Cape Fear and Deep Kiver Navigation Company was in- 
corporated in 1849, in which the State subscribed $40,000. 

6. Neuse River Navigation Company, incorporated in 1850. 
State subscribes $40,000. 

1. The Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, from Raleigh to Gaston, on 
Roanoke River, was incorporated in 1835. This road was finished 
July 4th, 1839, at a cost of about $1,600,000. The State endorsed 
the bonds of this road in 1838, to the amount of $500,000 ; and in 
1840, $300,000 ; for which she is liable, and has already in part 
paid ; the road being mortgaged to save the State harmless, has been 
sold under the mortgage, and has been purchased by the State. 

George W, Mordecai, President. 

2. The Raleigh and Wilmington Railroad, from the Roanoke 
River to AVilmington, was incorporated in 1833. The Company was 
organized in ^larch, 1836. This work was commenced in Oct., 
1836, and finished in March, 1840, at a cost of $1,500,000. Six 
hundred thousand were subscribed in the stock by the State ; and by 
act of 1840, the State endorsed the bonds of this Company for 
$300,000, a part of which she has paid. The repairs of the road 
in 1850, increased the cost to another million. Gen. McRae, Pre- 

3. The North Carolina Railroad, from the "Wilmington and Ra- 
leigh Railroad in Wayne County, to Charlotte, was incorporated in 
184b, in which, on $1,000,000 being subscribed by individual sub- 
scribers, $2,000,000 is to be subscribed by the State. This road 
is now in progress. Hon. J. M. Morehead, President. 

1. Buncombe Turnpike, from the Saluda Gap by way of Asheville 
to the Tennessee line, was incorporated in 1824 ; capital stock to 
be $30,000 in shares of fifty dollars each; the State owns one hun- 
dred shares. ' The Company was organized in 1826 ; the first toll- 
gate was erected in Oct., 1827. 

2. The Fayetteville and Western Plank Road, from Fayetteville to 
Salisbury, was incorporated in 1848. Stock, $200,000, in shares 
of fifty dollars each. State subscribes one-fifth. 

3. The Turnpike Road, from Salisbury west to the Georgia line, 
was incorporated in 1848, and the lands in the State, in Cherokee, 
Macon, and Haywood, as Avell as the Cherokee bonds, are pledged 
to make the same. 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was created, by act of 184 
in the City of Raleigh, and the sum of $30,000 was appropriated 
It is a beautiful building, and under the care of William D. Cooke, 
as Principal, and a Board of Directors consisting of Perrin Busbee, 



Linn B. Sanders, Jolin II. Bryan, Thomas J. Lemay, W W. 
HoMen, James F. Jordan, and Dr. Charles E. Johnson It has 
twenty-seven pupils, wlio are employed in acqiurnig kno.yledge and 
the mechanic arts. They have a printing press, and publish weekly 
a newspaper, called the Deaf Mute. The annual expense of each 
pupil is about one hundred and eighty-three dollars, ihc Prmcipal 
has a salary of twelve hundred dollars. 

A Comniittee of the last Legislature reported (through its chair- 
man, J. II. Ilaughton) that " after a very strict and careful inves- 
tigation of the afiairs of the institution, they are fully impressed 
with the belief, that it has been managed with economy, judgment, 
and fidelity, by the Board of Directors, and they have every reason 
to believe that under their administration, judging from the past, 
the institution will flourish, and will be the means of untold bless- 
in-^ to that unfortunate class of our population for whose beneht it 
was established; and they hope that the institution may long re- 
main as a monument of the wisdom and munificence of the Legis- 
lature of North Carolina." ^ 1QiO or,.l 

St\tf IIo<i'it\l for the Insane was incorporated in 1»4J, ana 
JoIh/m. Morehea.l, Calvin Graves, George W. Mordecai, Charles 
L Ilinton, and Josiah 0. Watson, appointed commissioners to pur- 
chase and select a site for the same. The commissioners have 
selected " Dix's Hill," near Raleigh, and a tax of one and three- 
fourths of a cent is levied on every hundred dollars worth ot land 
and five and one-quarter of a cent on every poll, to sustain saia 


Resources of the State, her liabilities, and her expenses. 

The Public Treasury of North Carolina is divided into— 

I. Public Fund. 

II. Literary Fund. 

The public fund is supplied— 

I From taxes collected by the sheriffs annually from the 
people, and paid into the treasury, which is levied on land and town 
property, poll (white and black), money at interest, dividends and 
profits, stires, carriages, watches, and other property, bank tax 
ittorn^ys, licenses, di^ddends of Buncombe Tm-npike Company, and 
some other sources, which amounted last year to ^l<y,<oo. 

The literary fund is supplied— , , • ^, o,,., ,^^f.. 

II. By the sales of vacant and swamp lands m the fetate, taxes 
on taverns, dividends on stock held by the State in the -Bank of ^^ 
State and Bank of Cape Fear, dividends on the stock held by the 


State in the Roanoake Navigation Company, and in the Cape 
Fear Navigation Company, tax on auctioneers, interest on bonds 
held by the board ; which amounted last year to $112,316. 


From the public fund for judiciary about . . . $30,000 00 

Legislatui'e ........ 45,000 00 

Executive 10,000 00 

Principal and interest on bonds of Raleigh and Gaston 

Railroad endorsed by the State .... 70,000 00 

And other demands which amounted last year (1850) to 228,173 00 
The expenses paid from literary fund are, for common 

schools ........ 107,339 00 


For Raleigh and Gaston Railroad . . . $500,000 00 

For do do do ... 106,000 00 

State Bonds 200,000 00 

State Bonds for Fayetteville and "Western Tm-n- 

pike Company 120,000 00 

State Bonds for Neuse and Tar Rivers . . 65,000 00 

State Bonds for Cape Fear and Deep Rivers . 80,000 00 

State Bonds for North Carolina Railroad . . 2,000,000 00 

$3,071,000 00 

Here end the Second Series of these Sketches, and the first 









Son laSO.'Vr'^iai: 



























R- »/! 


















4" JUUY 15a* 


HABltS 2° I6« 


Counfiej marke/l *r do Twinoa;' Iretboccoe 
fi«^ ^^^/or^ /i/«^ ^^Wtj- iojJiow /to crown .72 

cottniuj s/umg. ^ avawancc .rr. 

'mcCKkM. Dec. or indsp": 

WIATT 171) 

Location, Origin, and D ate 
ofBfcction of every Counly 

.aTtorth Cataliita, 

for Sketches of No/Cel 
byJ.HWheeler. 1851. 




From 1584 to 1851. 









"Truth is stranger than Fiction." 







Ox the dissolution of the Proprietary Government in 1729, the Province of 
North Carolina was divided into three Counties : — 

1. Albemarle. 

2. Bath. 

3. Clarendon. 

From these three branches spring all the Counties of the State. See 
Sketches, vol. i. 42. 

All of these (Albemarle, Bath and Clarendon) exist only by name, the 
territory having been divided, and are only used, as are also Bute, Dobbs, 
Tryon and Glasgow (marked thus *) to show the branches from whence 
other counties have sprung. 

To find a County, its formation and derivation, is not difficult. Wake, for 
instance, is a centre County, formed in 1770 from Cumberland, Orange and 
Johnston. Revised Statutes, vol. ii. 165. 

Lincoln County, formed in 1779 from Tryon (see Revised Statutes), which 
in that year was divided into Lincoln and Rutherford ; Tryon erected in 
1768 from Mecklenburg ; Mecklenburg in 1762 from Anson ; Anson in 1749 
from Bladen ; Bladen in 1734 from New Hanover ; New Hanover in 1729 
from Clarendon, . All of which is plainly visible in the delineation. 

Guilford County was formed in 1770, from Orange and Rowan ; but as 
Orange was from a different stock than Rowan, it could not be delineated on 
the plan of the tree. This must be borne in mind. 

The engraver has omitted in some of the engravings to letter the branch 
Caswell, springing from Orange and Person, which springs from Caswell, 
which the reader will supply. 



The above is the Coat of Arms of North Carolina, as exhibited on the 
Great Seal of State. 

In December, 1776, William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and Thomas Burke, 
were appointed to prepare "a suitable device for the Great Seal of the State 
of North Carolina." 

It is emblematic, and represents Liberty and Plenty. 

Liberty holds in her left hand the Constitution, and in her right a staflf 
surmounted by the cap of Liberty, indicating that her liberties are safe and 
secured by the Constitution. 

Plenty holds in her right hand an ear of grain, and at her le^ the cornu- 
copia3 is seen, from vrhich pour forth the rich fruits of the earth ; both indi- 
cating that North Carolina is a land of liberty guided by lavr, and abundant 
in products to sustain life. 


In 1728, the precincts of North Carolina were Currituck, Pasquotank, Per- 
quimans, Chowan, Craven, Beaufort, Bertie, Hyde, and Carteret.* 
In 1729, Tyrrcl and New Hanover. 
In 1731, Onslow and Bladen. 
In 1738, the precincts were denominated counties.f 

Chapter I. 









































Alamance - 










Cabarrus - 

Caldwell - 






Cherokee - 



Columbus - 



Currituck - 

Davidson - 












Haywood - 





* Williamson, vol. ii. page 246. 



Chap. XLII. Jackson 




XLIII. Johnston 



XLIV. Jones - 



XLV. Lenoir - 



XLVI. Lincoln - 



XLVII. MacDowell - 



XLVIII. Macon - 



XLIX. Madison 



L. Martin - 




LI. Mecklenburg - 
LII^ Montgomery - 
LIII. Moore - 



LIV. Nash - 



LV. New Hanover 



LVI. Northampton 
LVII. Onslow - 



LVIII. Orange - 



LIX. Pasquotank - 
LX. Perquimans - 



LXI. Person - 



LXII. Pitt 



LXIII. Kandolph 
LXIV. Richmond 



LXV. Robeson 



LXVI. Rockingham - 



LXVII. Rowan 



LXVIII. Rutherford - 



LXIX. Sampson 
LXX. Stanly - 
LXXI. Stokes - 



LXXII. Surry - 



LXXIII. Tyrrell - 



LXXIV. Union - 



LXXV. Wake - 



LXXVI. Warren 



LXXVII. Washington - 
LXXVIII. Watauga 
LXXIX. Wayne 
LXXX. Wilkes 



LXXXI. Yadkin 



LXXXII. Yancey 

t Martin, ii. 27. 



The State ■ of North Carolina is situated between 33° 53^, and 
36° 33" north latitude, and 1° 28' east, and 6° 50' west longitude. 

It is so called in honor of Charles II., who granted the charter 
to the Duke of Albemarle and others. 

It is bounded on the north by the State of Virginia, east by the 
Atlantic, south by South Carolina, and west by Tennessee. Its 
mean length is about 362 miles. Its mean breadth is 121 miles. 
Its area is 43,800 square miles, or 28,032,000 acres. 

It was the first State in which the English landed (1584), and 
the first State whose citizens threw off the English yoke (1775). 

Its shape is irregular. Its northern line (36°33') is straight 
from east to west. Its eastern boundary irregular by the indent- 
ures and curvatures of the Atlantic. Its southern line still more 
irregular, as is also its western line, by the course of the Blue 

The State is divided into eighty-two counties, the names of 
which are exhibited in the following table, with the sections of the 
State in which they are situated, the date of their formation, the 
capital or county town, distance from Raleigh (the seat of govern- 
ment), and the population of each in federal numbers, according to 
the last census. 

The population of the State is 553,290 white ; 27,196 free colored ;.288,412 
slaves ; 753,505 federal population ; 841 Indians. 
Its products, according to the census of 1840, are 

1,960,855 bushels of wheat. 506,766 dollars annual amount of 

3,574 " barley. lumber sold. 

3,193,941 " oats. 73,350 barrels of fish. 

213,971 " rye. 593,451 barrels of tar, pitch, turpen- 

23,893,763 " corn. tine, and rosin. 

2,609,239 " potatoes. 995,300 dollars invested in cotton 

625,044 pounds of wool. factories. 

16,772,359 " tobacco. 2,802 distilleries, which produce 
2,820,388 " rice. 1,051,979 gallons. 

51,926,190 " cotton. 10,000 dollars worth of lead, 

17,163 " sugar. 255,618 " gold. 

5,082,835 dollars invested in merchan- 968 tons of iron, 






Names of 

Date of 

Course and Distance 


Capital Towns. 


from Raleigl 




1 . 

llamance ' 


1848 ] 




2 . 



1846 ] 




3 . 



1749 . 




4 . 

A.she ? 


1799 ] 

Extreme N.W. 2021 


6 ] 



1738 : 




6 : 












■ 99 







































Court House 





































Extreme S.W. 3671 







































Court House 


Extreme N.E. 242 











Mocks ville 
































































































Swan Quarter 






























































Extreme west 







) 6,960 







S 11,724 


TABLE I.— Continued. 

Names of 

Date of 

Course and Distance 




Capital Towns. 


I'rom Raleigh. 




























New Hanover 















Court House 














Elizabeth City 





























































































T^ATf ll-^WP^i" 



J- ( f w 




































1 Waynes- 
\ borough 




























Showing the amount paid by each county in North Carolina into the trea- 
sury as taxes (1850). Tlie amount received by each county from the 
treasury for the support of common schools (distribution of 1850). _ The 
number of white persons over twenty-one who cannot read or write, in 
each county, the deaf and dumb, insane and idiotic, and blind ; (from the 
last Census.) 

Taxes paid. 

Annual amt's 

"Whites '73 

received for 

over 21 j 

= . 1 


and 1 


Common who cuii-|,_ 






not read' 

^ 5 Idiotic. j 



ir write, a^^ 

Dollars ] 


Dollars cts. 


1. Alamance 



1426 00 

See Orange 





2. Alexander 



414 00 

See Iredell 





3. Anson 



2699 00 






4. Ashe 



824 00 






5. Beaufort 



2606 00 






6. Bertie 



2926 00 






7. Bladen 



1225 00 






8. Brunswick 



990 00 






9. Buncombe 



1426 00 






10. Burke 



1145 00 






11. Cabarrus 



1910 00 






12. Caldwell 



786 00 






13. Camden 



1219 00 





14. Carteret 



838 00 






15. Caswell 



2721 00 






16. Catawba 



1178 00 






17. Chatham 



2404 00 






18. Cherokee 



310 00 






19. Chowan 



2260 00 






20. Cleaveland 



1075 00 






21. Columbus 



624 00 






22. Craven 



44S0 00 






23. Cumberland 



4480 00 






24. Currituck 



898 00 






25. Davidson 



1954 00 






26. Davie 



1109 00 





27. Duplin 



2038 00 






28. Edgecombe 



4778 00 






29. Forsythe 



1995 00 





30. Franklin 



2912 00 






31. Gaston 



1151 00 

in Lincoln 





32. Gates 



1460 00 






33. Granville 



4300 00 






34. Greene 



1328 00 






35. Guilford 



3237 00 






36. Halifax 



3664 00 






37. Haywood 



568 00 






38. Henderson 



891 00 





39. Hertford 



1990 62 






40. Hyde 

41. Iredell 



1256 00 








1970 00 





42. Jackson 


d last 


43. Johnson 



1840 00 






44. Jones 



1115 00 






45. Lenoir 



1717 00 

\ 958 
( 1591 -i 
^ Includes > 
( Gaston ) 




46. Lincoln 



1404 0( 




47. MacDowell 



861 00 

1 730 






TABLE 11.— Contmued. 

Taxes paid. 

Annual amt's 



received for 

over 21 
who can- 









not read 
or write. 





Dollars cts 


48. Macon 



608 00 






49. Madison 


d last 


50. Martin 



1941 00 





.51. Mecklenburg 



3394 00 






52. Montgomery 



769 00 






63. Moore 



950 00 






54. Nash 



1808 00 






55. New Hanover 



6285 00 






66. Northampton 



2582 00 






57. Onslow 



1206 00 






58. Orange 



2647 00 






59. Pasquotank 



2185 00 






60. Perquimans 



1640 00 





61. Person 



1787 00 






62. Pitt 



2763 00 






63. Randolph 



1866 00 






64. Richmond 



1675 00 






65. Robeson 



1466 00 






66. Rockingham 



2513 00 






67. Rowan 



2288 00 






68. Rutherford 



1841 00 






69. Sampson 



1922 00 






70. Stanly 



700 00 





71. Stokes 



1040 00 






72. Surry 



1659 00 






73. Tyrrell 



568 00 

( With -i 





74. Union 



1170 00 

< Meek- > 
( lenburg ) 





75. Wake 



5828 00 






76. Warren 



3500 00 






77. Washington 



1344 00 






78. Watauga 



325 00 





79. Wayne 



2526 00 






80. Wilkes 



828 00 






81. Yadkin 


d last 


82. Yancey 



504 00 









145,150 00 









Date of erection — Origin of its name, situation, and boundaries — County town 
—Colonial and Revolutionary history — History of the battle of Alamance, 
between Governor Tryon au(i the Regulators, June, 1771, in which the first 
blood of the colonists was spilled by the Royal Troops of England— Journal 
of Governor Tryon in the first expedition against the Regulators, 1768 — List 
of his officers— Petition of John Low, James Hunter, Rednap Howell, and 
other Regulators, detailing the causes of the disaffection of the people, and 
oppressive conduct of Edmund Fanning and others — Governor Tryon's 
reply, dated June, 1768 — Petition of Francis Dorset, William Paine, and 
others, to the Governor — Deposition of Ralph McNair, Oct. 9th, 1770, as to 
the outrages of the Regulators ; Herman Husbands and others, when they 
broke up the Court at Hillsboro' ; run the Judge off; whipped John AVilliams 
and Edmund Fanning — Judge Henderson's statement — Deposition of 
Waightstill Avery, March 8th, 1771, who was taken at Yadkin Ferry, by 
the Regulators — Petition of Regulators, May 15th, 1771, on the field of battle 
— Governor Tryon's detailed report of the battle. May 18th, 1771 — Same, re- 
porting his movements after the battle, report of killed, wounded, and mis- 
sing — Oath of Regulators — Governor Martin's report to Lord Dartmouth, of 
the oppressive conduct of the Sheriffs, Clerks, and other subordinate officers 
of Government (Nov., 1772) — Population of Alamance — Biographical 
Sketch of Hon. Thomas Ruffin, Chief Justice of Supreme Court of North 

Alamance County was erected in 1848, out of Orange County. 
It is bounded on the north by CasTvell, east by Orange, south by 
Chatham, and west by Guilford. It derives its name from Ala- 
mance Creek, famous in early history for a battle fought on its 
banks, between the Royal Governor of the colony, William Tryon, 
and the people under Herman Husbands, Rednap Howell, and others. 

Its climate is salubrious and very uniform. 

Its capital is Graham, named in compliment to Hon. William A. 
Graham, the present Secretary of the Navy, for a sketch of whose 
birth, life, education, and public services, see Orange County, 
(Chapter LVIII.) 

The town of Graham has a beautiful location. Its distance from 
Raleigh is fifty-nine miles. Its court-house and public buildings are 
in good taste and well adapted to the purposes for which they were 

It has several handsome dwellings, and a printing office. The 
Southern Democrat is here printed. Its editor, J. W. Lancaster, 
Esq., is a Member of the Bar, an educated and skillful writer. 

Its colonial and revolutionary history is connected with that of 


Orange County. The causes of the battle of the Regulators, and its 
disastrous termination, have been recorded. (See vol. i. p. 59.) 

The conduct of the officers of the government, from the Governor 
down to the lowest bailiff, towards the people was oppressive, extor- 
tionary and unjust. 

In 1768, Governor Tryon marched with a body of troops procured 
from Rowan and Mecklenburg into this county. I extract from his 
Journal, procm-ed from State Paper Office, in London, by aid of Hon. 
George Bancroft, late our Envoy at that court, never before printed. 

Journal of Governor Tryon. 

On the sixth of July 1768, in consequence of the troubles of the Regulators, 
Governor Tvron arrived at Ilillsboro'. 

On the 17th of August, the Governor left Hillsboro', and on the 18th, 
arrived at Salisbury. 

On the 19th, at Major Fifer's, in Mecklenburg. 

On the 20th, Saturday. Remained at Major Fifer's. 

21st, Sunday. Heard Mr. Luther, a Dutch minister, preach. 

22d, Monday. Left Major Fifer's and lay at Captain Polk's. 

23d, Tuesday. Reviewed the Regiment — about nine hundred men. 
• 24th. Governor left Captain Polk's, and took up his quarters at Major Fifer's. 

25th. Governor returned to Salisbury ; Colonel Osborne called on the Go- 
vernor to receive his orders for conducting the review. 

26th, Friday. Eleven Companies marched, Governor ordered all the Cap- 
tains and field ofiBcers to repair to Mr. Montgomery's, where he communicated 
with them as to the transactions between him and the Regulators. Colonel 
Osborne spoke warmly in support of the government, and read a letter from 
four dissenting ministers (Hugh McCaddon, Henry Pattillo, James Creswell, 
and David Caldwell) to their brethren, wherein the conduct of the Regulators 
was touched upon, from Hawfields. 

The Governor then marched into the field; the first company that joined 
was Captain Dobbin's ; all joined the Governor but Captain Kuox and his com- 

27th, Saturday. Left Salisbury for Martin Fifer's. 

30th, Tuesday. The Governor, accompanied by Colonel Palmer and Mr. 
Fifer, went to see where the Commissioners left ofi" the line that they run in 
1746, between his Majesty and Earl Granville. They found four trees stand- 
ing in a square marked, with notches and blazes ; on one of them, G. R. (George 
Rex, King George), about five or six hundred yards east of Cold Water Creek. 
On a large gum they found W. C. (William Churton, 1746), the name of the 

31st, Wednesday. Governor called on Captain Barringer, and in the evening 
went to Colonel Moses Alexander's, who agreed to furnish provisions and 
wagons for the Mecklenburg volunteers. 

Sept. ,4th, Sunday. Governor went to Salisbury. 

12th, Monday: After reviewing the Mecklenburg battalion, left Salisbury 
with troops for Hillsboro' where he arrived on the twenty-first. 

24th. Governor so ill that he gave the command to Lieutenant-General 

Major- Generals app'd. — John Ashe and Thomas Lloyd. 

Lieutenant- Generals. — John Rutherford, Lewis Henrt De Rosset, John 
Sampson, Robert Palmer, Benjamin Heron and Samuel Strudwick. 

Majors of Brigade. — Abner Nash and Robert Howe. ! 
Colonels. — Alexander Osborne, Edmund Fanning, Robert Harris, James 
Sampson, Samuel Spencer, James Moore and Maurice Moore. 

Lieutenant- Colonels.— 3 om^ Frohock, Moses Alexander, Alexander Lil- 
LiNGTON, John Gray, Samuel Benton and Robert Schaw. 

il/ajoj's.— William Bullock, Walter Lindsay, Thomas Llotd, Martin 
Fifer and John Hinton. 


On the 2d October, 1768, the troops returned to Salisbury, and Goterxor 
Tryox to Xewbern. 

From State Paper Office, London. 

Am. and W. Ind., 198. 

Petition from Regulators to Gov. Ib-yon and Council. 

"May it please your Excellency, and your Honors:— 

" At a Committee of the Regulators, held May 21, 1768, it was ordered to 
implore pardon for what was done amiss, and present a plain, simple narra- 
tive of facts accompanied and supported by authentic papers. * * * 

" We assure you that neither disloyalty to the best of kings, nor disaflfection 

to the wholesomest constitution, nor yet dissatisfaction to the Legislature, 

gave rise to these commotions which now make so much noise throughout 

the province. After you have perused this paper and the concomitant proofs, 

you will easily perceive that those disturbances had their source in the cor- 

r rupt and arbitrary practices of nefarious and designing men, who, being put 

■ into offices of profit and credit among us, and not being satisfied with the 

I loyal benefits which arose from the execution of their offices, have been using 

I every artifice, practicing every fraud, and, where these failed, threats and 

1 menaces were not spared, whereby to squeeze and extort from the wretched 

(_poor, who, as Col. Fanning observes in his petition (if 'tis his), with their 

utmost efforts, can scarcely gain a wretched subsistence for themselves and 

families. How grievous, judge you, dear sirs, must it be for such wretches 

to have their substance taken from them by those monsters of equity, whose 

study it is to plunder and oppress them. 

"In the year 1766 there was general discontent in the countenances of the 
people, and gi'ievous murmurings ensuing. The popular voice gave out that 
the demands of the court officers for fees of every kind were exorbitant, 
oppressive, and exti\a legal. 

" In order to prevent such frands, if real, or to give our officers an oppor- 
tunity to still those clamors by disproving them entirely, we drew up paper 
No. 1. (This was the paper read in court, August, 1766.) Mr. Loyd, the 
member of the General Assembly, promised to give a hearing, and approved 
of the course. 

" In expectation of a meeting and of a satisfactory settlement, a meeting 
was held at Mr. Maddock's mill, on Enoe River. 

" Col. Fanning was invited to attend, but refilsed, sending them word that 
he objected to the term 'judiciously,' in their resolves, as implying that 
they had a jurisdiction over him ; and that 'he could not brook the mean- 
ness of being summoned to a mill.' To both of which frivolous objections 
we replied 'that as to the term in question, we were no critics on words, 
but we meant no more by it than wisefully, carefully, and soberly to exa- 
mine the matter in hand ; that with respect to the court-house, we had no 
right to appoint a convention there, but to the mill we had, having first 
obtained the owner's leave to that purpose.' The petition proceeds — ' The 
sheriffs now grew very arbitrary, insulting the populace, making such dis- 
tresses as seldom ever known, double, treble, nay, even quadruple the value 
of the tax was frequently distrained, and such seizures hurried away to 
Hillsborough.' One of the Regulators going to Hillsborough on some pri- 
vate business had his mare seized for his levy. This mare was rescued by 
the Regulators, and after expressing their regrets and apologies, the petition 
proceeds : that ' Monday morning, 2d May, we were alarmed at the astonish- 
ing news that Col. Fanning, at the head of twenty-seven armed men, consist- 
ing of sheriffs, bombs, tavern-keepers, and officers, after travelling all night, 
arrived at break of day at Sandy Creek, and made prisoners of Mr. Herman 
Husbands and Mr. "William Butler, the former a gentleman that had never 
joined the Regulators, and was never concerned in any tumnlt." This con- 
duct of Col. Fanning alarmed the whole country. None now were safe, 
whether active, passive, or neutral. 


"The very day Col. Fanning set off for Sandy Creek, he directed letters to 
three of the Regulators, inviting them to Hillsborough, and promising all 
imaginary satisfaction, one of which he directed to Jacob Fudge. 

" We have now stated, without reserve or disguise, our whole proceedings 
in this affair, having concealed nothing, whether for us or against us ; and, 
as you are chosen by the contending parties to arbitrate the difference, and 
we on our parts are fully determined to abide by your decision, we humbly 
hope naked truth and native ignorance loiU 2)oise 'the superexcellent flourishes 
and consummate declamation of our power/id adversary/; and, relying on your 
benignity and justice, we humbly beg leave to subscribe ourselves your poor 
oppi-esse'd suppliants, and very humble servants. 

John Low, John Marshall, 

James Hunter, William Cox, 

Rednap Howell, William Moffitt, 

Harmon Cos, George Hendry. 

"To His Excellency, Wm. Tryon, Esq., our Governor, and to the Hon. the 
members of His Majesty's Council for the Province of North Carolina." 

The Governor's Answer. 

" 2\st June, 1768. 

The Governor's answer to the address of the inhabitants on the south side of 
Haw River, in Orange County. 

" Gentlemen— I have received, by the hands of Messrs. Hunter and Powell, 
a petition and other papers, subscribed by several of the inhabitants on the 
south side of Haw River, in the County of Orange, under the borrowed title 
of Regulators, assuming to themselves powers and authorities unknown to 
the constitution, of calling public officers to a settlement, and a detail of the 
grievances and complaints against the Clerk of the Court, Register, and 
other public officers, whose exactions and oppressions, it is pretended, are 
the cause of the late insurrections which have disturbed the peace of that 
part of the country. These papers, agreeably to your desire, I have com- 
municated to the members of His Majesty's Council, who, having taken the 
same into their deliberate consideration, unanimously concur with me in 
opinion that the grievances complained of by no means warrant the extraor- 
dinary steps you have taken in assembling yourselves together in arms, to 
the obstruction of the courts of justice, to the insult of the public officers of 
the government in the execution of their offices, and to the injury of private 
property. ' * * « re j 

" The discreet and steady behavior of Col. Fanning, and the officers and 
men under his command, meet not only with the entire approbation of my- 
self, and His Majesty's Council, but will beacknowledged with gratitude by 
every unprejudiced well-wisher to this province. ... -i • • 

"in consideration of a determination to abide my decision in council, itis 
my direction by advice of the Board, that you do, from henceforward, desist 
from any further meetings, either by verbal appointment or advertisement ; 
that all titles of Regulators or Associations cease among you ; that the sherifls 
and other officers are permitted to execute the duties of their respective 

Regulators to Governor Tryon. 

"August, 1768. 
" May it please your Excellency : — 

" In your 'Excellency's gracious answer to our petition, &c., by Messrs. 
Hunter and Howell, you were pleased to inform us that you had laid our 
papers before the Hon. the members of His Majesty's Council, for which wo 
return you our sincere and hearty thanks." * * i, 

" Your gracious promise of settlins, on vour arrival at Hillsborough, a pro- 
clamation forbidding all officers the^ taking or even demanding exorbitant 
fees, on pain of your severe displeasure, gave us some encouragement and 
hopes of redress. But when we were assured the Register had, in open \io- 



lence thereof taken nine shillings and four pence, expressly contrary to law, 
for recording deeds, our hopes vanished. Fearing that your orders to the 
Attorney-General may be as little regarded, and that a poor man will get no 
real redress, for your excellency may easily perceive how little regard these 
men pay to your injunctions, how little they dread your displeasure. Par- 
don us, therefore, great sir, when we tell you, in the anguish of our souls, we 
cannot, dare not, go to law, as we are sure that step, whenever taken, will 
terminate to the ruin of ourselves and families. 

" Seeing, therefore, that the Sons of Zeruiah are like to prove too hard for 
your excellency, as well as for us, we have come to the resolution to petition 
the Lower House, as the other branch of the Legislature, in order to strengthen 
your excellency's hands, that by the concurrence and timely aid of that re- 
spectable body, you maybe enabled to curb the insolence and avarice of these 
overgrown members of the commonwealth. * * 

" Your excellency is pleased to observe that, hope again to be made happy 
on seeing a spirit of industry prevailing among us over faction and discon- 
tent. Great sir ! all that know us, can bear witness for us, that, while we had 
anything we could call our own, few people on earth were more industrious ; 
but, alas, since the iron hand of tyranny has displayed its baneful influences 
over us with impunity, how has dejection, indiflFerence, and melancholy, and 
chagrin diffusively spread themselves far and wide among us ; and, unless 
some propitious being inform either of your excellency's, our assembly, or 
both, graciously condescend to use your united efforts to extricate us out of 
our present misery, and secure us our rights and property, the suUenness and 
gloom with which we are already seized, will sink deep upon our intellects, 
and general disregard to everything below ensue as a consequence thereof ; 
nor shall we strive any more than barely to keep then, our tottering frames 
from falling to pieces, until death, in compassion of our sufferings, and in 
commiseration of our wrongs, shall kindly appear in shape of a halter, 
bullet, sword, or perhaps in his natural shape, and remove us from this spot 
of dirt, about which, and its products, there is so much contention and 
animosity. Till when, and at all times hereafter, may your excellency's por- 
tion be as the dew of Heaven and the fat things of earth, ardently wish, 
sincerely pray, your excellency's devoted humble servants. 

" Signed, Francis Dorset, Richard Cheek, 

Wm. Paine, (a Dutchman,) 

Peter Craven, Charles Saxon, 

Jacob Fudge, Ninian Bell Hamilton." 

Papers relating to Carolina, vol. i., 189.* 


Deposition of Ralph McNair. 

" 9t7i Oct., 1770. 

" That, on the 24th of April, 1770, he saw among the Regulators in Ilills- 
boro', Herman Husbands, James Hunter, Wm. Butler, Ninian Bell Hamilton, 
Jeremiah Fields, Matthew Hamilton, Ely Branson, Peter Craven, Jno. Truit, 
Abraham Teague, and Samuel Parks. That the Regulators were armed with 
cudgels and cowskin whips, wherewith they struck John Williams, Esq., an 
attorney, and attempted to strike Judge Henderson, while in the act of mode- 
rating their fury. 

" That he saw them beating and pursuing Colonel Fanning till he took re- 
fuge in a store, which they assaulted with stones and brickbats ; that Judge 
Henderson made his escape the same night, though the court was only 
adjourned till next day ; that, being exasperated thereat, they, on the 25th, 
destroyed the house of Colonel Fanning." 

" Robert Lytle swore that he heard the Regulators, on the 25th of Septem- 
ber, 1770, drink damnation to King George, and success to the Pretender." 

Judge Henderson wrote to Governor Tryon on the 29th of September, 1770; 

* From Archives of Board of Trade, in London. 


" that, upon opening court on the 25th of September, the Regulators filled the 
house ; they said they had come to have justice done ; they demanded that 
their cases be tried ; that, at a former court, injustice had been done in choos- 
ing jurors. They insisted that the court should proceed to do business, but 
that no lawyer, save the king's attorney, should be admitted. This being re- 
fused, they conducted the judge home with great parade. But, in the even- 
ing, he made his escape. A party of them fell upon lawyer "Williams and 
Fanning, in a most furious manner. About one hundred and fifty began the 
riot; they afterwards increased. They left Hillsboro' on Wednesday night." 

Deposition of Waiqlitstill Avery. 

" Uli March, 1771. 

" Deposeth that he fell in with the Regulators at the Yadkin Ferry, and was 
carried to their camp in the woods. That he had heard them uttering many 
opprobrious speeches against the Governor, Assembly, judges, and others in 
ofiice. Hamilton said to the listening crowd — 

" What business has. Maurice Moore to be a judge? He was no judge ; he 
■was not appointed by the king. He, nor Henderson neither. That the 
Assembly had gone and made a riotous act, that enraged the people more 
than ever. It was the best thing that could be done for the country, for now 
we shall be forced to kill all the clerks and lawyers. And I'll be damned, if 
they are not all put to death ! If they had not made that act, we might have 
suffered some to live. A riotous act ! There never was such an act in the laws 
of England, or in any other country but France ! and they'll bring the Inqui- 
sition next. 

" Many of them said that the Governor was a friend to the lawyers. The 
lawyers carry on everything. There should be no lawyers in the province. 

"When Captain Rutherford was parading his company in Salisbury, some 
of them proposed to march in and fight them, saying, we will kill them. The 
insurgents said that the Assembly had imprisoned Husbands to prevent him 
from seeing their roguish tricks." 


Petition of the Inhabiianis of Orange County, to Governor Tryon.^ 

" I5th May, 1771.t 
" To His Escellency, William Tryon, Esq., His Majesty's Governor, in Chief 
in and over the Province of North Carolina. 
" The petition of us, the inhabitants of Orange County, humbly showeth :-- 
" First — That we have often been informed of late, that your excellency is 
determined not to lend a kind ear to the just complaints of the people in re- 
gard to having roguish officers discarded, and others more honest propagated 
in their stead, and sheriffs and other oflScers in powei-, who have abused the 
trust reposed in them, to be brought to a clear, candid, and impartial account 
of their past conduct, and other grievances of the like nature, we have long 
labored under without any apparent hope of redress. 

" Secondly — That your Excellency is determined on taking the lives of many 
of the inhabitants of this county, and others adjacent to it, which persons, 
being nominated in the advertisement, we know them to be men of the most 
remarkable honest characters of any in our country. These aspersions, though 
daily confirmed to us, yet scarcely gains credit with the more polite amongst 
us ; still, being so often confii-med, we cannot help having some small jealous- 
ies abounding among us. In order, therefore, to remove them, we would 
heartily implore your Excellency, that of your clemency, you would so far 
indulge us, as to let us know by a kind answer to this petition, whether your 
Excellency will lend an impartial ear to our petition, or no, which if we can 
be assured of, we will with joy embrace so favorable an opportunity of _ lay- 
ing before your Excellency a full detail of all our grievances, and remain in 

* From Slate Paper Office, London. Am. and W. I., vol. 200. 
t Next before the battle. 


full hopes and confidence of being redressed by your Excellency, in each and 
every one of them, as far as lies in your power ; which happy change would 
yield such alacrity, and promulgate such harmony in poor pensive North Caro- 
lina, that the presaged tragedy of the warlike troops, marching with ardor to 
meet each other, may by the happy conduct of our leaders on each side be pre- 
vented. The interest of a whole province, and the lives of his Majesty's sub- 
jects are not toys or matters to be trifled with. Many of our common people 
are mightily infatuated with the horrid alarms we have heard; but we still 
hope they have been wrong represented. 

" The chief purport of the small petition being to know whether your excel- 
lency will hear our petition or no. We hope for a speedy and candid answer. 
In the meantime your humble petitioners shall remain in full hopes and con- 
fidence of having a kind answer. 

"And as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 

" Signed, in behalf of the county, by John Williams, Joseph Scott, 

Samuel Low, Samuel Clark." 

James Wilson, 

" Delivered to his Excellency at Alamance Camp, the 15th day of May, 1771, 
at six o'clock in the evening." 

Governor Ti-y on' s Reply. 

"Great Alamance Camp, 

May IWi, 1771. 

" In reply to your petition, I am to acquaint you, that I have ever been atten- 
tive to the interest of this country; and to that of every individual residing 
within it. I lament the fatal necessity to which you have now reduced me 
by withdrawing yourselves from the mercy of the crown and the laws of your 
country, to require you who are assembled as Regulators, to lay down your 
arms, surrender up the outlawed ringleaders, and submit yourselves to the 
laws of your country, and then rest on the lenity and mercy of the govern- 

" By accepting these terms In one hour from the delivery of this dispatch you 
will prevent an effusion of blood, as you are at this time in a state of war and 
rebellion, against your king, your country, and your laws. 


" To the people now assembled in arms, who style themselves Regulators." 

Governor Tryon's OJicial Report to Jiis Government of the Battle of Alamance. 

" Great Alamance Camp, 

May I8th, 1771. 

" Mr Lord : — I have the happiness to inform your Lordship, that it has 
pleased God to bless his Majesty's arms in this province with signal victory 
over the Regulators. 

" The action began before twelve o'clock,' on Thursday the 16th instant, five 
miles to the westward of Great Alamance River, on the road leading from 
Hillsborough to Salisbury. 

" The loss of our army killed, wounded, and missing, amounted to about sixty 

" We had but one officer killed, and one dangerously wounded. 

" The action was two hours. But after about half an hour the enemy took 
to tree fighting, and much annoyed the men who stood at the guns, which 
obliged me to cease the artillery for a short time, and advance the first line 
to force the rebels from their covering. This succeeded, and we pursued them 
a mile beyond their camp, and took many of their horses, and the little provi- 
sion and ammunition they left behind them. 

" This success, I hope, Avill lead soon to a perfect restoration of peace in this 
country. Though had they succeeded, nothing but desolation and ravage 


would have spread itself over the country ; the Regulators had determined to 
cut off this army had they succeeded. 

" The inclosed declarations of the troops will testify to his Majesty the obli- 
gations I lay under to them for their steady, resolute, and spirited behavior. 

" Some royal marks of favor, I trust, will" be extended to the loyalty that has 
•been distinguished by his Majesty's faithful subjects within the province. 

" The particular details of this expedition I sliall transmit to lay before his 
Majesty as soon as I have settled the country in peace ; hoping that the ad- 
vantages now gained over a set of desperate and cruel enemies, may meet with 
his Majesty's approbation, and finally terminate in giving a stability to this 
constitution which has hitherto been a stranger to. 

" The army under my command amounted (oflBcers included) to upward of 
eleven hundred, that of the rebels to two thousand. 

" The two field-pieces from General Gage, were of infinite service to us. 

"I am, &c., 



P. S. General Waddell, with two hundred and fifty men, was obliged, on 
the 19th instant, about two miles eastward of the Yadkin, to retreat to Salis- 
bury. The Regulators surrounded his forces and threatened to cut them in 
pieces if they offered to join the army under my command. 

" I shall march to-morrow to the westward, and in a week expect to join the 

Governor Tryon to Secretary of State. 

" New York, Aug. 1, 1771. 

"On the 19th of May, the' army proceeded westward, in order to join Gene- 
ral Waddell with his troops, then intrenched near Salisbury, and on the 4th 
of June we effected the junction about eight miles to the eastward of the 
Y'adkin River, and marched the same day to the Moravian settlement, where, 
on the 6th, we commemorated his majesty's birthday, and celebrated the 
victory at Alamance. 

" Intelligence having been brought that the counties of Tryon,* Mecklen- 
burg, and the north-west part of Rowan, f westward of the Yadkin, were medi- 
tating hostilities, it was judged proper by a Council of war that a strong de- 
tachment from the army should march through those parts, and compel the 
inhabitants to take the oath above mentioned, and to suppress any insurrec- 
tion among them. Agreeable thereto, I appointed General Waddell for that 
command, with the troops he brought with him, amounting to three hundred 
and forty men from the counties of Mecklenburg, Rowan, Tryon, apd Anson, 
reinforced with the four companies from Orange, the company of lightinfan- 
try from Cumberland County, and the artillery company ofsailors raised at 
Wilmington, with one of the brass field pieces, and six half-swivel guns. The 
General marched on the 8th day of June, with orders from me, after he had per- 
formed the service aforesaid, to disband his troops. Since his first day's 
march I have had no intelligence of his measures or success, which will be 
communicated to you by Governor Martin. 

" On the 9th of June, I returned with the army through the northern part 
of Orange County to Hillsboro', where the judges were waiting at an especial 
Court of Oyer and Terminer, to try the prisoners taken in battle. Twelve were 
capitally convicted as traitors, and two acquitted ; six of which twelve were 
executed on the 19th of June, near the town of Hillsboro'. By the solicita- 
tions of the officers of the army, I suspended the execution of the other sis 
till his majesty's pleasure should be known. 

"On the 20th, the army marched to the southward, and as I had received, 
on the loth June, by one of the judges, your lordship's dispatch, requiring 
me to take upon me, without loss of time, the government of New York, I 
left the army on the 20th, arrived the 24th at Newbern, and on the 30th I 
embarked for this country. 

* Now Lincoln County. t Now Iredell County. 


"Benjamin Merrill, a captain of militia, left it in charge of the officers to 
solicit me to grant his plantation and estate to his wife and eight children. 

" One Few, an outlaw, taken in battle, was hanged the next day in camp, and 
the houses and plantations of the outlaws were laid waste and destroyed, and 
the owners fled out of the province. WM. TRYON." 

" Return of the killed, wounded, and missing, of his majesty's forces on the 
IGth of May, 1771, at the battle of Alamance: — Killed, or died of their 
wounds, 9; wounded, 61 ; missing, none." 


" I, A. B., do promise and swear, that if any officer or any other person do 
, make distress on any of the goods or other estate of any person sworn herein, 
being a subscriber, for the non-payment of the said tax, that I will, with other 
1 sufficient assistance, go and take if in my power from said officer and restore 
^ it to the party from whom taken, and in case any one concerned herein should 
be imprisoned, or under arrest, or otherwise confined, or his estate or any 
part thereof, by reason or means of joining into this company of Regulators, 
for the non-payment of taxes, that I will immediately do my best endeavors 
to raise as many of the said subscribers, as will be of force sufficient, and if in 
my power, set the said person and his estate at liberty ; and I do further pro- 
mise and swear, that if in this case, this our scheme should be broke or other- 
wise give out our intention, any of our company should be put to any expense 
or under any confinement that I will be an equal share with those in being 
to pay and make up the sufferer. 

"All these things I do promise and swear, and subscribe my name." 

Governor Martin to Lord Dartmouth. 

Nov. 28th, 1772. 

" I can assure your Lordship, that notwithstanding evidences of the most 
licentious, gross, and criminal violences on the part of this wretched people, 
yet a residence among them lastsummer afforded me a full conviction of their 
havingbeen grievously oppressed by the Sheriffs, Clerks, and other subordinate 
officers of Government." 

These papers, procm-ed from the State Paper OflBce, in London, 
bring before us those spirit-stirring events just in the light they 
existed at the time. I have presented both sides ftiirly and impar- 
tially. It is for the present and future ages to judge whether these 
people deserved the cruel treatment th6y endm-ed, and the oppro- 
brium that has been cast upon them. From the official report 
of Governor Martin, who succeeded Governor Tryon as the Royal 
Governor of North Carolina, it is seen that he is forced ".^o the full 
conviction that this people ivere grievoudy oppressed by the Sheriffs, 
Clerks, and other subordinate officers." 

From their first Assembly at Maddock's Mill (Oct. 1766), to the 
final catastrophe on the banks of Alamance (May, 1771), the great 
principle laid down was that they should pay no tax but what was 
lawful, and imposed by their representatives in the Assembly. 

This was the great germ of American liberty. If exasperated to 
madness by the wrongs of their powerful oppressors, and under its 
influences some outrages were committed, this is not to be imputed 
to the cause in which they were engaged. The remarks of an able 


wi'itcr on our history, appropriate to the case, are here presented. 

" It is better that a people should occasionally experience incon- 
venience from the warm bursting out of popular feeling than that 
their liberties should be neglected by sloth or inaction. 

" Every human institution is imperfect. Yet the honest instincts 
of the people are wiser and more laudable than the cold calculations 
of a proud aristocracy. I love to behold the spirit of popular liberty 
awake, bold and vigorous ; for sure I am, that propositions, whether 
wild or wise, when submitted to the severe ordeal of public discus- 
sion, and tried by the fire of conflicting minds, will not be adopted 
unless public intelligence approve, public opinion give them vitality, 
and putilic justice adopt them as rules of action. The whirlwind of 
popular excitement is far less dangerous than the dry rot of luxmy. 
I had rather lose the roof of my house in the temporary storm, 
than the whole building by decay in its foundation." 

That the Regulators were guilty of excesses, none can deny. This 
has been the case from all time when justice and liberty contend 
against oppression and power. But the great principles that they con- 
tended for ; the rights of the many against the exactions of the few ; 
the right of the people to resist taxation, unless imposed by their re- 
presentatives ; the refusal to pay more than what was legal ; and a 
right to know for what they were taxed, and how appropriated ; if in 
that day cost them their property, their blood, and their lives, they 
were the principles which carried our nation through an eventful 
struggle ; and are now recognized as the true principles of govern- 
ment, self-evident, and incontrovertible. Had this battle terminated 
differently (and five years afterwards this would have been the case), 
the banks of Alamance would be veneratecf as another Bunker Hill ; 
and Husbands, Merrill, and others, ranked with the Warrens and 
patriots of another day. 

The character of Husbands* has been already alluded to. The 
reader on referring to the chapter on Orange County, will find the 
character and life of Edmund Fanning, whose conduct was the chief 
cause of the troubles of the Regulation. 

The population of Alamance from the Census of 1851, officially reported is 
7,924 whites, 324 free colored population ; 3,196 slaves, 10,165 federal popu- 
lation ; 228 whites over twenty years old who cannot read or write. 

Alamance pays as taxes annually into the public treasury the sum of $1426, 
of which on land, §531, and on poll, §128. 

Hon. Thomas Ruffin, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State, is a 
resident of Alamance. 

He is a native of Virginia, and was born in 1786. lie graduated at Prince- 
ton, in 1805 ; studied law with his kinsman, Judge Roane, at the same time, 
in whose office was General Winfield Scott. 

He removed to North Carolina, and in 1813, '15, and '16, represented Hills- 
borough in the House of Commons. 

It may be here remarked that to few counties in North Carolina is the State 
more indebted for able representatives in her legislative halls than to Orange. 
At this time (1815), Judge Ruffin from the borough, Judge Murphy in the 
Senate, and Judge Nash in the Commons. 

* Vol. i. 60. See Randolph, Chapter LXIII. 


In 1816, Judge Ruffin was elected Judge of the Superior Court, and resigned 
in 1818. . ^ 

In 1825 he was again elected Judge of the Superior Court, but resigned 
in 1828, on being appointed President of the State Bank. 

In 1829, he was elected Judge of the Supreme Court, which elevated posi- 
tion he now holds. Although a native of another State, his faiae belongs to 
North Carolina. Hugh McC^ueen, Esq., in a sketch of Judge Kuffin before 
me, says, Napoleon was born in Corsica, but France, the scene of his glory, 
always claimed him as her son. 

It is always difficult to speak of the living, no matter how elevated their 
position, and how assiduous and self-sacrificing their labors. With the most 
distinguished there exists some shades of prejudice which honest zeal may 
have created, or emulation may have engendered. Even a just appreciation 
of merit by a coteraporary may be received as fulsome eulogium; hence the 
biographer of the living has a dangerous and diflScult path. He can only 
regard the stern advice of Cromwell to Sir Peter Lely, when sitting for his 
portrait, " Paint me as I am." Yet, like the Colossus of Rhodes, living cha- 
racters are best viewed in the distance. "We must not be too near the massy 
statue to admire its symmetrical proportions. When deatli and time have 
Hoftened down by tlicir mellow hand any shadow that may in life obscure 
our visidu, and halluwed their services, talents, and virtues, then may their 
biographies, with their epitaphs, be written. 

Judge Ruffin married the daughter of William Kirkland,Esq. One of his 
sons was in the last legislature (1850), from Rockingham, and bids fair to 
emulate the example of his distinguished father. 

For tlie names of the membervS who have represented Alamance, 
the reader is referred to the County of Orange, with Avhich Ala- 
mance votes, until after the ne.xt session of our General Assembly. 



Was erected in 1846, formed from Iredell, Caldwell, and Wilkes 

It is bounded on the north by Wilkes, on the east by Davie, on 
the south by Iredell, and on the west by Caldwell County. 

Its capital is Taylorsville. 

The name of Alexander is familiar in North Carohna, and dis- 

Nathaniel Alexander, of Mecklenburg, was Governor of the State in 1805. 

Abraham Alexander was chairman of the convention at Charlotte, in May, 
1775, that declared independence. 

Its capital preserves the name of Joirx Lons Taylor, who was long a judge 
of our courts, distinguished for his learning, integrity, and kindness of dis- 
position. Its distance from Raleigh, 150 miles. 

Its population, 4.653 white, 24 free negroes, 543 slaves, 5,002 federal 
population ; 390 whites over 20 who cannot read or write. 

The taxes paid annually into tlie public treasury, by Alexander, amounts 
'0 four hundred and fourteen dollars. 


It is Still connected with and votes with Iredell County, until 
after our next General Assembly. Its early history belongs to 
Iredell, to which the reader is referred. 



Date of erection, origin of name, situation and boundaries, population and 
products — Colonial and Kevolutionary history — Excesses of the people 
under the oppressive and extortionary conduct of the Crown officers — Peti- 
tion of the citizens in 17GS to Gov. Tryon against Anthony Hutching, 
Samuel Spencer, and Charles Medlock, with the names of petitioners— 
Keply of the Governor to the same ; an original document, never before 
published — Members from Anson to the Provincial Congress of Nortli Caro- 
lina in 1774, which met at Newborn— :Moml)ers of same for same, which 
met at Hillsborough in August, 1775— Field officers in 1775 for Anson— 
Character of Samuel Spencer, one of the earliest judges of the State, and 
his singular death — ller distinguished citizens ,- and members of the 

Anson County was erected as early as 1749, from Bladen 
County, and comprehended all the western portion of the State, 
from New Hanover and Bladen on the east, as far as the limits of 
the State extended on the west, more than one half of the State.* 

It derives its name from Admiral Anson, the celebrated Circum- 
navifrator, who at the time (1749) was in the zenith of his fame, 
having only a short time previous obtained a victory over the French 
fleet oflf Cape Finisterre. 

Wadesboro', its capital town, derives its name from Thomas 
Wade, who was Colonel of the minute men of SaUsbury District, in 


It is bounded on the north by ^lontgomery and Stanly, on the 
east by Richmond, on the south by the State of South Carolina, 
and west by Union County. 

Population, 6,556 whites ; 101 free negroes ; 6,832 slaves ; 10,705 federal 
population ; 394 persons over 20 who cannot read or write. 

Products, 39,991 bushels of wheat; 410,102 bushels of corn; 108,505 
bushels of oats ; 32,244 bushels of potatoes ; 11,832 pounds of wool ; 21 
distilleries ; 1,489 gallons produced. 

The amount paid annually as taxes by Anson to the treasury amounts to 
two thousand seven hundred dollars, of which, for land, S638 ; polls S6G2. 

The amount received by Anson for common schools, from the treasury, is 
two thousand and twenty-four dollars (1850j. 

Its colonial history is full of interest. The oppressions of offi- 
cers of the crown were not confined to Orange. The opposition of 

♦ Martin, vol. ii 557. 


the people extended to Anson County. So heavy were the exac- 
tions of the officers, that in 17G8 the people rose in self-defence, 
entered the Coui't House, and violently expelled the officers of the 

Deep must have been the wrongs, and hopeless the redress, when 
a people could thus \iolently defend their rights ! 

The following petition (never before publisheil), from the State 
Paper Office in London,* was procured through the kindness of 
Hon. George Bancroft, our late' Envoy at that court, with the 
names of the Regulators, presents the matter in their own lan- 
guage, and the reply of Gov. Tryon to the same. 

At that early day tlie gi'cat principle was laid down " that taxa- 
tion and representation should always be associated ; that neither 
Parliament, nor the Governor, or any other power, had the right to 
tax the people without their consent, freely given through their re- 
presentatives in the General Assembly." 

This petition proves that to Anson belongs the credit of having 
first advocated the election of magistrates by the people. 

The People of Anson, to his Excellency Governor Tryon. 

"Excellent Sir: — AVe make no dnnbt hut that you will soon hoar the dia- 
agreeable new8 of the disorders of tlic unfortunate County of Anson. We, 
therefore, take tliis opportunity to inform you the cause and manner of it; 
in which we blame ourselves for not first having addressed your excellency 
on the occasion of our complaints, who could, no doubt, have removed our 
grievances, and have prevented the rumor of faction and disorder. But, 
being long under the growing weight of oppression, became rash and precipi- 
tate, and thought to change the state of the country in a different manner, to 
have suppressed the offenders, and make them wary of their employments. 

" For which purpose we formed ourselves, into which tlie opposite party 
called a mob, of about five hundred men, resolving, should no happier eveht 
interfere to our succor, to defend our cause in the disagreeable manner of 
force, and to have persisted unto blood. 

" We looking at that time, much out of our powers, to have kindness from 
your excellency, as our leading men were best ivcquainted, whose assertions 
we feared would have greatest weight with your excellency ; but whenever 
considered that neither prince nor governor, who ha.s tlie good of his people 
at heart, would see them oppressed to gratify the errors and ambition of any 
particular persons, who are Anthony Ilutchins, Col. Samuel Spencer, Charles 
Medlock, and their assistants, the justices and sheriffs chiefly recommended 
to your excellency by Ilutchins and Spencer, to answer their partial views 
and purposes. ***** 

"Innocent persons are committed to jail by the jailor himself, being a 
magistrate, then put to considerable expense, and then discharged. 

"Amongst other things, they tax the people in an unusual manner, which 
is as follows: First, persons who commit capital offences are committed to 
the county jail, and there retained five or six months ; a county tax is laid to 
defray the expenses, when it is notoriously known that it is a province ex- 
pense. But Medlock, the late sheriff, stopped not there, but proceeded 
by Mr. Spencer, the clerk and member for the county, to have the same 
claim allowed by the Assembly, and were only prevented, as we are informed, 

♦ State Paper OlTice. London. Am. and W. I., vol. cxcviit. 



by its being proved to the Committee .of Claims that the prigoners had made 
satisfaction themselves. 

"These things veere not unknown to Mr. Spencer when he laid Medlock's 
claim before the Assembly. 

"In the next place, they tax considerable sums of money for particular 
persons, who not having a right thereto, the magistrates receive back a part, 
if not all, to their own use. All those things can be made appear, and we 
conceive that no people have a right to be taxed but by consent of themselves or 
their delegates * 

" The sheriffs who receive the tax, particularly Medlock and his associates, 
have made a constant practice to exact two-eighths for distress money, 
•where no distress is made or necessary to be made ; and also have taxed 
different sums from the people, according to their non-acquaintance with the 
right, so that several different sums were received from the people in the 
same year, surmounting the right tax. 

"As to the clerk, his extortions are burdensome to all that fall in his 
power, as he takes double and sometimes treble his dne. Though it is true 
that he purchased his office from Colonel Frohock, and gave to the amount 
of one hundred and fifty pounds for it, yet it is unreasonable we should bear 
the expense by way of extortion. 


" This, and much more, are the causes of the present disturbance, which we 
humbly pray your excellency will please to reconcile, by discharging the 
most of the magistrates from their seats, and appointing better men, and also 
the clerk of it, if it seems right to you ; and also to recommend by the voice of 
the country, such j)ersons as trill Judiciously discharge their several offices. 
Upon such alteration the minds of the people will be at ease, and each one to 
his former obedience ; and ready to discliarge, according to their abilities, 
every expense necessary for the support of the government, and we as peti- 
tioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 

Solo. Crofts, 
Thomas Ussery, 
Jno. Skinner, 
II. Fortenberry, 
Lewis Low, 
Joseph Ilowel, 
Jason Meadow, 
James AUmond, 
Job Cilleadon, 
James Loury, 
James Mi- .Moot, 
Paniel Short, 
James Colbon, 
Charles Walkinford, 
James Round, 
J. Tretenbury, 
Delany Herring, 
Jacob Collins, 
Josh. Collins, 
Js. Armstrong, 
Jno. Swor, sen., 
Samuel Swearinger, 
Reuben "Woodard, 
Luke Robinson, 
Thomas Masen, 
Wm. Betten, 

Charles Booth, 
Ab. Buskin, 
Nat. Wood, 
Mark Roorhen, 
Wm. Hickman, 
John Baile, 
John Hornback, 
Wm. Busil, 
Ilarklis Conkwrite, 
Jno. Bonnet, 
Thos. Harper, 
Jas. Adams, 
Amos Pilgrim, 
Thomas Adams, 
Jno. Swor, jun., 
Van Swearinger, 
Sam. Williams, 
Solo. W'illiams, 
Wm. Fielding, 
Pat. Boggen,jun., 
Thos. Fanning, 
John Jenkins, 
Thos. Fanning, jun., 
Pat. Saunders, 
Jno. Caterham, 
James Short, 

Thos. Tree, 
Jon. Helms, 
Wm. Greers, 
J. Touchberry, 
Sam. Harper, 
Thos. Swearinger, 
W^m. Adams, 
Jas. Barindine, 
Wm. Barindine, sen. 
A\^m. Barindine, jun. 
Sam. Bruton, 
Jno. Mason, 
Ralph Mason, 
Thomas Mason, 
Henry Fortenbury, 
Wm. Rogers, 
Geo. Marchbanks, 
Wm. Buzen, 
Ant. Matthews, 
Peter Brisly, 
Den. Nelson, sen., 
Benj. Barrit, 
Jon. Poston, 
Saml. Thomas, 
James Higgins, 
Wm. Higgins, 

* This prove', at that early day, the great principle of taxation and representation was 
well understood by the simplest of our people ; and to Auson belongs the honor of tirst 
recommending the election of clerks and magistrates by the people. 



Wm. Rop;ers, Wm. Short, Frank Gordon, 

Thos. Mmis, John Henson, Jno. Higgins, 

•Charles Henson, Robt. Thorn, Thomas Jordan, 

Malachi Watts, Robt. Ashley, Ab. Harper, 

"Wm. Burns, Saml. Touchberry, Jo. English, 

Jno. Carpenter, John Brus, Thos. Merns, 

Jos. Burhani, John Web, Thos. Harper. 

Gov. Tryon ansTvered the petition on the 16th Aug. 1768, and 
informed them that the matters of complaint in the above, required 
the consultation of his Majesty's Council, and he enclosed a procla- 
mation, dated 21st July, 1768, " requiring all public officers to 
have a fair table of their fees affixed in each office, and for them 
not to demand or receive other fees for public business transacted 
in their offices, than what are established by law." 

The members from Anson to the first Provincial Congress at 
Newbern, August, 1774 (which was the first movement of the people 
as a State, adverse and opposed to the royal government), were 
Samuel Spencer and William Thomas. 

This was an epoch in the history of our State. The movement 
was well designed, concerted, and effectual. It led to the final over- 
throw of the Colonial Government, and established independence. 
Its journal has been preserved. The firmness and patriotism of its 
resolves, the eloquence, correctness, and spirit of language, com- 
mand our respect and admiration of this body. , John Harvey, of 
Perquimans, was chosen Moderator ; William Hooper, of Orange, 
Joseph Hewes, of Edenton, and Richard Caswell, of Dobbs, were 
appointed delegates to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. 

On the 20th of August, 1775, the Provincial Congress of North Carolina 

met again at Hillsboro'. c^ o xxr 

The delegates from Anson were Thomas Wade, Samuel Spencer, William 

TnoMAS, David Love, and William Picket. 

This body placed the State in complete military organization. 

AViLLiAM Picket, of Anson, was appointed Captain in the First Regiment, 

commanded by James Moore. i r xu at- . at f c v 

Thomas Wade, of Anson, was chosen Colonel of the Minute Men ot Salis- 
bury District: from his name Wadesboro' derived its name. 

For Field Officers for Anson County— ^ , , 

Samuel Spencer was appointed Colonel; Charles Medlock, Lieut.-Colonel ; 
James Huld, 1st Major; David Love, 2d Major. , ^ ,- , 

Samuel Spencer was appointed with Waightstill Avery, from the Salisbury 
District, on the Provincial Council of Safety, which was the real executive of 
the State during the interregnum between the abdication of Governor Martin 
(the royal Governor) in 1775, and the accession of Richard Caswell, the 
Governor under the constitution in 1776. 

The character of Samuel Spencer belongs to Anson. The record shows 
that his talents were appreciated by the country, for he was associated in 
its defence in both a civil and military character. Under the Colonial Go- 
vernment, he represented Anson in the Assembly, and was clerk of the court 
for that county, an office of much profit. His conduct appears to have given 
offence while in discharge of these duties, as will be seen by the petition from 
Solomon Crofts and others, herein published. 

He was one of the three Judges of the Superior Courts first elected under 
the constitution (1777). He was in the Convention assembled at Hillsboro' in 



July, 1788, to deliberate upon the Federal Constitution ; was its active and 
able opponent, and contributed greatly to its rejection in that body. 

He died in 1794. Ilis death was caused by a most singular circumstance. 
lie had been in ill health, and was sitting in his yard in the sun. A large 
turkey gobbler was attracted by some part of his clothing, which was red, for 
which color turkeys have a great antipathy. The turkey attacked Judge 
Spencer most furiously, and before assistance could rescue him, so severely 
was he wounded, that he died in a short time from the injuries. 

From the journal of the Provincial Congress, at Ilillsboro,' 20th August, 
1775, it appears that John Coulson, an individual of some considerable 
influence in this county, was brought before Congress, and solemnly recanted 
his political opinions, and promised to aid, support and defend, the just rights 
of America. 

By the journal, 28th August, 1776, James Colten, Samuel Williams, and 
Jacob Williams, were charged with being Tories. They were arrested and 
brought to the bar of the house by the Hillsboro' company, and set at liberty 
after examination. 

The following is a correct list of the Members from Anson 
County, as from the archives in the State Department at Raleigh, 
from the adoption of the Constitution to the last Session, 1850-51, 

Years. Senate. 

1777. John Childs, 

1778. John Childs, 
1770. John Childs, 
1780. John Childs, 

1782. Thomas Wade, 

1783. Thomas Wade, 

1784. Stephen Miller, 

1785. Stephen Miller, 

1785. Stephen Miller, 

1786. Stephen Miller, 

1787. Stephen Miller, 

1788. John Auld, 

1789. Lewis Lanier, 

1791. Thomas Wade, 

1792. James Marshall, 

1793. James Marshall, 

1794. James Pickett, 

1795. James Pickett, 

1796. Wm. May, 

1797. James Marshall, 

1798. John Auld, 

1799. Thos. AVade, 

1800. James Marshall, 

1801. James Marshall, 

1802. James Marshall, 

1803. James Marshall, 

1804. James Marshall, 

1805. James Marshall, 

1806. James Marshall, 

1807. James Marshall, 

1808. Thos. Threadgill, 

1809. Thos. Threadgill, 

1810. James Marshall, 

1811. James Marshall, 

1812. James Marshall, 

House of Commons. ^ 

George Davidson, Wm. Pickett. 
George Davidson, Stephen Miller. 
Stephen Miller, Charles Medlock. 
Stephen Miller, Richd. Farr. 
Stephen Miller, John Jackson. 
John Jackson, John Auld. 
James Terry, John Dejarnell. 
James Terry, John Dejarnell. 
*James Terry, Wm. Wood. 
William Wood, Wm. Lanier. 
Lewis Lanier, Pleasant May. 
Lewis Lanier, Pleasant May. 
AVm. Wood, Pleasant May. 
Wm. AVood, James Pickett. 
Wm. Wood, Pleasant May. 
Wm. Wood, Pleasant May. 
Pleasant May, Danl. Young. 
Pleasant May, Danl. Young. 
Isaac Jackson, Danl. Young. 
Isaac Jackson, Danl. Ross. 
Lewis Lanier, Pleasant May. 
Wm. Wood, Pleasant May. 
Danl. Ross, Clement Lanier. 
Clement Lanier, John Culpepper. 
Wm. Lanier, Robert Troy. 
Wm. Lanier, Jamea Hough. 
Adam Lockhart, William Lanier. 
Joseph Pickett, Wm. Lanier. 
William Lanier, Robt. Troy. 
Lawrence Moore, Wm. -Johnston. 
Wm. Johnston, Lawrence Moore. 
Joseph Pickett, Lawrence Moore. 
Wm. Johnston, David Cuthbertson. 
D. Cuthbertson, Wm. R. Pickett. 
Wm. Johnston, Wm. R. Pickett. 

* Seat vacated, for having borne arms against the Stale. 



Years. Senate. 

1813. Wm. Johnson, 

1814. Lawrence Moore, 

1815. Lawrence Moore, 
.1816. Lawrence Moore, 

1817. Joseph Pickett, 

1818. Wm. Marshall, 

1819. Wm. Marshall, 

1820. Wm. Marshall, 

1821. Wm. Marshall, 

1822. Wm. Marshall, 

1823. Wm. Marshall, 

1824. Wm. Marshall, 

1825. Joseph Pickett, 

1826. Joseph Pickett, 

1827. Joseph Pickett, 

1828. Clement Marshall, 

1829. Clement Marshall, 

1830. Clement Marshall, 

1831. Clement Marshall, 

1832. Wm. A. Morris, 

1833. Wm. A. Morris, 

1834. Alex. Little, 

1835. Alex. Little, 

1836. Absalom Myers, 
J.838. A. Myers, 
1840. Abs. Myers, 
1842. Abs. Myers, 
1844. P. G. Smith, 
1846. D. D. Daniel, 
1848. D. D. Daniel, 
1850. Purdie Richardson, 

House of Commons. 

D. Cuthbertson, Joseph Pickett. 
Joseph Pickett, Wm. Dismukes. 
Wm. Dismukes, Joseph Pickett. 
Wm. Dismukes, Joseph Pickett. 
James Colman, Boggan Cash. 
Jonathan Taylor, Boggan Cash. 
B. Cash, Geo. Dismukes. 
Joseph White, Jeremiah Benton. 
Joseph White, John Smith. 
Joseph White, John Smith. 
Joseph White, James Gordon. 
Joseph White, James Gordon. 
John Smith, Clement Marshall. 
John Smith, Clement Marshall. 
Alex. Little, Clement Marshall. 
Wm. A. Morris, John Smith. 
Wm. A. Morris, Jos. White. 
W. A. Morris, Joseph White. 
Wm. A. Morris, Alex. Little. 
M. W. Cuthbertson, T. D. Parks. 
P. W. Kittrell, A. W. Brandon. 
Pleasant W. Kittrell, A. W. Brandon. 
John A. McRae, Jere. Benton. 
John A. McRae, John Grady. 
George Dunlap, P. H. Winston. 
P. 11. Winston, John McColum. 
Thomas S. Ashe, John McColum. 
Jon. Trull, J. M. Waddill. 
J. R. Hargrove, Jon. Trull. 
J. R. Hargrove, Jon. Trull. 
Atlas Jones Dargan, Benj. J. Dunlap. 



Date of erection, origin of name, situation and boundaries — Population and 
products—Jefferson, county town ; first settlement in 1755, and a general 
description — List of members from formation of the county to the last 

Ashe County was formed in 1799 from " that portion of Wilkes 
lying west of the extreme height of the Appalachian Mountains." 
It is the extreme northwest corner of the State ; bounded on the 
north by the Virginia line, east by the Appalachian Mountains, 
which separate it from Wilkes and Surry, and south by Watauga, 
Caldwell, and Wilkes Counties. 

It was called in honor of Samuel Ashe, who was but a short time before 
the erection of this county Governor of the State. 


The character of Governor Ashe is one of which North Carolina may be 
•well proud. 

His father, John B. Ashe, was distinguished in the annals of the province 
as early as 1727 ; he had emigrated to the colony of North Carolina from 
England, under the auspices of the Earl of Craven, one of the Lords Pro- 
prietors, and settled in Wilmington, then called Newton ; he had two sons, 
John Ashe and Samuel Ashe, both distinguished in the revolutionary history 
of the State. 

Samuel Ashe was born in 1725. He was an educated man, and a lawyer 
by profession. The proceedings of the Committee of Safety and the journals 
of the Provincial Congress from 1774 to 1776 attest his firmness and patriotism. 
He did not, like his distinguished brother John, figure in the field of arms, 
but he was eminently conspicuous in the council and cabinet in conducting 
the afiairs of the State, to which arms and force are but necessary accesso- 
ries. If John Ashe was the Achilles, Samuel Ashe was the Nestor of North 

He was one of the three first judges in the State, 1777, and Governor in' 
1795. For further notice of Governor Ashe, the reader is referred to the 
Chapter LV. on New Hanover County. 

Its capital town preserves in North Carolina the name of Thomas Jefferson, 
the third President of the United States. Its distance from Raleigh 202 miles. 

The amount of taxes paid by Ashe to the public treasury is eight hundred 
and twenty-four dollars. 

The amount received by Ashe from the public treasury for common schools 
is one thousand one hundred and thirty-six. 

Ashe County was settled about 1755. The face of the country- 
is mountainous, its valleys fertile, yielding wheat, oats, barley, 
buckwheat, and potatoes in great abundance. It has extensive 
ranges for pasture ; its air pure and w ater excellent ; the climate 
favorable to longevity. It abounds in iron and saltpetre. 

Produce, according to census returns of 1840 : — 

10,836 bushels wheat. 57,982 bushels potatoes. 

150,279 " corn. 97 distilleries. 

10,970 " buckwheat. 23,573 gallons produced. 

17,805 " rye. 735 dollars worth of ginseng. 

108,505 " oats. 16,193 pounds of sugar. 

Population according to the census of 1850 : 8,096 whites ; 86 free negroes ; 
595 slaves ; 8,539 freed population ; 587 persons over 20 who cannot read 
or write. 

The following is a correct list of the Members of the Legislature, 
from the erection of this county to the last session, 1850-51. 

Years. Senators. Members of the House of Commoas.* 

1800. George Koontz, John Calloway, Nathan Horton. 

1801. George Koontz, Richard Williams, William Horton. 

1802. George Koontz, Nathan Horton, John Calloway. 

1803. John Calloway, Richard Williams, Jonathan Bake. 

1804. James M. Caleb, Richard Williams, Joseph Calloway. 

1805. Nathan Horton, Richard Williams, John Koontz. 

1806. Nathan Horton, Joseph Calloway, Richard Williams. 

1807. John Calloway, Richard Williams, Thos. McGimpsey. 

1808. J. Calloway, Richard Williams, Bedent Baird. 

1809. J. Calloway, Thos. McGimpsey, Richard Williams. 

1810. Richard Williams, Martin Gambill, David Miller. 

1811. Richard Williams, David Miller, Martin Gambill. 

1812. George Bower, David Edwards, Elijah Calloway. 

1813. George Bower, E. Calloway, David Miller. 

1814. George Bower, E. Calloway, William Horton. 



Years. Senators. 

1815. George Bower, 

1816. George Bower, 

1817. George Bower, 

1818. E. Calloway, 

1819. E. Calloway, 

1820. R. Gentry, 

1821. E. Calloway, 

1823. E. Calloway, 

1824. E. Calloway, 

1825. Abner Smith, 

1826. A. B. M'Millan, 

1827. A. B. M'Millan, 

1828. John Harden, 

1829. A. Mitchell, 

1830. John Ray, 

1831. John Ray, 

1832. John Ray, 

1833. G. Phillips, 

1834. Noah Mast, 

1835. John Gambill, 

1836. Edmund Jones, 
1838. Edmund Jones, 
1840. A. Mitchell, 
1842. Edmund W. Jones, 
1844. A. B. McMillan, 
1846. A. B. McMillan, 
1848. George Bower, 
1850. George Bower, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
E. Calloway, William Horton. 
E. Calloway, William Horton. 
E. Calloway, Joseph Doughton. 
Francis Bryan, Miles Allen. 
Bedent Baird, Richard Gentry. 
John Harden, Alex. B. McMillan. 
Alex. B. McMillan, Abner Smith. 
Alex. B. McMillan, J. Weaver. 
Joshua Weaver, Alex. B. McMillan. 
William Herbert, Reuben Hartley. 
J. Blevins, Zachariah Baker. 
Zach. Baker, Anderson Mitchell. 
A. Mitchell, James Calloway. 
J. Calloway, Zachariah Baker. 
James Horton, J. Calloway. 
J. Calloway, Taliaferro Witcher. 
T. Witcher, Jonathan Horton. 
T. Witcher, Jonathan Horton. 
J. Horton, Taliaferro Witcher. 
T. Witcher, Jonathan Horton. 
James M. Nye. 
James M. Nye. 
Alex. B. McMillan. 
George Bower. 
Benjamin Calloway. 
Benjamin Calloway. 
Reuben Mast. 
A. B. McMillan. 



Date of formation — Origin of name, situation and boundaries — Popnlation 
and products — Washington, county seat — Bath, ancient town — Delegates 
to first Provincial Congress in North Carolina, in 1774, from Beaufort — 
Delegates to second Provincial Congress in 1775 — Officers in 1776, of the 
Beatfort Regiment — Delegates from Beaufort in 1776 — Members of Gene- 
ral Assembly. 

Beaufort County was formed in 1741, from Batli Coimtj, now 
abolished, and derives its name from Henrj, Duke of Beaufort, in 
whom was vested the proprietary rights of George, Duke of Albe- 
marle, and who, with the other proprietors (except Lord Gran- 
ville),* surrendered in 1729, theii- rights to the English Crown. 
(George II.) 

It is bounded on the north by the counties Martin and Washing- 
ton, east by Hyde and Pamlico River and Sound, south by Craven 
County, and west by Pitt County. 

* See act of surreader, Revised Statutes, ii. 466. 


Its population, from census of 1850, is 7,663 whites; 904 free negroes-, 
5,249 slaves; 11,716 federal population; 1,317 persons over twenty, who can- 
not read or write. 

Its products, from census of 1840, are 6,333 bushels of wheat ; 5,055 bushels 
of oats: 153,522 bushels of corn ; 87,180 pounds of cotton; 106,987 barrels 
of tar, pitch, rosin and turpentine ; 4,300 barrels of fish. 

The Amount paid by Beaufort to the Public Treasury for taxes, is two 
thousand, six hundred and six dollars. 

The amount received by Beaufort from the Public Treasury for common 
schools, is one thousand sis hundred and thirty dollars. _ Bath, the ancient 
seat of government on the north side of Pamlico River is in this county. 

The inliabitants of Beaufort were distinguislied for their early 
devotion to the principles of liberty. 

■' The delegates from Beaufort to the first Congress, which met at Newbern 
in 1774, we're Roger Ormond, Thomas Respiss, and William Salter. 

The delegates in 1775, which met at Ilillsboro', were the same, with John 
Patton, and Johx Cowper. 

This body appointed as officers to the regiment of this county, James 
Bonner, Colonel; Thomas Bonner, Lieutenant-Colonel; Roger Ormond, 1st 
Major; AVm. Brown, 2d IMajor. 

The delegates to the Congress of 1776, which met at Halifax, and formed 
our Constitution, were John Barrow, Thomas Respiss, Francis Jones, 
Thomas Respiss, Jr., Robert Tripp. 

Hon. Wm. S. Blackledge represented this district from 1803 to 1809, from 
1811 to 1813, from 1821 to 1823. 

Hon. Henry S. Clark represented this county in 1834, a lawyer by pro- 
fession ; Solicitor in 1842, and a member of Congress in 1845-47. 

Hon. Edward Stanly ret>resented this county in 1844, '46 and ^48 ; 
Speaker in 1848 ; son of Hon. John Stanly of Newbern. He was Attorney- 
General In 1847, and in Congress from 1837 to 1843, and from 1849 to 1851, 
and again re-elected to 1853. As Speaker of the House of Commons he was 
able and impartial, and won for himself the approbation of all parties. 

List of members of the General Assembly, from Beaufort, from 
1776 to 1851:— 

Years. Senate. House of Commons. 

1777. Thomas Respess, Nathan Keas, William Brown. 

1778. Thomas Respess, Andrew Ellison, William Brown. 

1779. Thomas Respess, Robert Trippe, John Kennedy. 
1780- Thomas Respess, William Brown, Samuel Willis. 

1781. Wm. Brown, Charles Crawford, Thos. A. Grist. 

1782. Wm. Brown, Richard N. Stevens, John G. Blount. 

1783. Wm. Brown, Thos. Anderson, John G. Blount. 

1784. John Smaw, Thos. Anderson, John G. Blount. 

1785. John Smaw, Thos. Anderson, John G. Blount. 

1786. John Bonner, John G. Blount, Henry Smaw. 

1787. John Bonner, Henry Smaw, John G. Blount. 

1788. William Brown, Johu^G. Blount, H. Smaw. 

1789. William Brown, John G. Blount, Richard Grice. 

1791. John Kennedy, Richard Blackledge, John Lanier. 

1792. R'd Blackledge, John Lanier, James Bonner. 

1793. R'd Blackledge, Charles Crawford, Frederic Grist. 

1795. R'd Blackledge, C. Crawford, F. Grist. 

1796. John G. Blount, John Kennedy, jr., T. Ellison. 

1797. Hans Patton, F. Grist, Thomas Ellison. 

1800. H'y S. Bonner, John Kennedy, Frederic Grist. 

1801. H. S. Bonner, F. Grist, J. Kennedy. 

1802. H. S. Bonner, F. Grist, Thomas Ellison. 

1803. H. S. Bonner, F. Grist, T. Ellison. 

1804. N. W. Bonuer, F. Grist, T. Ellison. 



Years. Senate. 

1805. Thomas Smaw, 

1806. T. Smaw, 

1807. T. Smaw, 

1808. Frederic Grist, 

1809. F. Grist, 

1810. F. Grist, 

1811. F. Grist, 

1812. Thomas Bowen, 

1813. Stephen Owens, 

1814. Reading Grist, 

1815. R. Grist, 

1816. R. Grist, 

1817. R. Grist, 

1818. R. Grist, 

1819. . Richard Ilines, 

1821. Jesse Robeson, 

1822. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1823. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1824. J. 0. K. A\llliams, 

1825. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1826. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1827. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1828. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1829. Jos. B. Hinton, 

1830. Jos. B. Hinton, 

1831. A7. S. Rowland, 

1832. Jos. B. Hinton, 

1833. Wm. E. Smaw, 

1834. J. McWilliams, 

1835. J. 0. K. Williams, 

1836. J. 0. K. Williams, 
1838. J. 0. K. Williams, 
1840. AVilliam Selby, 
1842. W. B. Hodges, 
1844. Joshua Taylor, 
1846. David Carter, 
1848. Thos. D. Smaw, 
1850. A. Grist, 

House of Commons. 

Stephen Owens, F. Grist. 

F. Grist, S. Owens. 

James Williams, F. Grist. 

J. AVilliams, Jonathan Marsh. 

J. Williams, Thomas Boyd. 

J. Williams, T. Boyd. 

James Latham, Everard Hall. 

George Boyd, J. Latham. 

William Worsley, Slade Pearce. 

J. 0. K. Williams, George Boyd. 

J. 0. K. Williams, Thos. Latham. 

J. 0. K. Williams, Wm. Vines. 

Thomas Latham, Wm. Vines. 

T. Latham, Jesse Robeson. 

J. Robeson, John S. Smallwood. 

Thos. V,\ Blackledge, J. Adams. 

T. W. Blackledge, W. Ormond. 

W. Ormond, T. W. Blackledge. 

T. W. Blackledge, James SatchwelL 

Thomas Ellison, Wm. A. Blount. 

W. A. Blount, T. Ellison. 

W. A. Blount, T. W. Blackledge. 

T. Latham, T. AV. Blackledge. 

S. Smallwood, J. AV. AVilliams. 

S. Smallwood, J. AV. AVilliams. 

Richard H. Bonner, David 0. Freeman. 

Richard Bonner, Henry S. Clark. 

AVm. L. Kennedv, S. Smallwood. 

Ilenrv S. Clark. "S. Smallwood. 

H. S.' Clark, S. Smallwood. ' 

F. C. Satterthwaite, S. Smallwood. 

AV. A. Blount, Jno. McAViiliams. 

J. O. K. AVilliams, Sh. P. Allen. 

Sh. P. Allen, J. AV. AVilliams. 

Edward Stanly, Frederic Grist. 

Edward Stanly, Thomas D. Smaw. 

Edward Stanly, AV. AV. Hayman. 

Jesse Stubbs, AA''m. H. Tripp. 



Date of formation, origin of name, situation, and boundaries— Windsor, 
county town — Population and products — Delegates in 1774 and 1775 — 
Military officers in 1776 — Life, character, services and political career of 
David Stone, a native of Bertie — Other distinguished citizens — List of 
members of General Assembly. 

Bertie Avas formed as early as 1722, from Albemarle County 
(now abolished), and derives its name from James and John Bertie, 
in whom the proprietary rights of the Earl of Clarendon vested. 


Their names appear in the deed of surrender in 1729 of theii- rights 
to the crown.* 

It is situated in the eastern part of the State, and bounded on 
the north by the County of Hertford; east by the Chowan River, 
which separates it from Chowan County ; south by the Roanoake 
River, which separates it from the County of Martin ; and west hj 
a part of Northampton County and the Roanoake River, which 
separates it from Halifax County. 

Windsor is its capital town, beautifully situated on the Cashie 
River, and navigable for vessels. 

Rs population, 5344 whites; 313 free negroes; 7194 slaves; 9973 federal 
population ; 1032 persons who cannot read or write. 

Its products, 2839 bushels wheat; 545,282 bushels corn; 2,121,449 pounds 
cotton ; 12,352 pounds wool ; 25,885 barrels fish ; 22,439 barrels turpentine. 

The amount paid by Bertie as taxes into the public treasury is two thousand 
nine hundred and twenty-six dollars. 

The amount received by Bertie for common schools from the treasury is 
one thousand four hundred and eighty-one dollars. 

The County of Bertie was early distinguished for its devotion to 

To the assemblage of patriots which met at Newbern, 25th August, 1774, 
John Campbell was a delegate. 

To the assembly which met in 1775, atHillsboro', the delegates were Wil- 
liam Gray, Jonathan Jaycocks, Charles Jaycocks, William Brimmage, 
William Bryan, Zedekiah Stone, Thomas Ballard, Peter Clifton, David 
Standly, John Campbell, John Johnston. 

The officers elected by this assembly for Bertie, were Thomas Whitmell, 
Colonel, Thomas. Pogh, Lieut.-Colonel, James Moore, 1st Major, Arthur 

Brown, 2d Major. , i tt tp 

The delegates from Bertie to the State Congress that assembled at llalitax 
12th November, 177G, which formed our Constitution, were Thomas Pugh, 
John Johnston, William Gray, Noah Hinton, Zedekiah Stone. 

Captain Jacob Turner, of this county, went with General Nash m the 
army of the Revolution, and fell with him, at the battle of Germantown, in 
1777. Over his grave, a marble, erected by the patriotism of the citizens of 
Germantown, aided by the generous efi'orts of John F. Watson, Esq., author 
of the " Annals of Pennsylvania," reads thus: — 

honor to the brave. 

Hie jacet in pace. 

Colonel Henry Irwin, of North Carolina, 

Captain Turner, 

Adjutant Lucas and six soldiers, 

Killed in the Battle of Germantown. 

one cause, one grave. 

The thanks of the State are due to Mr. Watson, for the act of generosity 
in thus rescuing the names and pointing out the spot where these martyrs to 
the cause of Liberty sleep. 

The stranger came, and found the soldier's grave; 

On honor's page he saw the glorious name, 
And raised this fond memorial to his fame. 

Zedekiah Stone, of this County, had early emigrated from England. He 
was a merchant on the Cashie Biver, and was the father of David Stone, 

* See' Deed of Surrender, Revised Statutes, ii. 466. 


•who is so distinguished as a Judge, Governor, Senator in Congress, in the 
History of North Carolina, that his life and services deserve our attention. 

Dayid Stone was born in Bertie County, on 17th February, 1770, at Hope, 
about five miles from Windsor, on the Halifax road. 

His elementary education was as good as the country afforded. After his 
academic studies were finished he entered Princeton College, vehere by his 
assiduity and genius he became distinguished. He graduated at that re- 
nowned institution in 1788 with the first honors of the college. 

He studied law at Halifax under General Wm. R. Davie, whose experience, 
talents, and learning, were admirably adapted to prepare him for the conflicts 
of the forum and the bar. 

In 1790 he received a license to practice law, and from his assiduity in his 
profession, his deep and varied acquirements, he soon rose to the highest ranks 
of the profession. From his suavity of manners he became a favorite with 
the people. 

He early embarked on the stormy sea of political life, and he was destined 

to a distinguished career. - •; 

In 1791 he was elected to the General Assembly, a member of the Hoase 

of Commons, as also in 1792, '93 and '94. He was Judge of the Supreme 

Court from 1795 to 1798. 

In 1799 he was elected a member of the House of Representatives in Con- 

In 1801 he was elected by the Legislature a member of the Senate of the 
United States. In this capacity he served until 1806, when he was elected a 
Judge of the Supreme Court; which, he resigned in 1808, on being elected 
Governor of the State. 

In 1811 he appeared in the Legislature again as a member of the House of 
Commons from Bertie. He distinguished himself this session by advocacy 
of a bill transferring the choice of electors for the Presidency from the 
people to the Legislature, which was opposed by Duncan Cameron, John 
Steele, and others. 

The nest session he introduced a resolution proposing to choose electors by 
the general ticket system. This too was opposed by Duncan Cameron, John 
Stanly, and others, and his proposition failed. He opposed the plan of John 
Phifer, as to the district system, which was adopted at the time. 

At this session he was elected again Senator in Congress, for six years, 
from 4th March, 1813. 

This was a most stormy period. The war which had been declared with 
Great Britain, then raged with all its fury. Parties were violently excited. 
The republicans were for sustaining the war with men, money, and every 
means in their power. Being elected as a decided republican, it was ex- 
pected that Gov. Stone would give Mr. Madison a cordial and unwavering 
support, and advocate the war measures of the administration. 

He differed from his colleague. Gov. Turner, and the Republican party on 
many leading questions ; the bill authorizing a direct tax, the embargo re- 
commended by the President (Mr. Madison), and other measures. 
This called down the reproof of the Legislature of North Carolina. 
In December 1814, Mr. Branch, in State Senate, from the committee on the 
subject, reported that "the conduct of Mr. Stone had been in opposition to 
his profession, and jeopardized the safety and interest of the country, and 
incurred the disapprobation of the General Assembly." 
This was adopted by a vote of 40 to 18. 

The names of the minority are : Bender, Bodenhamer, Caldwell, Fuller, Foy, 
Einton, Johnson, McKinny, Murphy, Parker, R. Smith, Speight, Shade, Stewart, 
J. Smith, Wri'jht, J. Williams, R. Williams. 

This caused him to resign. He seems never to have recovered his position 
with his party or his influence in the State. 

He was twice married ; by the first marriage he had several children (.one 
son only, who was Cashier of the Branch Bank of Cape Fear at Raleigh, now 
dead) ; by the second marriage he left no children. He died in Oct. 1818. 



Equally gifted, if less successful in public life, in Bertie, was William 
Cherry. He was educated at Chapel Hill, and graduated at that Institution 
in 1800. He studied law, and became distinguished in his profession. In 
1805, he was a member in the Commons from Bertie. Efforts are being 
made to procure information as to life, cai-eer, and end of this brilliant genius, 
which another edition of this work will present. 

George Outlaw also lived and died in this county. He was a member of 
the House of Commons, in 179G ; and of the Senate in 1807 and '08, and 
often afterwards ; and a member of Congress, in 182-i and 1825 ; was dis- 
tinguished for his amiable manners, unsullied character, and piety of life. 

These have numerous connections now in Bertie, to whom their reputation 
and services are dear, and whose virtues are left for their imitation and emu- 

William W. Cherry was a native of Bertie, and as distinguished for his 
benevolence in private, as for his ability in public life. He was raised as a 
merchant, taught school, and at mature age studied law, and practiced with 
great success. He was elected to the Senate in 1838, and to the House of 
Commons in 1844. In 1845, he was nominated as member of Congress, and 
had not death terminated his life at Jackson, while attending Northampton 
Superior Court (2d May, 1845), his career would have been useful and bril- 
liant. He died in the 39th year of his age. 

David Outlaw is a resident and native of Bertie. He was educated at 
the University. He graduated in 1824, in a class composed of John Bragg, 
late a judge in Mobile, and recently elected member of Congress from the 
Mobile district, Alabama; William A. Graham, now Secretary of the Navy; 
Matthias E. Manly, now a judge of our Superior Courts ; Augustus Moore, 
late of Edenton, late Judge of our Superior Court; Thomas Dews, and others. 
In this galaxy of talent Mr. Outlaw was not obscure. 

He read law at Newbern, with Judge Gaston ; admitted to the Bar in 1827 ; 
Elected to the House of Commons in 1832, and again in 1833 and 1834; 
Solicitor of Edenton Circuit in 1836, and member of Congress in 1848, for 
which distinguished post he is again re-elected (August 1851). 

Many other names might be named who have " done the State 
some service," and in another edition accurate sketches of them will 
be presented. 

Members of General Assembly from Bertie County, from 1777 
to 1851. 

Years. Senators. 

1777. Zed. Stone, 

1778. Zed. Stone, 

1779. Zed. Stone, 

1780. Jon. Jacocks, 

1781. Jon. Jacocks, 

1782. Jon. Jacocks, 

1783. Jon. Jacocks, 

1784. Jon. Jacocks, 

1785. Jon. .Jacocks, 

1786. Zed. Stone, 

1787. John Johnston, 

1788. John .Johnston, 

1789. John Johnston, 

1790. Francis Pugh, 

1791. Jasper Charlton, 

1792. .Jasper Charlton, 

1793. .Jasper Charlton, 

1794. John Wolfendon, 

1795. John Wolfendon, 

1796. Timothy Walton, 

Members of House of Commons. 
William Jordan, Simon Turner. 
William .Jordan, James Campbell. 
John Pugh Williams, Jonathan Jacocks. 
William Horn, David Turner. 
William Horn, David Turner. 
William Horn, David Turner. 
William Horn, David Turner. 
Zed. Stone, Andrew Oliver. 
Thomas Collins, Andrew Oliver. 
Thomas Collins, Andrew Oliver. 
Andrew Oliver, William Horn. 
William Horn, Francis Pugh. 
William Horn, Francis Pugh. 
David Stone, David Turner. 
David Stone, William J. Dawson. 
David Stone, Tristam Lowtlicr. 
David Stone, John Wolfendon. 
Jonathan Jacocks, David Stone. 
Jonathan Jacocks, John Johnston. 
George Outlaw, John Johnston. 



Years. Senators. 

1797. Francis Pugh, 

1800. John Johnston, 

1801. Jona. Jacocks, 

1802. George Outlaw, 

1803. Henry Peterson, 

1804. Joseph -Jordan, 

1805. Joseph Jordan, 

1806. George Outlaw, 

1807. George Outlaw, 

1808. George Outlaw, 

1809. Joseph Jordan, 

1810. George Outlaw, 

1811. George Outlaw, 

1812. George Outlaw, 

1813. George Outlaw, 

1814. George Outlaw, 

1815. "\Vm. Sparkman, 

1816. Wm. Sparkman, 

1817. George Outlaw, 

1818. Thos. L. West, 

1819. Wm. Hinton, 

1821. George Outlaw, 

1822. George Outlaw, 

1823. George B. Outlaw, 

1824. George B. Outlaw, 

1825. Jehu XichoUs, 

1826. Wm. Gilliam, 

1827. George 0. Askew, 

1828. George 0. Askew, 

1829. George 0. Askew, 

1830. George 0. Askew, 

1831. George 0. Askew, 

1832. George 0. Askew, 

1833. A. W. Mebane, 

1834. A. W. Mebane, 

1835. A. W. Mebane, 

1836. A. W. Mebane, 
1838. Wm. W. Cherry, 
1840. Lewis Bond, 
1842. Jas. S. Mitchell, 
1844. Lewis Thompson, 
1846. J. R. Gilliam, 
1848. Lewis Thompson, 
1850. Lewis Bond, 

Members of the House of Commons. 

George Outlaw, J. B. .Jordan. 
Joseph Jordan, Thomas Fitts. 
Henry K. Peterson, Joseph Eason. 
James W. Clark, Henry Peterson. 
James W. Clark, James Tunstall. 
William Cherry, Joseph H. Bryan. 
William Cherry, Joseph H. Bryan. 
Prentis Law, Joseph Eason. 
Joseph H. Bryan, -Joseph Eason. 
Joseph H. Bryan, J. Eason. 
Joseph H. Bryan, Geo. L. Ryan. 
George L. Ryan, Thomas Speller. 
David Stone, William Sparkman. 
David Stone, William Sparkman. 
Timothy Walton, Whit. H. Pugh. 
William Sparkman, Whit. H. Pugh. 
Wm. H. Pugh, Jonathan .Jacocks. 
Simon A. Bryan, J. H. Jacocks. 
Thos. L. West, J. H. .Jacocks. 
William Hinton, -Joseph .Jordan. 
Geo. B. Outlaw, Simon A. Bryan. 
Robert C. AYatson, Thos. Brickell. 
Thomas Brickell, Simon A. Bryan. 
James G. Mhoon, S. A. Bryan. 
Wm. H. Rascoe, J. G. Mhoon. 
William H. Rascoe, J. G. Mhoon. 
J. G. Mhoon, Joseph D. White. 
Thomas H. Speller, J. D. White. 
Joseph Watford, Wm. S. Mhoon. 
Wm. S. Mhoon, Alexander W. Mebane. 
W. S. Mhoon, A. W. Mebane. 
Lewis Thompson, David Outlaw. 
David Outlaw, Thomas -J. Pugh. 
David Outlaw, Thomas J. Pugh. 
David Outlaw, Thomas -J. Pugh. 
-John F. Lee, Thomas H. Speller. 
John F. Lee, Thomas H. Speller. 
Lewis Bond, -James R. Rayner. 
Lewis Thompson, -John R. Gilliam. 
James R. Rayner, .John F. Lee. 
W. W. Cherry, Lewis Bond. 
John X. Bond, Richard 0. Britton. 
J. B. Cherry, K. Biggs. 
J. B. Cherry, P. H. 'Winston. 




Date of its formation, origin of its name— Situation and boundaries-~ElIza' 
bethtown its Capital — Population and Products— Climate — Colonial and 
Revolutionary History — Delegates to first Provincial Congress at Newbern, 
in 1774— Delegates to the second, in 1775— Delegates to the Assembly, in 
1776, which formed our Constitution — Documents relative to the battle 
at Elizabethtown, July, 1781, between the Whigs under Colonel Thomas 
Brown, afterwards General, and the Tories, commanded by Cols. Slingsby, 
and Godden — Her distinguished citizens, and a list of her members in the 
General Assembly, from 1774 to 1851. 

Bladen County was formed as early as 1734, from New Hanover 
County, and comprehended at the time the whole western portion 
of the State as far as the limits of North Carolina extended. 

It was so called in honor of Martin Bladen, one of the Lords 
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations.* 

It is situated in the south-eastern part of North Carolina, and 
is bounded on the north by the county of Cumberland, and South 
River, which separates it from Sampson County ; on the east by the 
same river, which separates it from New Hanover County ; on the 
south by the counties of Brunswick, and Columbus ; and on the 
west by the county of Robeson. 

Elizabethtown, ks capital, is situated on the Cape Fear River, 
and distant from Raleigh 99 miles. 

Population, 5,055 whites; 354 free negroes; 4,358 slaves ; 8,023 rep. popu- 
lation ; 593 persons who cannot read or write. 

Products 1549 bushels of wheat; 4,954 bushels of oats ; 180,705 bushels of 
corn; 58,193 pounds cotton; 7,574 pounds wool; 14,281 barrels turpentine; 
$44,868 of lumber. 

Its climate is mild and salubrious. Its effect may be judged, 
from the fact that in 1840, the oldest man on the census of that 
decade, William Prigden, lived in this county. He was then 112 
years of age, and died aged 122. 

There is no portion of the State that was more determined or 
devoted to the cause of Liberty, than was Bladen, in the early 
periods of our history. In no portion was the advocacy of the 
cause attended with greater peril, from the number of Tories, and 
the vicinity of the enemy's forces. 

To the first Assembly of Patriots (at Newbern' in 1774, the delegates from 
Bladen were, William' Salter, and Walter Gibson. 

* Martin's History of North Carolina, ii. 15. 


The delegates in 1775 were (at Hillsboro'), Thomas Owen, Thomas Robe- 
son, Jr., and Nathaniel Richardson. 

The delegates in 1716 (Halifax), which formed our Bill of Rights and Con- 
stitution, were Thouas Robeson, Thomas Owen, Thomas Amis, and James 

The oiEcers appointed in 1775 for this county, were Thomas Robeson, Jr., 
Colonel; Thomas Brown, Lieut. -Colonel ; Thomas Owen, 1st Major; James 
Richardson, 2d Major. 

This county was signalized by being the scene of a bloody battle 
between the friends ^of Liberty and the Tories, at or near Elizabeth- 

It was fought in July 1781 ; the friends of liberty were led on by 
Thomas Brown, and the Tories commanded by Cols. Slingsby and 
Godden. The situation of the county was deplorable. The Tories 
had overrun every portion ; their opponents had been driven out of 
the county, their homes ravaged, and houses burned. About 60 
had taken refuge in Duplin ; hungry, naked, and homeless, exaspe- 
rated to madness, they resolved to drive the Tories from their posts 
or die in the attempt. The Tories, to the number of about three 
hundred, had taken position at Elizabethtown. Colonel Brown and 
his brave men marched fifty miles through a wilderness, subsisting 
on jerked beef and scanty bread. They forded the Cape Fear, 
and at night (when the disparity of the force could not be perceived), 
made a furious onset on the Tories, drove in their guards, and 
after a bloody resistance, in which their commander Slingsby was 
mortally wounded and Godden killed, the Tories commenced a re- 
treat ; a large number rushed wildly over every obstacle and leaped 
into a deep gulley which has ever since borne the name of the 
" Tory Hole." 

This brilliant affair ended the Tory power in Bladen. 

It is to be hoped that some record more enduring ma^y be pro- 
cured that will present this battle in its true colors to posterity. 
With every exertion there has been but little procured, but enough 
to show the cliivalric daring of its leaders, and the firmness of the 
sons of Bladen. 

The following extracts, from the papers of the present day, may 
induce others to search some record made at the time, and hand to 
the present age, as "a rich legacy," the glowing record of this 
brilliant achievement. 

From the Wilmington Chronicle. 

[WJdgs of Kew Hanover, Bladen, and Duplin — Col. Thomas Brown — Tories 
at Elizabethtown — The Whigs, after a forced march, wade the Cape Fear and 
rout the enemy in the night — The leaders of the Highland Scotchmen [Slings- 
by and Godden) slain — The Tory Hole — General Waddel, Owen, Morchead, 
Robeson and Ervine.] 

Bladen Countt, February 2\st, 1844. 

A. A. Brown, Esq. : _ 

Dear Sir — Yours of the 3d inst. was received, soliciting such information 

as I possessed, or may be able to collect respecting the battle fought at Eliza- 


bethtown, during our revolutionary struggle, between the Whigs and Tories. 
I have often regretted that the actions and skirmishes which occurred in this 
and New Hanover County, should have been overlooked by historians. The 
battle of Elizabethtown deserves a place in history, and ought to be recol- 
lected by every true-hearted North Carolinian with pride and pleasure. Here 
sixty men, driven from their homes, their estates ravaged, and houses plun- 
dered, who had taken refuge with the Whigs of Duplin, without funds, and 
bare of clothing, resolved to return, fight, conquer, or die. After collecting 
all the ammunition they could, they embodied and selected Col. Thomas 
Brown to command. They marched fifty miles through almost a wilderness 
country, before they reached the river, subsisting on jerked beef and a scanty 
supply of bread. The Tories had assembled, three hundred or more, at Eliza- 
bethtown, and were commanded by Slingsby and Godden ; the former was a 
talented man, and well fitted for his station ;* the latter, bold, daring and reck- 
less, ready to risk everything to put down the Whigs. Every precautionary 
measure -was adopted to prevent surprise, and ta render this the stronghold 
of Toryism. Not a boat was suffered to remain on the east side of the river. 
Guards and sentries were regularly detached and posted. When the little 
band of Whig heroes, after nightfall, reached the river, not a boat was to be 
found ; but it must be crossed, and that speedily ; its depth was ascertained 
by some who were tall and expert swimmers ; they to a man cried out, " it is 
fordable, we can, we will cross it." Not a murmur was heard, and without 
a moment's delay, they all undressed, tied their clothing and ammunition on 
their heads (baggage they had none), each man grasping the barrel of his 
gun, raised the breech so as to keep the lock above water, descended the 
banks, and entered the river. The taller men found less difficulty ; those of 
lower stature, were scarcely able to keep their mouths and noses above vrater ; 
but all safely reached the opposite shore, resumed their dress, fixed their 
arms for action, made their way through the low-grounds, then thickly set 
with cane, ascended the hills, which were high and precipitous, crossed the 
King's road leading through the town, and took a position in its rear. Here 
they formed, and in about two hours after crossing a mile below, commenced 
a furious attack, driving in the Tory sentries and guards ; they continued 
rapidly to advance, keeping up a brisk and well-directed fire, and were soon in 
the midst of the foe, mostly Highland Scotchmen, as brave, as loyal, and high- 
minded, as any of his Majesty's subjects ; so sudden and violent an onset for 
the moment produced disorder ; but they were rallied by their gallant leader, 
and made for a while the most determined resistance. Slingsliy fell mortally 
wounded, and Godden was killed, with most of the officers of inferior grade. 
They retreated, some taking refuge in houses, others, the largest portion, leap- 
ing pell-mell into a deep ravine, since called the Tory Hole. As the Tories had 
unlimited sway from the river to Little Pee Dee, the Whigs re-crossed, taking 
with them their wounded. Such was the general panic produced by this action, 
the Tories became dispirited, and never after were so troublesome. The 
Whigs soon returned to their homes in safety. In the death of Slingsby, the 
Tories were deprived of an officer whose place it was difficult to fill ; but few 
were equal to Godden in partisan warfare. 

This battle was fought mostly by river planters, men who had sacrificed 
much for their country. To judge of it correctly, it should not be forgotten 
that the country from Little Pee Dee to the Catawba, was overrun by the 
Tories ; Wilmington was in possession of the British, and Cross Creek of the 
Tories. Thus situated, the attack made on them at Elizabethtown assumed 
much of the character of a forlorn hope; had the Whigs not succeeded, they 
must have been cut off to a man. If they had fled to the South, thou^^ands 
would have arisen to destroy them ; if to the Eastward, the Tories in that 
case, flushed with victory, would have intercepted their retreat, and they 
would have sought in vain their former asylum. This action produced, in 
this part of North Carolina, as sudden and as happy results as the battles of 
Trenton and Princeton, in New Jersey. The contest was unequal, but valor 
supplied the place of numbers. It is due to Colonel Brown, who when 
a youth, marched with General Waddcl from Bladen, and fought under 


Governor Tryon at the battle of Alamance, and was afterwards wounded at 
the Great Bridge, under General Howe, near Norfolk, Virginia, to say he 
fully realized the expectations of his friends, and the wishes of those who 
selected him to command ; and when the history of our State shall be writ- 
ten, this action alone, apart from his chivalric conduct at the Great Bridge, 
will place him by the side of his compatriots, Horry, Marion, and Sumpter, 
of the South. It must, it will form an interesting page in our history, on 
which the young men of North Carolina will delight to dwell. It is an 
achievement which bespeaks not only the most determined bravery, but 
great military skill. The most of these men, like the Ten thousand Greeks, 
were fitted to command. Owen had fought at Camden, Morehead commanded 
the nine-months' men sent to the South ; Robeson and Ervine were the Percys 
of the Whigs, and might justly be called the Hotspurs of Cape Fear. 

The foregoing narrative was detailed to me by two of the respectable com- 
batants, who now sleep with their fathers; the .substance of which I have 
endeavored to preserve with all the accuracy a memory not very retentive 

will permit. , . - ■, .,. . 

A respectable resident of Elizabethtown has recently informed me that 
he was a small boy at the time of the battle, and lived with his mother in one 
of the houses to which the Tories repaired for safety ; that he has a distinct 
recollection of the fire of the Whigs, which appeared like one continued 
stream. Documentary evidence I have none. 

With great respect, &c., . 

[From the Raleigh Independent.] 

\ Commentary on tJie preceding account of the Battle of EUzahetlitoimi — Military 
skill of Col. Broum—Whig\tratagems~Oiuen, Morehead and Roheson — Ruse 
de guerre and Coup de main, subsequently explained by Gen. Broicn—Best 
mode of collecting materials for history— Reference to the late Gen. Davis, of 
To the Editor of the Wilmington Chronicle : — 

Sir My attention was directed by a friend to an article in your paper of 

the 5th inst., headed Battle of Elizabethtown. 

The distinguished gentleman who furnished you with an account of the 
battle, I have no doubt, gave it to you as he received it ; but his informant 
overlooked the particulars which characterized it ; and which establish its 
claim to be ranked with those actions of our revolutionary struggle that 
exhibited military skill. According to the showing of your correspondent, it 
was an attack of great daring, and executed with astonishing secrecy and 
dispatch. But these, though among the elements of war, do not necessarily 
imply military talents ; nor can they aspire to that glory which is the crown- 
in <^ privilege of military enterprise. On the contrary, the actors might have 
forfeited afl the applause, which is due to their valor, by the wa,nt of pro- 
spective measures. And the discriminating annalist might deem it his duty 
to note this achievement as the lucky termination of a desperate adventure, 
in which the passions had more to do than the intellect, and which deserved 
consideration merely as the accidental, but efficient cause, of important con- 
sequences to the country. Suppose that heroic band had attacked the strong- 
hold of Toryism tvithout any of those stratagems and expedients which an 
experienced officer knows how to practice ; and that stronghold containing a 
numerical force at least five-fold greater than their own, of equal intrepidity, 
and under an officer whose aljilities and well-tried courage, inspired with 
unaniniity and zeal the whole of his garrison, how difi'erent would have been 
the result! how awful the consequences ! a forlorn hope, self-immolated, and 
doomed to perish ! The band would have been cut off' in this wild expedition 
of uncalculating temerity ; and though their fate would have been deplored, 
they would neither have'deserved the gratitude of their country, nor merited 
the panegyrics of history. 


The sa;;acious commander, Col. Brown, did not act thus. He did not com- 
mence an expedition without a plan ; and without looking to results, and 
providing for contingencies. Every meditated movement was arranged and 
settled with exact precision ; and the destruction of the superior officers of 
the garrison determined on as an indispensal)le, though painful measure, to 
insure the victory. Every individual was made perfectly acquainted with his 
duty, in order that entire concert might be maintained during the conflict. 

Your correspondent's narrative is, no douht, correct as to the advance of 
the "Whigs, under cover of night, their forming in the rear of what was then 
called the King's Road, driving in the outposts and sentries, and making the 
onset on the garrison. Here, his deficiency Avill be evident, when it is com- 
pared with the details which I am about to give. 

After the first volley, Col. Brown, with six officers, who for the want of a 
more appropriate word, may be termed his stajf; and among whom were 
those gallant spirits, Owen, MoreJiead, and Robeson, took a central position, 
as previously arranged; and the main body rushed to a point, at a specified 
distance, on his right, and reloaded with ahnost inconceivable rapidity. The 
words of command were tlien heard in loud and distinct tones. On the right I 
Col. />ocM'5 company ! vVdvance! (No such officer, and no such company 
being present.) The main body advanced and fired, wheeling, rushed to a 
point to the left, and reloaded as before ; and the order was given in the same 
audible voice. On the left! Col. Gillespie's com\)?iX\j\ Advance! (No such 
officer, and no such company being present.) The main body advanced and 
fired. Again. On the right ! Col. DicA'/H.yon's company ! Advance! (The 
same fiction being repeated.) The main body advanced and fired, and wlieel- 
ing, rushed to the designated point. Again. On the left! Major Wrii/lU's 
company ! Advance ! (The same fiction being repeated.) The main body 
advanced and fired. 

This rtise de guerre was carried on until the Whig band was multiplied into 
ten or eleven companies. It succeeded in making an impression on tlie gar- 
rison, that it was attacked by a body of one thousand strong, led on by expe- 
rienced officers. 

The self-possession and the energy with which the orders were given, and 
the celerity and animation with which they were executed, under circum- 
stances of recent fatigue and exposure, are almost unparalled in history. 
During the time occupied in these evolutions, Col. Brown, with his staff, as I 
have called them, was improving accidents and making occasions for taking 
deadly aims. 

There must have been a sublimity in the scene. The darkness of night, 
broken by a sheet of flame, at every successive volley of the Whig band ; the 
outcries and clamor; the disorderly firing of the Tories, the gallant efforts of 
Cwl. Slingsby to restore order, and to form his lines ; his fall, so sanguinely 
desired, and yet so much regretted ; and the total rout of the garrison, would, 
to a person not engaged in the conflict, if such a one could liave been there, 
have presented a spectacle of horror more easily imagined than described. 

In tliis scene were exhibited all the brilliant features of the enterprise. 
Here, on the field of battle, strategy and tactics were combined, and consti- 
tuted the military skill of the commander of the Whig force. He vanquished 
the enemy by the exercise of such skill as could not have been surpassed ; 
and by a boldness and hardihood, a promptitude of oliodicnoe and rapidity 
of movement on the part of those under his command, that would have shed 
a lustre on the disciplined legions of modern Europe. 

It is proper now to state how I came by my information. I first heard the 
account in the way your correspondent received it, from persons wliose names 
I cannot recollect, and it left no impression on my mind but that of a (if!,pe- 
rate attack in the night, on Colonel Slingsbifs post, and perhaps a panic in 
the garrison. 

Upwards of thirty years ago I heard General Brotcn himself recount the 
particulars. It was on the deck of a packet boat, between Sinit/irdle and 
Wilmington. A young Irishman from Baltimore, a naturalized citizen of the 
United States, was one of the passengers. He was a furious zealot of rebclliou 




against all government, and obtruded on the company his political opinions. 
He declaimed against oui" institutions, and inveighed in virulent language 
against some of our most distinguished statesmen. Several gentlemen were 
present, all natives, and I believe there was not one "who was not roused by 
the insolence of this foreigner. One or two glanced at him, but he disregarded 
their remarks, and continued to vapor with a provoking contempt for his 
fclluw passengers. At length. General Broicn, who was the only one of us who 
derived authority from age and revolutionary services, and who had been 
kindled into indignation by his impertinence, commenced an oblique attack 
on him, by marking the distinction between the legitimate patriotism of that 
day which "tried men's souls," and the spurious love of liberty of the then 
epoch which tendered its services uncalled for and unrequired, and vaunted 
itself in noisy strictures on the administration, and malevolent accusations 
. against the distinguished patriots who conduct it. He proceeded to relate 
some anecdotes of his military life ; but none of them riveted my attention 
so entirely as the aWaiv at Elizabethtown. When his narration reached the 
battle ground, and he depicted the operations there, he grew very warm ; 
we all became engrossed by the subject, and the Irishman was reduced to 
silence and mortification. 

It happens that the mode of collecting materials for a history of the State, 
which I have, for many years past, recommended, has been reduced to prac- 
tice by you, and with immediate success, and without any privity between 
us. You have induced a talented gentleman of Bladen County to furnish a 
sketch of the military expedition which terminated in a battle. He has given 
you the history of this expedition as he received it, and points to the result 
and its important consequences, and I have conceived it my duty to supply 
additional particulars. Here is an example set to those who desire that 
materials for the history of our revolution should be accumulated. If there 
is any public spirit in the country, the example will be followed. 
I am. Sir, very respectfully. 

Your ob't serv't, Y. Z. 

P. S. One of the band referred to above, walked over the battle field with 
the late General Thos. Davis, of Fayetteville, and pointed out to him the dif- 
ferent positions occupied by the Whig force during the attack on Elizabeth- 
town. Is it not probable that General Davis made memorandums of this 
inspection which may yet be found among his papers, and may enable us to 
form a more accurate idea of the plan and the details of the battle ? 

From the Raleig-h Register. 

[Reminiscences of a revohdionary matron tvith respect to events immediately stib- 
seqvent to the Battle of Elizabethtown — Wilmington in the 2)ossession of the 
British troops commanded by Major Craig — Whig encampment above Wil- 
mington, under the orders of Colonel Leonard — Attempt by night to surprise 
and massacre the Whigs — Tlie Kent Bugle — A perfidious guide — Daring 
adventure of Mansfield, Manly, and the two young Smiths — Death of one of 
the latter — References to Colonel {the father of Governor) Owen — The Wad- 
dells, the Smiths, the Leonards — Captain Manly — The unfortunate Slingsby.] 

Mr. Gales — The fugitive memoranda of our old people, and their fast 
fading recollections of the scenes of the Revolution, and of events connected 
with the early history of North Carolina, are rapidly passing away, and every 
effort should be made to preserve and perpetuate them. Many a gallant deed 
and noble instance of devoted patriotism has been already ii-recoverably lost ; 
deeds which would illustrate the character of our people — their perils and 
sacrifices in the arduous struggle in which they were engaged, and would now 
fill with just exultation the hearts of many whose actions teem with the life- 
blood of their heroic sires, and who were often wholly ignorant of their bold 
and patriotic achievements. Every new anecdote and incident of the Revolu- 


tion that we read, is full of interest; arid although many of them may not be 
of sufficient public importance to be dignified with a place on the page of our 
history, yet they should be gathered and treasured up and printed, and thus 
placed in the reach of our future historian. 

These reflections were vividly enforced the other day, upon my reading to 
an aged and respectable lady of the olden times, who was raised on the Cape 
Fear, the account given in the Wilmington Chronicle, "of the battle of Eliza- 
bethtown, in Bladen county." "Ah," said she, when I had finished reading, 
"well do I remember the events of that day, and some of the men that 
figured in them." 

Among other anecdotes, she related substantially the following narrative : — 
Upon the dispersion of the Tories in that successful sortie at Elizabeth- 
town, above referred to, by the handful of Whigs under Captain (afterwards 
General) Brown, many of the Tories fled for refuge to Wilmington, then in 
possession of the British, under the command of Major Craig, while a portion 
of that same Spartan Whig band, joined by a few other choice spirits of the 
county of Brunswick, under the command of Colonel Leonard, formed an en- 
campment above Wilmington, and not far from the river, for the purpose of 
cutting off supplies from being carried by the Tories to the enemy, and to 
prevent their own and their neighbors' slaves from flocking down to the 
British Camp, and for mutual protection generally. 

This encampment was a source of great annoyance and vexation to the 
British commander, and the object of especial hatred and revenge to his new 
recruits who had just been so handsomely whipped at Elizabeth. It was re- 
solved at Head Quarters that this encampment should be broken up, and a 
large force was immediately detailed on this service. A portion of them 
was sent up the main road, and were to wait in ambush at a bridge on a 
stream then known as Hood's Creek, not fir below the camp, while other 
companies, under the guide of one of these Tories who well knew the few 
pa,ssways and situation of the country, were to be conducted and planted 
above, so as effectually to surround the camp and cut oif retreat. Orders 
were given, in the heai-ing of the guide, to the chief officer of this expedition, 
to shoio no quarters, but to put to inslant cleatli every Wliiy ttiat stioidd be found 
until arms in tlieir hands. After early nightfall, this band sat out on their 
murderous errand. 

Upon hearing these savage and bloodthirsty orders, their guide relented. 
Many of the men who were in that camp, had been his near neighbors and 
friends, had often done him acts of kindness, and his heart quailed at the 
contemplation of the scene before him, and his inhuman instrumentality in 
having them cut up and butchered. Accordingly, after leaving the main 
road, he feigned to be lost, and purposely avoiding the right track, he kept 
them wandering in the woods from swamp to swamp, until, as he supposed, 
sufficient time would elapse for the camp to have notice of the approach of 
the direct force, and be enabled to make good their retreat. 

The Whig force did not exceed thirty, and were chiefly mounted men ; 
planters and men of character and substance. They had finished their scanty 
supper, had secured their horses for the night, and with their saddles for a 
pillow, and their saddle-blankets for a bed, they had lain down to rest, un- 
conscious of the peril and of the horrible destiny that had been prepared for 

The British force had in the mean time arrived at the bridge, and were 
anxiously awaiting the signal for their onset. The night passed on, and yet 
no sound was heard. They became impatient, and gave a blast from their 
horn to apprise their comrades of their position and readiness, and to receive 
their response. The sound was heard in the Whig camp. " What noise is 
that?" said a dreamy sentry, as he paced his lonely rounds. " Oh nothing," 
said another, " but the trumpet of some lubberly boatman." Another and 
another blast, louder and louder is given. The camp is aroused. " No boat- 
man belonging to these waters," said one, " can make that noise ; they are the 
notes of the Kent Bugle, and in the hands too of & practiced master." " Tliey 
proceed from down the road and from about the bridge," said the officer in 


coninianil. "That pla<^e must be reconnoitered. We must know what all 
that inoiins. Who will volunteer and go duwn ?" No one spoke. "Come, 
Manlv," said he, "you are always rea<ly in a forlorn hope, and that fine 
l,la.k\'har<ior of vours can outrun danger' itself ; will you go?" "Aye, aye, 
Bir," said Manly ^ " who will go with me to bring back the news if I should 
lose vxij niijhirap?" " I, I, I," said Mansfield and two young Smiths. Their 
horses were soon caparisoned and mounted, their holsters examined, and 
ftway they galloped to the bridge. Upon their arrival, everything was as 
quit't and silent as death. They could neither see nor hear any one, but 
their liursps exhihited alarm and refused to proceed. 

" All ri^rht on tiiis side," said Manly : " let us see how it is on the other," 
and thrusting their spurs into their horses' sides, they dashed across the 
bridge. As soon as they had cleared it, up rose the British and Tories from 
their concealment on each side the Toad, their muskets and bayonets gleam- 
ing in tlie moonlight ; and as these men checked and turned their horses to 
reti-eat, the officer in command sung out, " give it to them," and a platoon of 
musketry fired upon them. The top of Manly's hat was shot away. One of 
the Smiths was badly wounded, his horse shot down on the bridge, and in 
falling caught his rider under him : and the British as they passed, perforated 
tlie body (it the poor fellow with their bayonets, and commenced a running 
pursuit. The camp, in the mean time, had heard the firing, the guide teas still 
lost in the stcamps, and all but poor Smith made good their retreat. Thus this 
gallant band of chivalrous and devoted spirits, through an almost miraculous 
intervention of an overruling Providence, escaped the well-planned strata- 
gem projected for their heartless and cold-blooded massacre, and were spared 
to their families and country. 

" I knew many of those men," continued this good lady, " well. The 
Waddells, the Smiths, the Owens and Leonards are names still well known 
along the Cape Fear. Col. Thos. Owen (the father of the late Gov. Owen), 
was a particular friend of ray husband's to the day of his death. He often 
spoke of him. 'Tom Owen,' he would say, 'was a warm-hearted friend, 
g»Mierou8 to a foe, and as brave a soldier as ever wore a sword.' ' Morehead,' 
s:vid she, ' was a tall, thin man, of mild and amiable temper. He lived near 
Elizabeth, and died of consumption. 

" Manly, who held a Captain's commission, and was an active partisan 
officer in the militia during the war, removed to the back country, and settled 
in tlic county of Chatham, distinguished throughout a long life for the strictest 
integrity and untlinching firmness. 

" Poor Slingsby," said she (another name mentioned in the account of 
the battle of Klizabethtown), " who was killed by the Whigs at Elizabeth- 
town, deserved a better fate. He was by birth an Englishman, had taken 
tlj<- oath of allegiance to the British crown, and like many others, then and 
now called Tories, acted under a conscientious sense of obligation to his 
Sovereign. He was a man of fine talents, and left an amiable and helpless 

Thus, Sir, I sat for hours listening to these narratives ; but I fear I am 
trespassing. Tliey were to me exceedingly interesting ; but they may not be 
80 tti others. And while I ask you to publish this or not as you may see 
fit, I will conclude as I began, with the sincere hope, that all who can, will 
contril)nto such information as they may possess, relative to the early his- 
tory of the State ; and especially the events and anecdotes of men of the Pievo- 


The character of Thomas Brown is one worthy of Bladen. He was early 
in arms iiiuler Governor Tryon at Alamance, in 1771, and afterwards was 
wounded at the battle of the Great Bridge, in Virginia, under General Howe. 
The affair of Elizabethtown proves that the science of war was congenial 
t.) his fearless temper. His life, character, and services will afi'ord some 
future biographer an opportunity to present his claims to the respect, love, 
and admiration of his countrymen. 

Tbom AS OwEX was, as described by the sketch just quoted, "warm-hearted to 


a friend, generous to a foe, and as brave a soldier as ever drew a sword." He 
was of Welch origin ; born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1735, and came 
with his father when about five years old to North Carolina. 

He was an early friend of liberty. He represented Bladen in 1775 and 
1776, and was appointed second Major of Bladen regiment. He was in the 
battle of Camden ; commanded a regiment in the brigade of General Isaac 

He represented Bladen in 1786 and 1787. He married Eleanor Porterfield, 
the sister of Major Porterfield, who fell at Eutaw Springs. He died 1803, 
leaving James, John, and Mary, who married Elisha Stedman, of Fayetteville, 
the mother of Rev. James Owen Stedman, living in Wilmington, and pastor 
of the Presbyterian Congregation in that place. 

General James Owen was born December 1784, educated at Pittsboro' under 
Mr. Bingham ; he is a planter by profession. Member of House of Commons in 
1808, '09, '10, and '11, and in Congress in 1817 and 1818. General Owen 
married the daughter of Robinson Mumford, of Fayetteville. He has been 
President of the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad, and now enjoys a " green 
old age" in retirement, enjoying the esteem of his associates and friends. 

John Owen, late Governor of North Carolina, was born in Bladen County 
August 1787, and educated at the University. He was a man of kind heart, 
of liberal views, and accomplished manners. 

He was a farmer of much science, and seemed rather to prefer the quiet joys 
of home to the excitement of popular favor. He was, from his excellent 
disposition, philanthropic views, and patriotic feelings, a favorite of the people. 
In 1812 he represented Bladen County in the House of Commons, and in 1827 
in the Senate. 

He was in 1828 elected Governor of the State ; and in 1830 he was within 
one vote of being elected to the Senate of the United States, when he was 
defeated by Hon. Wilie P. Mangum. This contest produced a coolness be- 
tween these gentlemen, which had terminated in a hostile meeting, but for 
interference of friends. 

He was President of the Convention at Harrisburg in 1840, which nomi- 
nated General Harrison and Governor Tyler for President and Vice-President 
of the United States. 

This was his last public act. He was united in marriage to Miss Brown, 
daughter of Gen. Thomas Brown, at an early age ; whose amiable and quiet 
disposition tended to soften the pathway of life. 

After enjoying the honors of his State and all the comforts of life, he died 
at Pittsboro', October 1841, loved and respected by all Avho knew him. 

This county is also the residence of James J. McKay. 

His career as a public man belongs to the country, and his public acts are 
public property. 

He is a native and resident of this county. He was born in 1793. His 
course as a public man has been successful and brilliant. As a lawyer he was 
ardent, firm and earnest in his duty. He was U. S. District Attorney for 
several years. His first appearance on the public stage as a politician, was 
in 1815, as a member of the Senate of the State Legislature. He continued 
in this service, with some intermissions, until 1831, when he was elected 
a member of the House of Representatives in Congress, where he seryed 
until the session of 1849. Gen. McKay is a disciple of the Macon school 
of politicians, " severe, strict, and stringent." His indomitable firmness, and 
Spartan character, won for him position and influence. He was for some 

unanimous vote of the North Carolina Delegation, as candidate for Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States. 



The following are the members of Assembly from Bladen County, 
from 1774 to 1851. 

Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

William Salter, Walter Gibson. 
William Salter, James White. 
Benjamin Clark. 
Samuel Cain, Francis Lucas. 
Peter Robeson, Samuel Cain. 
James Richardson. 
Peter Robertson, J. Richardson. 
Samuel Cain, John Brown. 
J. Brown, S. Cain. 
Duncan Stewart, .Josiah Lewis. 
Josiah Lewis, .John Hall. 
Josiah Lewis, James Bradley. 
James Bradley, -Josiah Lewis. 
James Bradlev, Hugh Waddell. 
H. Waddell, j". Bradley. 
James Morehead, J. Bradley. 
Street Ashford, J. Bradley. 
Samuel N. Richardson, Richard Holmes. 
Richard Holmes, Amos Richardson. 
Amos Richardson, Street Ashford. 
A. Richardson, Michael Molton. 
A. Richardson, M. Molton. 
James B. White, A. Richardson. 
J. B. White, David Gillaspie. 
Thomas Brown, James Owen. 
T. Brown, J. Owen. 
T. Brown, J. Owen. 
T. Brown, J. Owen. 
David Gillaspie, John Owen. 
D. Gillaspie, John Owen. 
James J. Cummings, John Sellers. 
John Sellers, James J. Cummings. 
William J. Cowan, John Sellers. 
William J. Cowan, .John Sellers. 
Thomas White, William CBeatty. 
T. White, Joseph Wilson. 
Samuel B. Andres, William J. Cowan. 
Robert Melvin, -John J. McMillan. 
R. Melvin, William Davis. 
J. J. 3IcMillan, -John T. Gilmore. 
Isaac Wright, John J. McMillan. 
J. J. McMillan, John T. Gilmore. 
J. J. McMillan, J. T. Gilmore. 
J. J. McMillan, Robert Melvin. 
Robert Melvin, J. J. McMillan. 
John W. McMillan, Salter Loyd. 
J. J. McMillan, Robert Lyon. 
Robert Lyon, William Jones. ^ 
Robert Lyon, George Cromartie. 













































■ 1829. 






Thomas Owen, 
Thomas Owen, 
Thomas Owen, 
Thomas Brown, 
Thomas Brown, 
Thomas Owen, 
Thomas Brown, 
Jos. R. Gautiei-, 
Duncan Stewart, 
D. Stewart, 
D. Stewart, 
D. Stewart, 
Josiah Lewis, 
J. Lewis, 
J. Lewis, 
T. W. Harvey, 
S. X. Richardson, 
S. N. Richardson, 
Richard Holmes, 
Richard Holmes, 
Richard Holmes, 
Richard Holmes, 
Samuel Andres, 
Samuel Andres, 
Samuel Andres, 
Isaac Wright, 
I. Wright, 
I, Wright, 
Richard Parish, 
James J. McKay, 
J. J. McKav, 
J. J. McKay, 
J. .J. McKay, 
John Owen, 
Simon Green, 
.James J. McKay, 
Daniel Shipman, 
Daniel Shipman, 
Robert Melvin, 
James -J. McKay, 
John Owen, 
Mai. Mclnnis, 
Malcolm I\lclnnis, 
James .J. McKay, 
John T. Gilmore, 
Robert Melvin, 
J. J. McMillan, 
George Cromartie, 

R. Lyon, B. Fitzrandolph. 
The first Legislature under the new Constitution. 
(The counties of Bladen, Brunswick and Columbus form one Senatorial Dis- 
trict—the 19th.) 

Joseph M. Gillaspie. 
George T. Barksdale. 
George W. Bannerman. 



James Burney, 
Robert Melvin, 
Robert Melvin, 


Years. Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

1842. Robert Melvin, George W. Bannerman. 

1844. Robert Melvin, H. H. Robinson. 

1846. Richard Woolen, T. S. D. McDowell. 

1848. Richard AYooten, T. S. D. McDowell. 

1850. Richard Wooten, T. S. D. McDowell. 



Date of formation — Origin of name, situation, and boundaries — Smithville, 
its capital — Population and products — Delegates fi-om Bladen in 1774, 1775, 
and 1776 — Officersof the Regiment, 1775 — Colonial and Revolutionary His- 
tory — Character and services of Robert^ Howe, Alfred Moore, Son., Mau- 
rice Moore, Alfred Moore, Jr., James Moore, Benjamin Smith, and others — 
List of members from Brunswick County, from 1774 to 1851. 

Brunswick County was formed in 1764, from the counties of 
Bladen and New Hanover. 

It derives its names from the Prince of Brunswick, who married 
this year (1764), the King's* eldest sister. 

It is situated in the extreme south-eastern portion of North Caro- 
lina, and is bounded on the north by the Cape Fear River, which 
separates it from New Hanover and. Bladen ; on the east, by the 
Cape Fear River, which separates it from New Hanover; on the 
south, by the Atlantic Ocean and the South Carolina line ; on the 
west, by Waccamaw River, which separates it from Columbus 

Its capital is Smithville, distance from Raleigh one hundred 
and seventy-three miles. 

Its population is 3,651 whites ; 319 free negroes ; 3,302 slaves ; 5,951 federal 
population ; and 397 persons who cannot read or write. 

36,357 bushels of corn ; 7,868 pounds of cotton ; 2,739 pounds of wool ; 
13,670 dollars worth of lumber ; and 14,281 dollars worth of tax-, pitch, and tur- 

The Colonial and Revolutionary History of Brunswick is full of 
incidents of patriotism, valor, and devotion to liberty. It was in the 
Cape Fear River, near this county, that on August 8th, 1775, Josiah 
Martin, the last of the Royal Governors, on board of his Majesty's 
ship-of-war, the Cruiser, fulminated his famous proclamation against 
the cause of liberty ; and particularly "the infamous publication," 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence of the May previous, 
which, as he states in his dispatch of June 30th, 1775, to the Secre- 
tary of State (a copy of which is found under the head of Mecklen- 
burg County), "surpasses all the horrid and treasonable publica- 

* Martin's History of North Carolina, vol. ii. p. 184. 


tions that the inflammatory spirits of the continent have yet pro- 

This "was the last act of the royal rule in North Carolina. 

Bruns-w'ick County sent Robert Howe as delegate to the first general meet- 
ing of deputies of tlic province to Xewbern, August 25th, 1774. 

To the Assembly at Newbern, in April, 1775, Johx Rowan and Robert 
Howe were delegates. 

To the Assembly at Ilillsboro', August 21st, 1775, Robert Howe, Robert 
Ellis, Parker Quince, Thomas Alton and E.oger Moore. 

To the State Congress which met at Halifax Xov. 12th, 1776, which formed 
our Constitution, Maurice Moore, Cornelius Harnett, Archibald McLean, 
Lewis Dupree and William Lord. 

Of the military officers appointed in 1775, James Moore was Colonel of the 
1st Continental Regiment: Alfred Moore, a Captain in the same. 

Robert Howe was appointed Colonel of the 2d Continental Regiment. 

To no county in the State is the cause of liberty more indebted 
for fearless and devoted sons, than to Brunswick, 

Like the mother of the Gracchi, they were her proudest jewels, 
and like the same Gracchi, they were ready to offer upon the altar of 
their country " their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor." 

Robert Howe, of Brunswick County, was a soldier by nature. He boldly 
entered, without hesitation, in that perilous contest between submission or 
the sword ; and with an energy that never relaxed, and a courage that never 
quailed, he battled for liberty and America. His first command was import- 
ant, and showed the confidence of his country. As Colonel of the 1st Regi- 
ment, he marched with a part of his troops to relieve Xorfolk, Ya., then in- 
vested by Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor. In Dec. 1775, Howe was 
Joined by Colonel AVoodford, with some Virginia troops. Lord Dunmore 
detached Captain Fordyce, with a strong force, to dispute their advance. At 
the Great Bridge, on the Elizabeth River, on the 9th December, 1775, the 
British troops, between daybreak and sunrise, made a furious charge with 
fixed bayonets. 

The Americans received the attack with intrepidity and firmness ; and 
poured on the enemy a heavy and galling fire. They were slaughtered nearly 
to a man ; the Americans advanced and took possession of Xorfolk, compel- 
ling Lord Dunmore to seek his own safety on board of a ship-of-war, as his 
coadjutor of Xorth Carolina had previously done. 

Howe vigilantly watched the movements of his Lordship. But on the 1st 
•Jan., 1776, the British landed a detachment of troops, and under cover of the 
cannon of the tleet set fire to the town near the wharf. 

The Provincial troops repelled the invaders, and they retreated on board of 
their ships.* From the inadequacy of means for subduing the fire, and a belief 
that the town would afford the Royal Governor comfortable quarters, it was 
not stopped, but raged for several weeks, and laid the whole town in ashes, 
as the Russians destroyed Moscow, to prevent the French from winter quarter- 
ing in its houses. 

There being no further use for his services or his troops, at this point, Howe 
returned to the Cape Fear. 

For his gallantry in this campaign, and good conduct in battle, the Conti- 
nental Congress promoted liim to be a Brigadier-General. 

By order of the State Provincial Congress, on the 2d May, 1776, the President 
of Congress addressed General Howe, and returned to him their thanks for 
his " manly, generous, and warlike conduct in these unhappy times, and more 
especially for the reputation our troops acquired under his command."! 

Such was the devotion of General Howe to the cause of libertv, that in an 

J ' 

* Marshall's jJife of Washington, vol. i. p. 69. 
t Jones' Defence of Xorih Carolina, p. 242. 


offer of General II. Clinton, of pardon to the inhabitants of North Carolina, 
Cornelius Harnett and Robert Howe are excepted from the benefits. This pro- 
clamation is dated on board the Pallas transport, in Cape Fear River, 5th 
May, 1776. 

On 12th May, 1770, General Clinton ordered a detachment of 900 men, 
under Lord Cornwallis, to land on the plantation of General Howe, which 
they first ravaged and then burnt. 

In 1778, General Howe commanded the troops in South Carolina and 
Georgia until December. Our troops suffered from the climate and the want 
of the necessaries of life ; and were finally driven out of Georgia by Colonel 
Campbell. Howe was censured for neglect, and by Christopher Gadsden, 
afterwards Governor of South Carolina, among others. Howe required him 
to retract or deny. Gadsden would do neither. A duel ensued on 13th 
May, 1778, near Cannonsburg. They met, Howe's ball grazed the ear of Gads- 
den, and Gadsden fired in a different direction.* 

It is regretted that of the former life as well as future course of General 
Howe, as well as his private history, so little has been known. The material 
doubtless exists, and justice will yet be done to the gallantry, patriotism and 
character of Robert Howe, of Brunswick County. 

Maurice Moore, whose character is worthy of our esteem, was also from 

Judge Moore was descended from an ancient Irish family of which the 
Marquis Drogheda is the present head.f His grandfather, Sir Nathaniel 
Moore, was Governor of Carolina (then including North and South Carolina) 
in 1705, and is referred to in the former part of this work. J 

James Moore married a daughter of Sir John Yeamans, who established 
the city of Charleston, and was Governor of the two Carolinas in 1670. 
Moorel was Governor of the Carolinas in 1700 and in 1719. By Miss Yea- 
mans he had ten children, from the second of whom, Maurice, the subject of 
this sketch is lineally descended. 

He was a lawyer of eminence and a judge of the superior courts in the 
State under the royal rule. His character is alluded to on a former page.|| 
He, with Martin Howard and Richard Henderson, constituted the Judicial 
Bench of North Carolina when the Revolution shut up the courts. In the 
troubles of the Regulators in 1771, although he could not approve their out- 
rages, he sympathized with their distresses. He openly denounced Governor 
Tryon as a tyrant, and in a letter addressed to him signed " Atticus," he shows 
Tryou's character in despicable and odious colors, by severe and powerful 

He was a member of the Provincial Congress, which met at Hillsboro' in 
1775 ; and also a member of the same in 177C, which met at Halifax, and 
aided materially in forming our State Constitution. 

He died in the year 1777, and at the same time (by a most remarkable co- 
incidence), in the same house, his distinguished brother, James Moore, also 
died. Colonel of the first Continental Regiment, while on his way to join Gene- 
ral Washington. Both active, enterprising, and devoted to the cause of their 
country ; their lives, character and services invite the attention of the histo- 
rian and biographer. 

Alfred Moore, Sen., of Brunswick, was a son of Judge Maurice Moore. 
He was boi-n on 21st May, 1755. 

He was sent to Boston to acquire his education, and while there he was 
offered a Commission in the Royal Army, 1768 ; this was declined, but the pre- 
sence of a large garrison, the friendship of one of its officers, added to a taste 
for a military profession, led him to acquire accurate knowledge of military 

* Traditions of the Kevolntion in the South, by Joseph Johnson, 204. 

t Martin, vol. ii. p. S'JO. Jones, p. 361. 

% Vol. 1. 34. II Vol. i. p. 101. 

\ Hewatt's History of Carolinas, pp. 143, 275, and 53. 


tactics, Avhich soon was destined to be called into the active service of his 
counti-y and usefulness to her cause. 

In 1775, he was appointed a captain in the 1st Regiment of North Carolina 
Continental troops, which was commanded by his uncle Colonel James Moore. 
He marched with his company to Charleston, and was on duty there at the 
memorable attack on Fort Moultrie. Here he evinced that ardor of patriot- 
ism and thirst for military glory, patience in fatigue, and boldness in action, 
which would have distinguished him as one of the captains of the age. But 
misfortunes crowded so thick upon him that he was forced to resign. His 
father. Judge Maurice Moore, and uncle. Colonel James Moore, both died at 
the same time. His brother (Maurice) was killed at Brunswick, General 
Francis Nash, his brother-in-law, was killed at Germantown. A helpless 
family was left without any other protector. 

Although he left the regular army, his martial spirit was not inactive. 

When the British landed and took possession of AVilmington, he left his 
family (wife and two small children) and raised a troop of volunteers and 
greatly annoyed the enemy. He became the peculiar object of hatred to the 
British commander, Major Craig, (afterwards Sir James Craig, Governor- 
General of Canada). He sent a troop to Captain Moore's house, plundered 
it of everything valuable, and destroyed the remainder. 

After the battle of Guilford Court House, Captain Moore was with other 
officers detached to obstruct Lord Cornwallis's march. While the English 
were in the possession of Wilmington, Captain Moore's condition was deplo- 
rable. Without money, without decent clothes, exiled from his family, his 
property all destroyed : not a murmur of regret from him was heard. Dear 
as these things were, the liberty of his country was still dearer ; for this 
he sacrificed everything. 

When peace came his family was restored, but the means of subsistence 
were gone. His country was in the same deplorable situation ; the General 
Assembly elected him in 1790 Attorney-General, to alleviate, in a delicate 
manner, his immediate wants, without his ever having read a law book. But 
blessed with an active discriminating mind, studious habits and retentive 
memory, his zeal for his profession being quickened by the stern necessity of 
circumstances, he soon mastered its intricacies, and became one of its most 
distinguished ornaments. A clear perspicuity of mind, methodical accuracy 
of argument, and pleasing and natural eloquence,, were the distinguishing 
traits of his character. Nature had been kind in giving him a fine toned 
voice, distinct articulation, and a small but graceful person. 

In 1798 he was called to the bench. 

His character as Attorney-general and Judge has been recorded in the deci- 
sions of our Supreme Court. 

" The very question, however, before us, has been decided in the case of the 
' State i--^'. Hall,' in 1799, by a judge whose opinions on every subject, but 
particularly on this, merit the highest respect. Judge Moore was appointed 
Attorney-General a very short time after this act of Assembly was passed, 
and discharged for a series of years the arduous duties of that office, in a 
manner which commanded the admiration and gratitude of his cotemporaries. 
His profound knowledge of the criminal law was kept in continual exercise 
by a most' varied and extensive practice, at a period when the passions of 
men had not yet subsided from the ferment of civil war, and every grade of 
crime incident to an unsettled society, made continual demands upon his 
acuteness. No one ever doubted his learning and penetration; or that while 
he enforced the law with an enlightened vigilance and untiring zeal, his 
energy was seasoned with humanity, leaving the innocent nothing to fear, 
and the guilty but little to hope. The opinion of such a man, delivered on 
an occasion the most solemn on which the judge could act, when doubt in 
him would have been life to the prisoner, assumes the authority of a cotem- 
porary exposition of the statute, and cannot but confirm me in the sentiments 
I have expressed.'" 

In 1799 he was appointed by the President of the United States an Asso- 
ciate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States : he continued in 


this important and responsible position for six years; when his health fa,iling, 
and finding that he could not longer discharge its duties with satisfaction to 
himself or advantage to his country, he resigned. His health gradually 
wasted away, when, with a consciousness of a well spent and useful life, and 
in the hope of a ioyful immortality, he died on 15th October, 1810, at the 
house of Major Waddell, in Bladen County, in the arms of his afflicted 

Of such a man may our State well be proud. She has__preserved his name 
in one of the most enterprising counties (erected in 1784). Ilis life and 
services consecrated to the cause of liberty, and the best welfare of his 
country, will ever render dear to every North Carolinian the name of Moore. 

His son, Alfred Moore, was born in this county, a distinguished lawyer, 
remarkable for his ability, eloquence, and spotless integrity in public life, 
and in private for his amiability and purity. For many years he was a 
member of the House of Commons and Speaker of the same. He died in 
Orange County 28th July, 1837 ; leaving several children. One of them mar- 
ried Haywood W. Guion, Esq., and now resides at Lincolnton. 

Bexjamim Smith was, too, a resident of Belvidere, Brunswick County. He 
was intelligent and enterprising, and a favorite before the people. He was 
a member of the Senate in the State Legislature in 1792, from Brunswick; a 
General of militia, and was elected Governor of the State in 1810. From 
him or his family the capital of Brunswick derives its name. By nature ar- 

" Sudden and quick in quarrel," 

his life was checkered by difficulties. He had several duels, in all of which 
he conducted himself with great firmness and magnanimit)^ 

His generosity in giving 20,000 acres of land to the University, December, 
1789, would overshadow many greater defects. 

More of his life, services, and character will be procured and presented to 
the State. 

Other names might he presented from Brunswick. Eut the lim- 
its of our labors require condensation. Enough has been proved 
to shovv that the remark made in the early part of this sketch was 
not incorrect, " that to no county in the State is the cause of 
liberty more indebted for fearless and devoted sons than to Bruns- 
wick County.' 

The following are the members of the General Assembly from 
Brunswick County, from 1774 to 1851 : — 

-Years. Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

1774. Robert Howe. 

1775. John Rowan, Robert Howe. 

1776. Cornelius Harnett, A. McClaine. 

1777. Archibald McClaine, Wm. Lord, Richard Quince, Jr. 

1778. Archibald McClaine, Lewis Dupre, William Gause. 

1782. Archibald McClaine, Wm. Waters, Dennis Hawkins. 

1783. Benjamin Smith, W^m. Waters, Dennis Hawkins. 

1784. William Watters, Jacob Leonard, David Flowers. 

1785. William Watters, Jacob Leonard, Robert Howe. 

1787. A. M. Forster, Lewis Dupre, Jacob Leonard. 

1788. Lewis Dupre, Jacob Leonard, John Cains. 

1791. Lewis Dupre, Benjamin Smith, Wm. E. Lord. 

1792. Benjamin Smith, Alfred Moore, Wm. E. Lord. 

1793. B. Smith, Wm. Wingate, Wm. E. Lord. 

1794. B.Smith, Wm. Wingate, Abraham Bissant. 

1795. B. Smith, Wm. Wingate, Ab. Bissant. 



Years. Senators. 

1796. B. Smith, 

1797. B. Sniith, 

1800. B. Smith, 

1801. ^Vm. Wingate, 

1802. Wm. Wingate, 

1803. Wm. Wingate, 

1804. Benjamin Smith, 

1805. B. Smith, 
1800. B. Smith, 

1807. B. Smith, 

1808. B. Smith, 

1809. B. Smith, 

1810. B. Smith, 

1811. Thos. Leonard, 

1812. Wm. Wingate, 

1813. Wm. Wingate, 

1814. Jacob Leonard, 

1815. J. W. Leonard, 

1816. Benjamin Smith, 

1817. Jacob Leonard, 

1818. Jacob Leonard, 

1819. John C. Baker, 

1821. J. W. Leonard, 

1822. John C. Baker, 

1823. John C. Baker, 

1824. John C. Baker, 

1825. John C. Baker, 

1826. Benj. R. Locke, 

1827. B. R. Locke, 

1828. Jacob Leonard, 

1829. J. Leonard, 

1830. Wm. R. Hall, 

1831. Wm. R. Hall, 

1832. Wm. R. Hall, 

1833. AVm. R. Hall, 

1834. Maurice Moore, 

1835. Frederic J. Hill, 

1836. James Burney, 
1838. Robert Melvin, 
1840. R. Melvin, 
1842. R. Melvin, 
1844. R. iMelvin, 
1846. R. Wooten, 
1848. Richard Wooten, 
1850. Richard Wooten, 

Members of House of Commons. 
Wm. E. Lord, Absalom Bissant. 
A. Bissant, George Davis. 
Benjamin Mills, A. Bissant. 
John G. Scull, Benj. Mills. 
John. G. Scull, Benj. Mills. 
John G. Scull, Thomas Leonard. 
Thomas Leonard, Maurice Moore. 
Thomas Leonard, Richard Parrish. 
Richard Parrish, Thomas Leonard. 
Thomas Leonard, Thomas Russ. 
Thomas Leonard, Thomas Russ. 
Thomas Leonard, George Davis. 
Thomas Leonard, Thomas Russ. 
Jacob W. Leonard, Maurice Moore. 
Maurice Moore, Robert Potter. 
Maurice Moore, Thomas Russ. 
Alfred Moore, Thomas Russ. 
Uriah Sullivan, John C. Baker. 
Edward Mills, Wm. Simmons. 
Alfred Moore, John C. Baker. 
J. C. Baker, Alfred Moore. 
Alfred Moore, John Neele. 
Francis N. Waddell, A. Moore. 
Samuel Frink, Alfred Moore. 
Alfred Moore, J. W. Leonard. 
Alfred Moore, Jacob W. Leonard. 
John J. Gause, Alfred Moore. 
Alfred Moore, Jacob Leonard, Jr. 
A. Moore, Jacob Leonard, Jr. 
Thomas B. Smith, Wm. L. Hall. 
John J. Gause, Marsden Campbell. 
Benj. S. Leonard, John P. Gause. 
J. P. Gause, Samuel Laspeyre. 
S. A. Laspeyre, John Waddell. 
S. A. Laspeyre, Benj. S. Leonard. 
Rt. G. McCracken, Abram Baker. 
Wm. R. Hall, Abram Baker. 
Frederic J. Hill. 
F. J. Hill. 
F. J. Hill. 
Ai'meline Bryan. 
H. H. Waters. 
H. H. AVaters. 
H. H. Waters. 
John II. Hill. 





Date of formation— Origin of name, situation, and boundaries— Popula- 
tion and products— Asheville, its capital— Climate-Warm springs— Its dis- 
tinguished citizens and members of the General Assembly irom the date 
of erection to the last session. 

Buncombe County was formed, in 1791, from Burke and Ruther- 
ford counties, and derives its name from Col. Edward Buncombe, of 
that part of Tyrrell which is now Washington County ; he was Colo- 
nel of the 5th regiment raised by North Carolina for the Continen- 
tal army. 

Colonel Buncombe was a native of St.Kitts, one of the West India islands. 
He inherited land in Tyrrel County and built a house, now m the possession 
of his descendants. itt i,- 

With his regiment, he joined the army of the north, under )\ asjimgton; 
was wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Germantown, in 1777. He 
died of wounds received in this battle, at Philadelphia, while on parole. He 
left one son, who died without issue, and two daughters ; one, who married 
John Goelet, Esq., of Washington, and the other Mr. Clark, of Bertie, a 
daughter of whom is now the wife of John Cox, Esq., of Edenton. _ _ 

Edward Buncombe was distinguished for his manly appearance, indomi- 
table bravery, unsullied patriotism, and open-hearted hospitality. Over his 
door was this distich — 

"to buncombe hall, 

WELCOME all." 

Buncombe County is situated in the extreme western portion of 
the State ; bounded on the north and west by the Appalachian Moun- 
tains and the new county of Madison, east by Rutherford and 
McDowell counties, south by Henderson County, and west by Hay- 
wood County and the Tennessee line. 

Its capital is Asheville, named in compliment to Governor Samuel 
Ashe, of New Hanover County. It was originally called Morris- 
town, and is a most flourishing village, not far from the French 
Broad River. Asheville, as ascertained by Professor Mitchell, is 
2,200 feet above the level of the sea, and contains a Branch of the 
Bank of Cape Fear, an excellent academy, several stores, churches, 
two printing presses, and one of the best Hotels in North Carolina. 
Perhaps there is no portion of our State less really known, and yet 
oftener talked of, than Buncombe. It has become as familiar as 
"household words" throughout the Union, in Congress, and else- 
where. A recent popular production, by Judge Halliburton, a 
Colonial Judge of Nova Scotia, has devoted a whole chapter of his 


•work {tJie AttacTie in England) to Buncombe, vitliout, perhaps, 
knowing where this county is situated, or its various resoui'ces or 
advantacres. The term had this origin. 

Several years ago, in Congress, the member from this immediate 
district arose to address the house, "vrithout any extraordinary powers 
either in manner or matter to interest his audience. Many mem- 
bers left the hall. Very naively, he told those who were so land as 
to remain that they might go too ; he should speak for some time, 
but "he was only talking for BuncomheJ" 

Hence the term, when an address is made -for a local or particular 

In 1796, Governor Ashe issued a proclamation announcing " that 
in pursuance of an Act to provide for the public safety by granting 
encouragement to certain manufacturers, that Jacob Byler, of the 
county of Bimcombe, had exhibited to him a sample of gunpow- 
der, manufactiu'ed by him in the year 1795, and also a certificate 
proving that he had made six hundred and sixty three pounds of 
CTood, merchantable, rifle gunpowder ; and, therefore, he was en- 
titled to the bounty under that Act." 

James M. Smith, Esq., now of Asheville, was the first white 
child born west of the Blue Bidge in the State of North CaroKna. 

Population, 11.607 whites ; 107 free negroes ; 1,717 slaves ; 12,738 federal 
population ; 1,533 persons who cannot read or write. 

Products, 22,903 bushels of wheat; 304,271 bushels of corn ; 8,G19 pounds 
of tobacco: 68,544 bushels of oats; 9,251 bushels of rye ; 13,331 pounds of 
wool; 18,127 dollars worth of ginseng. 

Of its colonial or revolutionary history we will not speak, since 
it was formed since that period. But the valor displayed by " the 
brave mountain boys" in October, 1780, under Shelby, Cleaveland, 
and others, on King's Mountain, was contributed by the ancestry 
of Buncombe, then Rutherford and Burke. 

In this county are the Warm Springs, which present the aston- 
ishing phenomenon of water heated by nature ; and is considered a 
sovereign cure for invalids afilicted with rheumatic affections. 

The climate is lovely beyond description, and extremely favora- 
ble to health. 

The scenery excels even its climate. The beautiful turnpike 
road from Asheville to the Warm Springs, with the towering moun- 
tains on one side, and the limpid waters of the French Broad River 
on the other, presents a scenery unrivaled, either by the fancied 
enchantments of the Rhine, or the famed palisades of the Hudson. 

The Mineral Springs (Deaver's) near Asheville, are also much 
resorted to in the simimer. 

The fii'st wagon passed from Xorth Carolina to Tennessee, by 
the Warm Springs, in 1795. The Territorial Assembly of Ten- 
nessee, in .June, 1795, appointed commissioners to confer with those 
of South Carolina, upon the practicabiUty of a road from Buncombe 
County to Tennessee, and upon the means to open said road.* 

* Haywood, History of Tennessee, 470. 


Tlie Buncombe turnpike now has made this one of the best passes 
of the mountains. It was organized in February, 1826. The fii'st 
toll-gate was erected in October, 1827. 

This county is the Lirtliplace of the Hon. David Lowrey Swaix, -who, 
■without the advantages of birth or fortune, has arisen to positions of power 
and usefulness in North Carolina, and has always been equal to the respon- 
sibilities of his duty. He was born in Buncombe, January 4, 1801, educated 
at Newton Academy, in Asheville, and at Chapel Hill. He studied law with 
Judge Taylor in Raleigh, who predicted, from the industry of his pupil, his 
indcmiitable perseverance and searching mind, the eminence he has since 
attained. He was admitted to the bar in 1823. He was elected to the 
Legislature in 1824, "25 and '20, and Solicitor of the Edenton District in 
1827, which he resigned after riding one circuit. 

He was again elected to the Legislature in 1828 and 1829. He was elected 
a member of the Board of Internal Improvements in 1830. 

In 1830, he was elected Judge of the Superior Courts, which he resigned 
in 1832, on being elected Governor of the State. While Governor (1835) he 
was elected a Member of the Conventiori to revise the Constitution; and,_in 
the same year, elected President of the Universitjr of North Carolina, which 
important and responsible position he now occupies. 

He married, in 1826, Eleanor 11. , fourth daughter of "William White, late 
Secretary of State of North Carolina, and grand-daughter of Governor Cas- 

It does not become us to speak here of those now on the stage 
of action, further than to state facts and dates, leaving to other 
hands and other times~ to do justice to pubhc service and acknow- 
ledged merit. 

The ancient Greeks had a maxim, " call no man happy till he is 
dead ;" then may history speak of its subjects as their merits 

The residence of Hon. Thomas L. Clingman is in this county. He is a 
native of Surry. He graduated at the University, in 1832, with distinguished 
honor, and studied law. He was elected a member in the House of Commons 
from Surry, in 1835 ; senator from Buncombe, in 1840, and a member of Con- 
gress in 1843, and again 1847. He was again re-elected (August, 1851), by 
a triumphant majority, over Col. B. S. Gaither. 

I have met with a printed record of a citizen of Buncombe, of 
much interest. 

James Patton was born in Ireland, County of Derry, on the 13th February, 
1756, of poor but respectable parents. He emigrated to this country in 1783, 
a weaver by trade. By industry, economy, and integrity, he was the foiinder 
of his own fortunes, and raised a large and respectable family. He died at 
an advanced age, loved and respected by all who knew him. 

By the Constitution of 1835, until 1841, Buncombe, Haywood, and Macon, 
composed the 49th Senatorial District. By act of 1842, Buncombe, Yancey, and 
Henderson, form the 50th Senatorial District. 

List of members from Buncombe County to the General Assembly from its 
formation to last session. 

Years. Senators. Members of the House of Commons. 

1792. Wm. Davidson, Gabriel Ragsdale, Wm. Brittain. ^ 

1793. Robert Love, William Brittain, Gabriel Ragsdale. 

1794. Robert Love, Wm. Brittain, Gabriel Ragsdale. 

1795. Robert Love, Wm. Brittain, Gabriel Ragsdale. 

1796. James Brittain, Wm. Brittain, Philip Iloodenpye. 



Years. Senators. 

1797. James Bvittain, 

1800. Josh. Williams, 

1801. Josh. Williams, 

1802. James Brittain, 

1803. Josh. Williams, 

1804. James Brittain, 

1805. James Brittain, 

1806. Zebulon Beard, 

1807. James Brittain, 

1808. Jno. McFarland, 

1809. Zebulon Beard, 

1810. lit. Williamson, 

1811. lit. Williamson, 

1812. John Longmire, 

1813. J. Longmire, 

1814. J. Longmire, 

1815. Ep. Hightower, 

1816. John Longmira, 

1817. Thomas Foster, 

1818. Zebulon Beard, 

1819. Thomas Foster, 

1821. Zebulon Beard, 

1822. Z. Beard, 

1823. Philip Brittain, 

1824. P. Brittain, 

1825. A. A. McDowell, 

1826. A. A. McDowell, 

1827. A. A. McDowell, 

1828. A. A. McDowell, 

1829. James Allen, 

1830. James Gudger, 

1831. James Allen, 

1832. James Allen, 

1833. John Clayton, 

1834. James Lowry, 

1835. Ilodge Rabun, 

1836. James Gudger, 
1838. Ilodge Rabun, 
1840. T. L. Clingman, 
1842. ' J. Cathey, 
1844. N. W. Woodfin, 
1846. N. W. Woodfin, 
1848. N. W. Woodfin, 
1850. N. W. Woodfin, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Wm. Brittain, Thomas Love, 
Thomas Love, Zebulon Beard. 
Thomas Love, Zebulon Beard. 
Thomas Love, Zebulon Beard. 
Thomas Love, Zebulon Beard. 
Thomas Love, Jacob Boyler. 
Thomas Love, Jacob Boyler. 
Thomas Love, Joseph Pickens. 
Thomas Love, Joseph Pickens. 
Thomas Love, Malcolm Henry. 
Thomas Foster, Joseph Pickens. 
Philip Brittain, Zephaniah Horton. 
Philip Brittain, Samuel Davidson. 
Zephaniah Ilorton, Thomas Foster. 
Hamilton Hyde, Thomas Foster. 
Hamilton Hyde, Thomas Foster. 
Zeph. Ilorton, James Lowrie. 
Philip Brittain, James Lowrie. 
Philip Brittain, Charles Moore. 
Charles Moore, James Whitaker. 
James Whitaker, J. M. Cathey. 
Wm. D. Smith, Wm. Brittain, Sr. 
Wm. D. Smith, John Anderson. 
James Lowrie, James Whitaker. 
David L. Swain, Benoni Sams. 
David L. Swain, James Weaver. 
John Clayton, James Allen. 
John Clayton, James Allen. 
John Clayton, David L. Swain. 
David L. Swain, Wm. Orr. 
James Weaver, Wm. Orr. 
James Brevard, John Clayton. 
James Weaver, John Clayton. 
James Weaver, Joseph Henry. 
Joseph Henry, James Weaver. 
Nath'l Harrison, Joseph Pickett. 
Montreville Patton, John Clayton. 
M. Patton, Philip Brittain. 
M. Patton, Thomas Morris. 
John Burgin, Geo. W. Candler. 
John A. Fagg, John Thrash. 
John A. Fagg, A. B. Chunn. 
Newton Coleman, T. W. Atkin. 
Marcus Erwin, James Sharpe. 




Date of formation— Origin of name— Situation and boundaries— Population 
and products— Morganton its capital— Climate— Early history— Character, 
life, and services of Charles McDowell, Joseph McDo^Yell, Waightstill 
Avery, Samuel P. Carson, and others — Israel Pickens, and others — List of 
Members of the General Assembly from Burke from date of erection to 
the last session. 

Burke County was formed in 1777, from Rowan County, and 
named in compliment to the celebrated English Statesman and 
Orator, Edmund Burke. 

It is located in the north-western portion of the State, and bound- 
ed on the north by the counties of Yancey and Caldwell, on the 
east by Catawba, on the south by Cleaveland and Rutherford, and 
on the west by McDowell. 

Morganton, the capital of Burke County, is called in compliment of General 
Daniel Morgan. General Morgan was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 
and emigrated to Virginia in 1755, where he engaged as overseer for Nathaniel 
Burrell, Esq., then in Shenandoah, now Clarke County, Virginia. He was a 
fearless and chivalric officer. He was with General Montgomery at Quebec, 
and with General Gates at Saratoga. He was promoted to be a Brigadier- 
General, and joined the army in the south. After the battle of Camden, when 
Green took command, Morgan was detached to raise troops in the western 
part of the State, and South Carolina. Tarleton met him at the Cowpens 
(Jan. 17th, 1781), where Morgan gained a splendid victory. For this. Con- 
gress gave him a gold medal. After this he was joined by General Green, on 
the east bank of the Catawba. A controversy ensued between Green and 
Morgan, as to the route the latter should pursue in his retreat from the ad- 
vancing force of Cornwallis. Morgan was greatly dissatisfied, and when the 
two divisions united, at Guilford Court House, he returned from the army to 
his farm in Virginia, where he remained until the war was over. 

During the whisky troubles (1794) in Pennsylvania, he was appointed by 
Washington to put the insurgents down by the bayonet. He remained among 
them until the spring, when the difiiculties were settled, and he was ordered 
to withdraw his troops. He returned to bis farm, and became ambitious 
for political honors. In his first attempt he was defeated for Congress, but 
elected on a second trial, and served in Congress, in 1797 to 1799. His 
health failing, he declined a re-election. He died at Winchester, Virginia, on 
July 6th, 1802. 

The following is a copy of his tombstone from his gi'ave in the 
Baptist Churchyard, in Winchester, Virginia : — 



Major-General Daxiel Morgan, 

Departed this life 

On July the 6th, 1802, 

In the GTth year of his age. 

Patriotism and valor -were the prominent 

Features of his character, 


The honoraljle services he rendered 

to his Country 

During the Revolutionary TVar, 

CroTvned him -with glory, and will remain 

In the hearts of his 


A perpetual monument 

to his 


Morganton is a beautiful, healthful, and flourishing ^-illage, con- 
tainino- several churches, a handsome coui't house, and other public 
buildings ; a branch of the Bank of the State of North Carolina, 
several stores, public houses, and handsome private residences. 

The Supreme Court holds its summer session here in August. 
Its distance from Raleigh is one hundred and eighty-seven miles. 

Its Population is 5,477 whites; 163 free negroes; 2,132 slaves ; 6,919 fede- 
ral population ; 1.091 persons who cannot read. 

Products, 45,976 bushels wlieat : 37,809 bushels potatoes ; 620.996 bush- 
els corn ; 43,644 pounds cotton ; 21,137 pounds wool; 17,718 pounds tobacco; 
38,122 dollars worth of gold. 

Her early history, formed as she was during the Revolutionary war, is con- 
nected with Rowan. 

The life and character of TTaightstill Averv, who was a resident and died 
in this county, is worthy of the State, and his exalted public services should 
be held in grateful remembrance. 

Ha was born in Norwich, Connecticut, and was educated at Princeton, at 
which renowned institution he graduated in 1766. He was a tutor in that 
college for a year, when he removed to Maryland, and studied law under 
Littleton Dennis. He emigrated to Xorth Carolina, and was licensed to prac- 
tice law in 1769. He settled in Charlotte, where he soon acquired friends, 
and rapid promotion. He was active in encouraging education and litera- 
ture, and was a most devoted friend of Liberty. In the dubious and danger- 
ous conflict with the mother country, he led the bold spirits of the_day in 
that patriotic county, and was a member of the convention in May, 1775, that 
declared independence. 

The minutes of the council of safety for Mecklenburg show his zeal in the 
cause of Liberty ; and the confidence of his countrymen in his talents and 
integrity is proved by the important duties he was engaged to perform. This 
called down upon his head the vengeance of the enemy ; for when Lord Corn- 
wallis occupied Charlotte, in 1781, the law oflBce of Colonel Avery, with all his 
"books and papers, was burnt. 

In 1775 he was a delegate from Mecklenburg, in the State Congress, at 
Hillsboro', which placed the State in military organization. In 1776 he was a 
delegate of the same to the same, which met at Halifax, and which formed 
our State Constitution. He was appointed one of the signers to the procla- 
mation bills. 

In 1777 he was sent by the council with orders to General Williamson at 
Keowee, in South Carolina. 

He was appointed by Governor Alexander Martin, in 1777, with Brigadier- 
General John McDowell and Col. John Sevier, to treat with the Cherokee 
Indians. • '«,, 

This commission did nothing, but subsequently with "William Sharpe, Jo- 


seph Winston and Kobert Lanier, the treaty of the Long Island of Ilolston 
was formed, on the 20th July, 1777. 

This treaty was appointed by Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia. Ilis 
instructions were issued to Col. Wm. Christian, Col. Wm. Preston, Col, 
Evan Shelby, or any two of them; Gov. Caswell appointed Waightstill 
Avery, Wm. Sharp, Robert Lanier, and Joseph Winston.* 

The Long Island of Ilolston is about three miles in length, on the main 
Ilolston Eiver, just above the point where the North Fork joins it. 

He was elected the first Attorney-General of North Carolina (in 1777). 

He married a widow (Mrs. Franks), in Jones County, in 1778, near New- 
bern, and was that year appointed Colonel of Jones County, and was in active 
service in this county. 

In consequence of the climate of Jones County disagreeing with him, he 
resigned his commission of Attorney-General. In 1781, he removed to Burke 
County, which he represented for many years : and where, enjoying peace 
and plenty, and the love and regard of his neighbors, he died in 1821. 

He was, at the time of his death, " the Patriarch of the North Carolina 
Bar;" an exemplary Christian, a pure patriot, and an honest man. 

Charles McDowell, and Joseph McDowell, both distinguished in " the 
times that tried men's souls," were residents of this county. 

Important services were rendered by them to their country. 

They were brothers. Their father, Joseph McDowell, with his wife, Mar- 
garet O'Neal, had emigrated from Ireland, and settled in Winchester, Va., 
where Charles and Joseph were born. The first (Charles), in 1743. His 
father removed to Burke County. 

In Jane, 1780, Colonel Charles McDowell was joined by Isaac Shelby and 
John Sevier, from Tennessee ; and Colonel Clarke, of Georgia, near the 
Cherokee Ford, on Broad River, in South Carolina. 

He determined to attack and destroy a post held by the enemy on Pacolet, 
commanded by Capt. Patrick Moore, a distinguished loyalist. The fort was 
strongly fortified. On being surrounded by Colonel Shelby, the enemy, after 
some parley, surrendered as prisoners of war : one British Sergeant-Major, 
ninety-three loyalists, 250 fire-arms, and other munitions of war, were the 
fruits of this capture. f 

Gen. McDowell detached Shelby to watch the movements of Ferguson, and 
attack him. On the 1st of August, 1780, at Cedar Spring, where Shelby met 
the advance of Ferguson, about GOO strong, a spirited and active contest 
commenced; but, on the enemy being reinforced, Shelby made good his 
retreat, carrying from the field twenty prisoners ; among them were two 
British ofiicers.J 

At Musgrove's Mill, on the south side of Enoree River, Colonel McDowell 
learnt that a party of 500 Tories had assembled. 

He detached Shelby, Williams, and Clarke, to attack them. Colonel Fergu- 
son with his whole force lay between. They left the camp on the evening of 
the 18th August, at Smith's Ford, on Broad River, and taking a circuitous 
route through the woods, avoided Ferguson's forces. They rode hard all 
night, and at daybreak met the enemy's patrol in strong force. A skirmish 
ensued ; the Tories retreated. They then advanced on the main body of the 
Tories. At.this juncture, a countryman living near, a friend of liberty, came 
to Shelby and informed him that the enemy had been reinforced the evening 
before, by six hundred regular troops, and the Queen's American Regiment, 
from New York, commanded by Colonel Innos, marching to join Ferguson. 
Here was a position that wuuld have tried the talent and nerve of the most skill- 
ful and brave ofi&cer. Advance was hopeless, and retreat impossible. But 
Shelby was equal to the emergency. He instantly commenced forming a 
breastwork of brush and old logs, while he detailed Captain Inman with 
twentv-five tried men, to reconnoitre and skirmish with the enemy, as soon as 

* Haywood's History of Tennessee, 451. 

I Life of" Isaac Shelby, National Portrait Gallery, 1834. 

I Lile of Shelby, Haywood's History of Tennessee, 55. 


they crossed the Enoree River. The drums and bugles of the enemy soon were 
heard approaching upon this devoted band. Inman had been ordered to fire 
and retreat. This stratagem was successful, for the enemy, in rapid pursuit, 
advanced in great confusion, believing that the whole American force was 
routed. When they approached the rude ramparts of Shelby, they received 
from his riflemen a most destructive fire, which carried great slaughter among 
them. This was gallantly kept up ; all the British ofiicers were either 
killed or wounded, the Tory leader, Hawsey, shot down. They then began a 
disorderly retreat. The Americans now in turn pursued, and in this pursuit 
the brave Captain Inman was killed, fighting hand to hand with the enemy. 
Shelby commanded the right wing, Colonel Clarke the left, and Colonel Wil- 
liams the centre. 

A more brilliant battle, fought with an inferior against a superior force, and 
more complete triumph, did not occur in the whole Revolutionary struggle. 

This battle seems to have escaped the notice of many of the historians of 
the day. I find a notice of it in the History of Tennessee, by Judge John 
Haywood, and McCall's History of Georgia. The British loss was 63 killed, 
and IGO wounded and prisoners ; the American loss was only four killed, 
among them brave Capt. Inman, and Capt. Clarke wounded. 

The triumphant victors were about to remount, and advance on the British 
post at Ninety-sis, when an express arrived from Colonel McDowell, with a 
letter from Gov. Caswell, informing them of the defeat of Gen. Gates, at Cam- 
den, on the 16th, and advising the retreat of our troops ; as the British, 
flushed with victory, would advance in strong force, and cut off all detach- 
ments of our people. 

With Ferguson near him, encumbered with more than 200 prisoners, 
Shelby acted with energy and promptness. He distributed the prisoners 
among the companies, each behind a private, and without stopping day or 
night, retreated over the mountains to a place of safety. This rapid movement 
saved his men and himself. For the next day Major Dupoister, and a strong 
body of Ferguson's men made an active but fruitless search. 

So great was the panic after Gates's defeat, and Sumpter's disaster at 
Fishing Creek, 18th Aus^., 1780, by Tarleton, that McDowell's army was dis- 
banded and he himself retreated over the mountains. 

This was a " dark and doleful" period of American History. The British 
flag floated in triumph over Charleston and Savannah. The troops of Corn- 
wallis, with all the pomp and circumstance of glory, advanced from the 
field of Camden, to Charlotte, in our State. The brave had despaired, the 
timid took protection under the enemy. Colonel Fei'guson, with chosen 
troops, ravaged the whole west, subduing all the opponents of English power, 
and encouraging by bribes and artifice, others to join him. 

Under all these discouraging circumstances, the brave spirits of the west 
never despaired. On the mountain heights of our State, and in its secure 
retreats, like Warsaw's " last champion," stood the stalwart soldiers of that 

" Oh Heaven !" they said, "our bleeding country save! 
Is there no hand on high to shield the brave ? 
What though destruction sweep these lovely plains ! 
Rise, fellow men ! our country yet remains ; 
Ey that dread name we wave the sword on high, 
And swear tor her to live ! for her to die !"* 

If the sky was gloomy, a storm was gathering in these mountain fastnesses, 
which was soon to descend in all its fury on the heads of the efiemies of our 

It was known to McDowell, Campbell, Shelby, and Sevier, that Ferguson 
was at Gilbert town in Rutherford county, with a force of 2000 men, which, 
from the condition of the country, he could increase to twice that number. 
They resolved to attack him, disperse his force, or prevent its augmentation, 
and'thus to keep the spirit of liberty alive in the South. 

* Campbell's Pleasures of Hope. 


These brave men, not dislieartened by the misfortunes of their country or 
dismayed by the force of the enemy, assembled at Watauga on the 25t"h of 
September 1780, with their fearless followers. They prepared to march ou 
the enemy, and in their march they were joined by Col. Cleaveland with a 
force of three or four hundred men. This Avas the first of October. The 
next day was so wet that the army did not move. The otficers met in council 
at night ; they all felt deeply the dangers and difficulties of their position. 
It was no holiday excursion or pleasure trip in which they were engaged ; 
the liberty of their country, the lives of themselves, the safety of their wives 
and children were the object of their deliberations. Never around a council 
of war, were purer minds deliberating, never firmer hearts assembled. They 
were all of equal rank, and as the troops were in Col. McDowell's district, 
he was entitled to the command. But his generous temper did not desire to 
command Col. Shelby, who had just achieved the brilliant victory of Mus- 
grove Mill over Colonel Ennis and the Tories ; or the fearless Sevier, the 
hero of a hundred Indian fights, whose sobriquet as " NoUichucky Jack," 
would rally a thousand men at any moment to battle ; nor the accomplished 
Campbell from Virginia. I extract from an account of this battle by Governor 
Shelby, published in 1823. 

" Col. McDowell was the commanding officer of the district we were in, 
and had commanded the armies of militia assembled in that quarter all the 
summer before, against the same enemy. He was a brave and patriotic man, 
but we considered him too far advanced in life, and too inactive for the com- 
mand of such an enterprise as we were then engaged in." * * * * * 
It was decided to send to the head quarters for some general officer to com- 
mand the expedition. 

" Col. McDowell, who had the good of his country more at heart than any 
title of command, submitted to what was done, l)ut observed, that as he could 
not be permitted to command, he would be the messenger to go to head 
quai'ters for the general officer. 

" He accordingly started immediately, leaving his men under his brother, 
Major Joseph McDowell." 

In council next day, Shelby urged that time to them was precious, and 
delay dangerous ; that Ferguson would attack them, if he thought himself ia 
force ; if not, daily acquisitions to his men would be made; under these cir- 
cumstances he moved the council, that, as they, except Col. Campbell, were 
all North Carolinians, that, by courtesy, Campbell should take the command, 
and that forthwith they should attack Ferguson. This daring and patriotic 
advice was adopted; they prepai-ed to attack Ferguson at Gilbert town. Here 
they were joined by Colonel John Williams of South Carolina, with about 400 
men. They reached Gilbert town the next day, but Ferguson had left, and 
taken a strong position on King's Mountain, which he deemed so impreg- 
nable, that on viewing it, he impiously asserted he was now in a place that 
"God Ahnightii could not drive him from." 

Notwithstanding this, it was apparent that Ferguson was well aware of the 
peril of his position. Surrounded by his vigilant opponents, all succor from 
Cornwallis was hopeless. His animated appeal to rouse the Tories, as pub- 
lished, shows that he had a fearful presentiment of the fate that now awaited 

About three o'clock on the 7th of October, 1780, after being in the saddle 
thirty hours, without rest, and drenched by a heavy rain, these fearless men 
approached King's Mountain. 

This memorable spot is located on the borders of North and South 
Carolina (Cleaveland County); it extends from east to west; its summit 
is about five hundred yards long, and sixty or seventy broad. On this 
summit was Ferguson posted. McDowell's men, under Joseph McDowell, 
Colonel Sevier and Major Winston, formed the right wing; Campbell and 
Shelby the centre; the left wing by Colonels Cleaveland and Williams. 
The plan of battle was to surround the mountain and attack each side 
simultaneously. The centre commenced the attack, and marched boldly 

* See Cleaveland, chapter xx. 


up the mountain. The battle here was fierce, furious and bloody. The cen- 
tre gave way, but rallied, and, reinforced by Campbell's regiment, returned 
to the charge. Towards the latter part of the action, the enemy made a 
furious onset from the eastern summit, and drove the Americans to the foot; 
there they rallied, and in close column, returned to the attack, and in turn 
drove the enemy. They gained the summit, and drove the enemy before 
them to the western end, where Cleaveland and Williams had been contend- 
ing with another part of their line. Campbell now reached the summit, and 
poured on the enemy a deadly fire. The brave Ferguson, like a lion at bay, 
turned on these new adversaries, and advanced with fixed bayonet. They 
gave way for a moment, but rallied under their gallant leaders to the attack. 
" The whole mountain was covered with smoke, and seemed to thunder." At- 
tacked on all sides, the circle becoming less and less, Ferguson in a despe- 
rate move endeavored to break through the American lines, and was shot 
dead in the attempt. This decided the day. The British flag was lowered, 
and a white flag raised for quarters. 

One hundred and fifty of the enemy, including their commander, lay dead 
on thefield, 810 wounded and prisoners, 1500 stand of arms, and the American 
authority restored, were the fruits of this victory. 

This was the turning point of the fortunes of America. This decisive blow 
prostrated the British power for the time, vanquished the Tory influence, and 
encouraged the hopes of the patriots. 

Lord Cornwallis left Charlotte and fell back to Winnsboro', deeming any 
proximity to such fearless men unsafe for the main army, nor did he advance 
until reinforced by General Leslie with troops from the north. 

The official reports of this battle are recorded under the head of Cleaveland 
County, Chapter XX. 

Joseph McDowell was in the Convention which met at Hillsboro' on 21st 
July, 1788, to consider the Federal Constitution, of which Samuel Johnston, 
Governor of the State, was President. He was distinguished for his oppo- 
sition to that instrument,* which was rejected by 184 to 84. 

He often participated in the debates. The following, extracted from the 
journals, will show his views and the chai-acter of his mind.f 

Wednesday, 2>0th July, 1788. 

Mr. Jos. INIcDowELL — -Mr. Chairman, I was in hopes that amendments 
would have been brought forward to the constitution before the idea of 
adopting it had been thought of or proposed. From the best information, 
there is a great proportion of the people in the adopting States averse to it 
as it stands. I collect my information from respectable authority. I know 
the necessity of a federal government ; I therefore wish this was one in which 
our liberties and privileges were secured; for I consider the Union as the rock 
of onr political salvation. I am for the strongest federal government. A bill 
of rights ought to have been inserted to ascertain our most valuable and 
unalienable rights. 

The f mrth section of the first clausd gives the Congress an unlimited power 
over elections. This matter was not cleared up to my satisfaction. They 
have full power to alter it from one time of the year to another, so as that it 
shall be impossible for the people to attend. They may fix the time in winter, 
and the place at Edenton, when the weather will be so bad that the people 
cannot attend. The State governments will be mere boards of elections. The 
clause of elections gives the Congress power over the time and manner of 
choosing the Senate. 

I wish to know why reservation was made of the place and time of choosing 
senators, and not also of electing representatives. It points to the time when 
the States shall lie all consolidated into one empire. Trial by jury is not 
secured. The objections against this want of security have not been cleared 
up in a satisfactory manner. It is neither secured in civil nor criminal cases. 

* Ellicott, Debates, vol. ii 218. 

•f Debates iu the Convention of North Carolina, 1788, at Hillsboro'. 


The federal appellate cognizance of law and facts puts it in the power of the 
wealthy to recover, unjustly, of the poor man who is not able to attend at 
such extreme distance, and bear such enormous expense as it must produce. 
It ought to be limited so as to prevent such oppressions. 

I say the trial by jury is not sufficiently secured in criminal cases ; the very 
intention of the trial by jury is, that the accused may be tried by persons who 
come from the vicinity or neighborhood, who may be acquainted with his 
chai'acter. The substance, therefore, of this privilege is taken away. 

By the power of taxation, every article capable of being taxed, may be so 
heavily taxed that the people cannot bear the taxes necessary to be raised 
for the support of their State governments. Whatever we may make may be 
repealed by their laws. All these things, with others, tend to make us one 
general empire. 

Such a government cannot be well regulated, when we are connected with 
the Northern States, who have a majority in their favor — laws may be made 
which will answer their convenience, but will be oppressive to the last de- 
gree upon the Southern States. They differ in climate, soil, customs, man- 
ners, &c. A large majority of the people of this country are against this 
constitution, because they think it replete with dangerous defects. They 
ought to be satisfied with it before it is adopted, otherwise it cannot ope- 
rate happily. Without the affections of the people, it will not have sufficient 
energy to enforce its execution — ■recourse must be had to arms and bloodshed. 
How much better would it be if the people were satisfied with it. From all 
these considerations I now rise to oppose its adoption, for I never will agree 
to a government that tends to the destruction of the liberty of the people. 

Charles McDowell was a member of the Senate of the State Legislature 
in 1786, 1787, and 1788. 

Joseph McDowell was a member of the House of Commons in 1782 to 
1788, and in Congress from 1793 to 1795, and from 1797 to 1799. 

At one time (1786) all three of the members of the General Assembly 
were of the McDowell family, which proves their usefulness and worth. 

General Joseph McDowell lived on John's River, and died there. Ilis 
family returned to Virginia. One of his sons, Hugh Harvey, now resides in 
Missouri — another, Joseph J., lives in Ohio, and in 1843 to 1847 was a mem- 
ber of Congress from that State. 

Genei-al Charles McDowell married Grace Greenlee, widow of Captain John. 
Bowman, who fell at the Battle of Ramsour's Mill (June 20, 1780), by whom 
he had several children, among them Captain Charles McDowell, now re- 
siding on his late plantation on the Catawba River, near Morganton. Gene- 
ral Charles McDowell died 31st March, 1815. 

Samuel P. CARSoisr was also a native and resident of this county. He was 
born at Pleasant Garden, and was distinguished for the activity of his mind, 
his energy of character, warm and enthusiastic temper, and patriotic feel- 

His first appearance in public life was as a member of the Senate from 
Burke County in 1822, and again in 1824. 

The next year, 1825, he was elected to Congress over Dr. R. B. Vance, 
where he served continuously until 1833. 

His second contest with Dr. Robert B. Vance in 1827, produced an angry 
feeling between them, which was terminated by a duel in the fall of that 
year, at Saluda Gap, in South Carolina, in which Dr. Vance received a mor- 
tal wound, of which he soon died. 

He was succeeded in Congress by Hon. James Graham,* and removed soon 
after to Arkansas, where he died in November, 1840. 

Israel Pickexs, late Governor of Alabama, was born in Cabarrus County, 
then Mecklenburg, represented this county in the Senate in 1809, and this 
District in Congress in 1811 to 1817. 

* For whose biography see Lincoln, chapter xlvi. 



Burgess S. Gaither is a resident of this county, and the present Solicitor of 
the State for this District. He was a member of the Senate in 1840 ; Super- 
intendent of the Mint in 1841, and Speaker of the Senate in 1844. 

Many others of Burke might be named, but ah-eady has the sketch been 
extended beyond the limits prescribed, and another edition will present their 
names, lives, and services to the country. 

The following are the members of the General Assembly from 
Burke County, from date of erection to last session. 

Years. Senators. 

1778. Charles McDowell, 

1779. Eph'm McClain, 

1780. Eph'm McClain, 

1781. Andrew Woods, 

1782. Ch. McDowell, 

1783. Ch. McDowell, 

1784. Ch. McDowell, 

1785. Ch. McDowell, 

1786. Ch. McDowell, 

1787. Ch. McDowell, 

1788. Ch. McDowell, 

1791. Jos. McDowell, 

1792. Jos. McDowell, 

1793. Jos. McDowell, 

1794. Jos. McDowell, 

1795. Jos. McDowell, 

1796. W. Avery, 

1797. James Murphy, 

1800. Andrew Beard, 

1801. A. Beard, 

1802. Wm. Davenport, 

1803. Andrew Beard, 

1804. John 11. Stevely, 

1805. J. H. Stevely, 

1806. J. H. Stevely, 

1807. AVilliam Tate, 

1808. Israel Pickens, 

1809. I. Pickens, 

1810. David Tate, 

1811. David Tate, 

1812. Hodge Rabourn, 

1813. H. Rabourn, 

1814. David Tate, 

1815. A. A. McDowell, 

1816. Ales. Perkins, 

1817. A. Perkins, 

1818. David Tate, 

1819. Alex. Perkins, 

1821. David Tate, 

1822. Sam'l P. Carson, 

1823. J. R. McDowell, 

1824. Sam'l P. Carson, 

1825. J. R. McDowell, 

1826. Matthew Baird, 

1827. Merritt Burgin, 

1828. M. Burgin, 

1829. M. Burgin, 

1830. David Newland, 

1831. Mark Brittain, 

1832. Jas. McDowell, 

1833. Mark Brittain, 

1834. Sam'l P. Carson, 

Members of House of Commons. 
Eph'm McClain, Jas. Wilson. 
Thomas AVilson, Wm. Morrison. 
Hugh Brevard, Jos. McDowell. 
Hugh Brevard, Jos. McDowell. 
Waightstill Avery, Jos. McDowell. 
J. McDowell, Waightstill Avery. 
W. Avery, J. McDowell. 
J. McDowell, Waightstill Avery. 
J. McDowell, David Vance. 
J. McDowell, Jos. McDowell, Jr. 
J. McDowell, Jos. McDowell, Jr. 
J. McDowell, Jr., David Vance. 
John M. McDowell, Jos. McDowell, Jr. 
Waightstill Avery, Alex. Erwin. 
Alex. Erwin, John McDowell. 
A. Erwin, Conrad Heldebrand. 
Wm. White, Alexander Erwin. 

A. Erwin, Conrad Heldebrand. 
Wm. Davenport, Wm. Walton. 

B. Smith, David Tate. 
David Tate, Thos. McEntire. 
David Tate, Thos. Coleman. 
A. Erwin, Hodge Rabourn. 
John Carson, Brice Collins. 
John Carson, Brice Collins. 
Brice Collins, David Tate. 
Abraham Fleming, Thos. Brevard. 
Chas. McDowell, Isaac T. Avery. 
Isaac T. Avery, Chas. McDowell. 
Chas. McDowell, Isaac T. Avery. 
Wm. Dickson, John M. Greenlee. 
Wm. Dickson, Brice Collins. 
Brice Collins, Wm. Dickson. 
Brice Collins, Joel Coffee. 

Brice Collins, John Phagan. 
Brice Collins, J. R. McDowell. 
J. R. McDowell, Matthew Beard. 
Brice Collins, J. R. McDowell. 
Brice Collins, Wm. Dickson. 
Matthew Baird, Merritt Burgin. 
Wm. Roane, Brice Collins. 
Alney Burgin, Peter Ballew. 
Peter Ballew, Edwin Poor. 
David Newland, Edwin Poor, 
David Newland, David Neill. 
David Newland, Mark Brittain. 
Joseph Neill, David Newland. 
Elias A. Hooper, Alney Burgin. 
Alney Burgin, Francis P. Glass. 
A. Burgin, F. P. Glass. 
A. Burgin, David Corpening. 
Jas. U. Perkins, Sam'l Fleming. 


Years. Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

1835. Peter Ballen, Edw'd J. Erwin, Jas. II. Perkins. 

1836. Thomas Baker, Edw'd J. Erwin, James H. Perkins, 

and Elisha P. Miller. 
1838. Thos. Baker, Edw'd J. Erwin, Wm. M. Carson, 

and E. P. Miller. 
1^0. B. S. Gaither, Wm. M. Carson, E. P. Miller, 

and Jos. Neal. 
1842. A. Burgin, Sam'l J. Neal, Todd R. Caldwell, 

and W. W. Avery. 
1844. B. S. Gaither, T. R. Caldwell, Benj. Burgin. 

1846. S. F. Patterson, Wm. F. McKesson, J. J. Erwin. 

1848. S. F. Patterson, Alfred Mailor, S. B. Erwin. 

1850. Tod R. Caldwell, W. W. Avery, T. Geo. Walton. 



Date of its formation — Origin of name, situation and boundaries — Population 
and products — Concord its capital — Early history — Black Boys, or the gun- 
powder plot — Character and services of her sons — Members of Assembly. 

Cabarrus County was formed in 1792, from Mecklenburg 
County, and was so named in compliment to Stephen Cabarrus, 
member from Chowan County, and Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons. Mr. Cabarrus lived m Edenton, or near, at a place called 
Pembroke. He was a native of France, a man of great vivacity 
and talent, a useful and honorable man. 

It is situated in the south-western part of the State, and is bounded 
on the north by Rowan and Iredell, east by Stanly County, south 
by Union, and west by Mecklenburg. 

Its population is 6,943 whites; 119 free negroes; 2,685 slaves; 8,673 
federal population ; 753 persons who cannot read. 

Its products are 86,300 bushels of wheat; 418,180 bushels of corn; 51,998 
bushels of oats ; 17,276 bushels of potatoes ; 4,568,726 pounds of cotton ; 
10,460 pounds of wool ; 3,761 dollars worth of gold. 

It is remarkable for its production of gold fifty-two years ago. 

The following is an account of the first gold mine ever discovered 
in the State : — 

We have been kindly furnished by Colonel Earnhardt with the 
following history of the opening of the Reed Gold Mine, in Cabar- 
rus County, and the number and weight of the pieces of gold found 
at difierent periods. 

A sketch of the discovery and history of the Reed Gold Mine, in Caharrus County, 
North Carolina, being the first gold mine discovered in the United States. 

The first piece of gold found at this mine, was in the year 1799, by Conrad 
Reed, a boy of about twelve years old, a son of John Reed, the proprietor. 
The discovery was made in an accidental manner. The boy above named, . 
in company with a sister and younger brother, went to a small stream, called «• 


Meadow Creek, on a Sabbath day, while their parents were at church, for 
the purpose of shooting fish with bow and arrow, and while engaged along 
the bank of the creek, Conrad saw a yellow substance shining in the water. 
He went in and picked it up, and found it to be some kind of metal, and 
carried it home. Mr. Reed examined it, but as gold was unknown in this 
part of the country at that time, he did not know what kind of metal it was : 
the piece was about the size of a small smoothing iron. 

Mr. Reed carried the piece of metal to Concord, and showed it to a William 
Atkinson, a silversmith, but he not thinking of gold, was unable to say what 
kind of metal it was. 

Mr. Reed kept the piece for several years on his house floor, to lay against 
the door to keep it from shutting. In the year 1802, he went to market to 
Fayetteville, and carried the piece of metal with him, and on showing it to 
a jeweller, the jeweller immediately told him it was gold, and requested Mr. 
Reed to leave the metal with him and said he would flux it. Mr. Reed left 
it, tmd returned in a short time, and on his return the jeweller showed him 
a large bar of gold, six or eight inches long. The jeweller then asked Mr. 
Reed what he would take for the bar. Mr. Reed, not knowing the value of 
gold, thought ho would ask a " big price," and so he asked three dollars and 
fifty cents (§3 50!). The jeweller paid him his price. 

After returning home, Mr. Reed examined and found gold in the surface 
along the creek. He then associated Frederick Kisor, James Love, and Mar- 
tin Phifer with himself, and in the year 1803, they found a piece of gold in 
the branch that weighed twenty-eight pounds. Numerous pieces were found 
at this mine weighing from sixteen pounds down to the smallest particles. 
The whole surface along the creek for nearly a mile was very rich in gold. 

The veins of this mine were discovered in the year 1831. They yielded a 
large quantity of gold. The veins are flint or quartz. 

I do certifythat the foregoing is a true statement of the discovery and history 
of this mine, as given by John Reed and his son Conrad Reed, now both dead. 

January, 1848. GEORGE EARNHARDT. 

Weight of difierent pieces of gold found at this mine : — 











































115 lbs. steelyard weight. 
The annual products of tlic gold mines of the State, have been 
estimated at five hundred thousand dollars.* The produce of Ca- 
barrus mines in 1840, by the census, was estimated at thirty-five 
hundred dollars. 

The revolutionary and colonial history of Cabarrus, belongs to 
Mecklenburg, to which it was united. No part of the State was 

* Report by John H. AVheeler, Superintendent of Branch Mint, to the 
Secretary of the Treasury, in 1838. 
" Six Months in America," by Vigne. 


more fixed and forward in the cause of liberty than this immediate 

At the Convention of Charlotte, in May, 1775, this part of 
Mecklenburg joined heartily in that fearful stand of pledging "their 
lives, fortunes, and most sacred honor" to defend, sustain, and 
protect their liberty and independence. 

The circumstances of that declaration, the actors in the con- 
vention, the boldness with which they proclaimed and vindicated 
their sentiments, as well as the instrument itself, have been already 
recorded in the former volume of this work.* 

Without any support from abroad ; without any previous move- 
ment to guide their course, the conduct of this people meets at 
once our warmest admiration and enduring respect. It is one 
of the proudest pages of our country's history, and one to which 
her sons point to with joy and congratulation. The portion of 
Mecklenburg, now Cabarrus, entered freely into this important 
and patriotic movement. 

But there is a circumstance connected with the early history of 
Cabarrus, that deserves record. I allude to the destruction of 
the powder and other munitions of war, in 1771, by the citizens of 
Cabarrus, for which I am indebted to Hon. D. M. Barringer, our 
present Envoy to Spain, furnished by R. Kirkpatrick, Esq. 

nistory of "The Gfunxiowder Plot," or the Black Boys of Cabarrus. 

In the year 1771, some difficulties arose between Governor Tryon of North 
Carolina and the Regulators, and in order to coerce them into his mea- 
sures, the Governor procured from Charleston, South Carolina, three or 
four wagon loads of the munitions of war, consisting of gunpowder, flints, 
blankets, &c. They were brought to Charlotte, North Carolina, and from 
some suspicious movements amongst the friends of liberty, wagons could 
not be procured to transport them on ; at length Colonel Moses Alex- 
ander procured wagons to convey it to Hillsboro', the then seat of govern- 
ment. The vigilance of the jealous Whigs was ever on the alert, and in a 
settlement lying now in the County of Cabarrus, known by the name of the 
Rocky River Settlement, sixteen miles north-east of Charlotte, and seven or 
eight south of Concord, there existed as much of the true spirit of patriot- 
ism as ever was found in the same bounds, and where not a Tory loas ever 
horn or ever breathed. 

The following individuals, viz.. Major James White, William White and 
John White (all brothers, born and raised on the bank of Rocky River, one 
mile from Rocky River church), Robert Caruthers, Robert Davis, Benjamin 
Cochran, James Ashmore and Joshua Iladley, bound themselves by a most 
solemn oath, not to divulge the secret on each other, and in order to keep 
themselves concealed they blacked themselves, and set out to destroy, if pos- 
sible, the powder, &c., that had been procured to shed the blood of their 
countrymen. They set out in the evening, while the father of the Whites 
was absent to mill with two horse-loads of grain ; fortunately they met him 
(the boys were on foot) ; they demanded of their father the horses, and ordered 
him to dismount. He pleaded lustily for the privilege of the horses until he 
could carry home his bags, but all remonstrance was vain ; they lifted the 
bags off the horses and left them on the side of the road. They came up with 
the wagons that hauled the powder, &c., encamped on what was then called 
Phifer's Hill, three miles west from Concord, on the road leading from Char- 
lotte to Salisbury, near midway between these places, at or near what is now 
Long's tavern. They immediately unloaded the wagons, stove in the kegs, 

* Vol. i. page 69. 


threw the powder, flints, &c., into a pile, tore the blankets into strips, placed 
them on the pile, made a train of powder a considerable distance from the 
pile, and Major White fired a pistol into the train, which produced a tremen- 
dous explosion. A stave from the pile struck White on the forehead, and cut 
him considerably. As soon as it came to the ears of Colonel Moses 
Alexander, he put his whole ingenuity in requisition to find out the perpe- 
trators of so foul a deed against his Majesty. The transaction remained a 
mystery for some time. Great threats were made, and in order to induce some 
one to turn traitor, a pardon was oflfered to any one who would turn king's 
evidence against the rest. Ashmore and Hadley, being half-brothers and 
composed of the same materials, set out unknown to each other, to avail 
themselves of the pardon offered, and accidentally met each other on the 
threshold of Moses Alexander's house. When they made known their busi- 
ness, xilexander observed, " That by virtue of the governor's proclamation 
they were pardoned, but they were the first that ought to be hanged." The 
rest of the "Black Boys" had to fly their country. They fled to the State of 
Georgia, where they remained some time. The Governor, finding he could not 
get them into his grasp, held out insinuations that if they would return and 
confess their fault, they should be pardoned. They returned, and as soon as 
it was known, Moses Alexander raised a guard, consisting of himself, two 
brothers, John and Jake, and others, and surrounded the house of old White, 
the father of the boys, Caruthers, the son-in-law of White, was also at 
White's. They placed a guard to each door. One of the guard wishing to 
favor the escape of Caruthers, struck a quarrel with Moses Alexander at one 
door, while his brother Daniel Alexander whispered to Mrs- White, if there 
was any of them within they might pass out and he would not see him ; in 
the mean time, out goes Caruthers, and in a few jumps was in the river. 
The alarm was immediately given, but pursuit was fruitless. 

At another time, the royalists heard of some of the boys being in a harvest 
field, and set out to take them ; but always having some one in company that 
favored their escape, as they rode up in sight of the field one of the com- 
pany waved his hand, which the boys took as a signal. They pursued 
Ex)bert Davis so close, that he jumped his horse thirty feet down a bank into 
the river, and then dared them to follow him. 

They fled from covert to covert to save their necks from the bloodthirsty 
loyalists, who were daily hunting them like wild beasts. They would He con- 
cealed weeks at a time, and the neighbors would carry them food, until they 
fairly wearied out their pursuers. The oath by which they bound themselves 
was an imprecation of the strongest kind ; the greater part of the imprecation 
was literally fulfilled in Hadley and Ashmore. Ashmore fled his country, but 
he lived a miserable life, and died as wretched as he had lived. Hadley still 
remained in the country, and was known for many years to the writer. He 
was very intemperate, and in his fits of intoxication was very harsh to his 
family in driving them from his house in the dead hours of the night. His 
neighbors, in order to chastise him for his abuse of his family (among whom 
were some of the "Black Boys"), dressed themselves in female attire, went 
to his house by night, pulled him from his bed, drew his shirt over his head 
and gave him a very severe whipping. He continued through life the same 
miserable wretch, and died without any friendly hand to sustain him, or 
eye to pity him. 

Thus we see Mecklenburg and Cabarrus (at that time but one county) were 
the first that set the ball in motion that ended in the independence of the 
American people. 

Frequently, Avhen the royalists ranged the country in pursuit of " the Black 
Boys," the ^Vhigs would collect in bodies consisting of twenty-five or 
thirty, ready to pounce upon them if they had taken any of them. From 
the allurements held out to them to give themselves up, the boys, at one time, 
went to within a short distance of Ilillsboro', to beg their pardon of the 
Governor (Tryon), but finding his intention, if he could get them into his 
hands, to have hanged every one of them, they returned and kept themselves 

Thus we find in a region of country very little known in the history of the 


revolutionary struggle, that the spirit of liberty was cherished and mature^ 
the first to manifest itself in the Declaration of Independence, in the County of 
Mecklenburg, of which they were then a part. From that very neighborhood, 
delegates were sent to Charlotte on the 20th of May, 1775. In the transac- 
tion of burning the powder, those who were engaged (with the exception of 
Hadley and Ashmore, Avho were always cowards) gave their country a 
sure pledge of their attachment to the cause of liberty, which they faithfully 
redeemed, whenever their services were needed. Major James White, at the 
time the British lay in Charlotte, was continually annoying them. It was 
White who led the party on that memorable day when Col. Locke was over- 
taken and cut to pieces ; and when Gen. Joseph Graham was also severely 
wounded. White rode a very fleet horse ; he would ride near to the British 
forces, fire at them, and whenever they would sally out after him, he would 
put his horse, which he called Stono, to his speed, and outrun them. 

John Phifer appears among those who assembled at Charlotte in May, 1775. 
The head of now a numerous and highly respectable family in Cabarrus, he 
was the devoted friend of liberty and his country. lie was a member fi'om 
Mecklenburg to "the general meeting of delegates of the inhabitants of the 
province, at Hillsboro', 21st August, 1775," with'Thomas Polk, Waightstill 
Avery, James Houston, James Martin, and John McKnitt Alexander. 

In 1776, he was a delegate with Robert Irvin, Zaccheus Wilson, Ilezekiah 
Alexander, and Waightstill Avery, to the Convention at Halifax, which formed 
the State Constitution. 

This place he resigned, and accepted the appointment of Lieutenant-Colonel 
of Volunteers. He filled an early grave. He was buried in Cabarrus ; a rough 
slab covers his remains, now defaced and mutilated.* It is a tradition, that 
the British army, as they passed from Charlotte to Salisbury, built a fire on 
the tombstone, to show their hatred for his memory. 

His decendants, John Phifer and Caleb Phifer, as will be seen, were often 
representatives from Cabarrus, and always sustained the reputation of honor- 
able and faithful citizens. 

John Phifer graduated at the University in 1799, was often a member of 
the General Assembly, influential and talented. He was for many years a 
ruling elder of the Presbyterian church, and died October 18th, 1845. 

John Paul Barringer was born in Hanover, in Germany, on the 4th of 
June, 1721. He emigrated to this country, and settled first in Pennsylvania. 
He I'emoved to this State before the Revolution. During our struggles, he 
sided with the friends of liberty. From his devotion to the cause, he was 
taken prisoner, with others, by the Tories, and carried to Camden, South 
Carolina. He was, for a long time, kept in confinement, and was the only 
one who returned home. He died in Cabarrus, January 1st, 1807. 

His son. Gen. Daniel L. Barringer, now of Tennessee, lived for a long 
time in Wake County, where he married Miss White, grand-daughter of 
Governor Caswell. He represented Wake County in 1813, and from 1819 to 
1822, in the House of Commons. He was elected a member of Congress, and 
served from 1826 to 1835. He removed to Tennessee, where he has been 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, in that State, where he now resides. 

Another son. Gen. Paul Barringer, resided in Cabarrus. He was born in 
September, 1778. He had as good an education as the county afforded. He 
was fond of reading, and distinguished for his practical sense. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Brandon, daughter of Matthew Brandon, of Rowan, a soldier 
of the Revolution, whose family were distinguished for the love of liberty. 
She died in 1848. He entered public life in 18U6, as a member of the House 
of Commons, and was often afterwards a member of both branches of the 
Legislature. He died at an advanced age, at Lincolnton, in June, 1844. He 
left a family of nine children, of whom 

* MSS. from R, Barringer, Esq., of Concord. 


Daniel Moreau Barrin'ger, now our Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary at Madrid, in Spain, was eldest. He was born in July, 1806. 
He was educated at our University ; graduated in 182G ; studied law with 
Chief Justice Kuffin ; elected to the House of Commons in 1829, and served 
for several years ; member of the Convention in 1835; elected to Congress 
in 1843, served continuously until 1849, when he was appointed by Gen. Z. 
Taylor, President of the United States, Envoy to Spain, where he now resides. 

Dr. Charles Harris, of this county, was distinguished as a patriot, a 
soldier, and physician. 

He was born in this county, when Mecklenburg, in 1763. While pursuing 
his studies at Charlotte, the invasion of the British caused him to exchange 
the gown for the sword. He joined the corps of cavalry under Colonel 
Davie, and was with that active officer in his brave and daring career. 
After the war was over he resumed his studies at Clio Academy, in Ire- 
dell. He commenced the study of medicine under Dr. Isaac Alexander, at 
Camden, S. C, and finished at Philadelphia. On his return he settled at 
Salisbury, and practiced with success ; he then removed to Favoni, his seat 
in Cabarrus, where he ended his days. 

Devoted to his professioti, he was unrivaled as a physician and surgeon. 
Ilis reputation was widely extended, and his skill and success justified this 
celebrity. He had a medical school, and instructed ninety-three young men 
in the healing art. His temper was cheerful and his manner mild. He 
died Sept. 21, 1825. He left several children. William Shakspeare Harris, 
Esq., one of them, in 1836 represented Cabarrus in the House of Commons. 
I copy from his tombstone the following: " This monument is erected to per- 
petuate the memory of Charles Harris, M. D., born 23d November, 1762 ; died 
21st September, 1825, aged 63 years. Dr. Harris was engaged in the practice 
of medicine and surgery forty years ; eminent in the former, in the latter pre- 
eminent. He was a man of extensive reading, of an acute inquisitive mind, 
friendly to all and beloved by all. His heart entered deeply into the suffer- 
ings of his patients, mingling the medicine he administered with the feel- 
ings of a friend. He lived usefully, and died resignedly, and we humbly 
trust, through the sovereign virtue of the all-healing medicine of the Great 
Physician, he was prepared to rest in this tomb, ' where the wicked cease 
from troubling and the weary are at rest.' " 

Members of the General Assembly of North Carolina, from Ca- 
barrus County, from its erection to the last session (1851) : — 

Years. Senate. Members of House of Commons. 

1793. Caleb Phifer, Robert Smith, .James Bradshaw. 

1704. Caleb Phifer, llobert Smith, James Bradshaw. 

1795. Caleb Phifer, Kobert Siiiith, James Bradshaw. 

1796. Caleb Phifer, Jas. Bradshaw, Archibald McKurdy. 

1797. Caleb Phifor, Jas. Bradshaw, Archibald McKurdy. 

1800. Caleb Phifer, Jas. Bradshaw, John Allison. 

1801. Caleb Phifer, llobert Smith, James Bradshaw. 

1802. James Bradshaw, Jolin Allison, A. 3IcKurdy. 

1803. Wm. L. Alexander, John Allison, John Phifer. 

1804. Wm. L. Alexander, .John Allison, .John Pliifer. 

1805. Wm. L. Alexander, John Allison, John Phifer. 

1806. George Harris, Paul Barringer, A. Houston. 

1807. George Harris, Paul Barringer, A. Houston. 

1808. George Harris, Paul Barringer, A. Houston. 

1809. llobert W. Smith, Paul Barringer, A. Houston. 

1810. llobert W. Smith, Paul Barringer, John Phifer. 

1811. llobert W. Smith, Paul Barriuger, John Phifer. 

1812. Kobert W. Smith, Paul Barriuger, John Phifer. 

1813. llobert W. Smith, Paul Barringer, John Phifer. 

1814. llobert W. Smith, Paul Barringer, John Phifer. 

1815. llobert W. Smith, Paul Barringer, John Phifer. 

1816. Abraham C. McKee, Samuel Morrison, John F. Phifer. 



Years. Senators. 

1817. Abraham C. McKee, 

1818. John N. Phifer, 

1819. William II. Pharr, 

1821. William R. Pharr, 

1822. Paul Barringer, 

1823. John Phifer, 

1824. L. H. Alexander, 

1825. L. II. Alexander, 

1826. L. H. Alexander, 

1827. L. H. Alexander, 

1828. L. H. Alexander, 

1829. Ch. Melchor, 

1830. Ch. Melchor, 

1831. Ch. Melchor, 

1832. A. Houston, 

1833. George Klutts, 

1834. George Klutts, 

1835. David Long, 

1836. Christopher Melchor, 
1838. Christopher Melchor, 
1840. Christopher Melchor, 
1842. W. F. Pharr, 

1844. W. F. Pharr, 

1846. Christopher Melchor, 

1848. R. Kendall, 

1850. Rufus Barringer, 

Members of House of Commons. 
John F. Phifer, George Klutts. 
John F. Phifer, William McLean. 
William McLean, C. Melchor. 
William McLean, C. Melchor. 
William McLean, C. Melchor. 
William McLean, C. Melchor. 
Robert Pickens, C. Melchor. 
J. C. Barnhart, Robert Pickens. 
J. C. Barnhart, Robert Pickens. 
Wm. McLean, J. C. Barnhart. 
William McLean, J. C. Barnhart. 
Daniel M. Barringer, Wm. McLean. 
.Daniel M. Barringer, J. C. Barnhart. 
Daniel M. Barringer, Wm. McLean. 
Daniel M. Barringer, George Ury. 
Daniel M. Barringer, William McLean. 
Daniel M. Barringer, Jacob Williams. 
Levi Hope, George Barnhart. 
William S. Harris. 
Daniel Boger. 
Daniel M. Barringer. 
Daniel M. Barringer. 
Caleb Phifer, H. Robinson. 
Jos. W. Scott, L. B. Krimminger. 
Rufus Barringer, J. W. Scott. 
Jos. W. Scott, John Shinpock. 



Is of recent origin, being formed as lately as 1841, out of the 
counties of Burke and Wilkes. Derives its name from Dr. Joseph 
Caldwell, President of the University, for sketch of whose life, 
character, and services see vol. i. 133. 

It is situated in the extreme north-western portion of the State, 
and is bounded on the north by Watauga and Ashe, east by Wilkes 
and Alexander, south by Catawba and Burke, and west by Burke 
and Watauga. 

Its capital is Lenoir, named in compliment of Gen. Lenoir, for 
whose life and services see Wilkes, Chapter LXXX. 

The population of Caldwell is 5,000 whites ; 108 free negroes ; 1,203 slaves ; 
5,835 fed. population. 

Its products, it being formed since the census returns of 1840, and the 
census of 1850 not being published, are not given. 

Its history belongs to that of Burke and Wilkes, from which it 

was taken. 

It is distinguished for its fair air, healthful climate, and excellent 
water. Its advantages of education, by aid of good academies, 


and schools, are considerable. The school of the Rev. T. S. W. 

Mott, near Lenoir, stands deservedly high. 

In this county resides Gen. Samuel F. Patterson, who was Treasurer of 
the State, in 1835 ; President of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad, in 1839, 
and Senator in the General Assembly, in 1848 and 1850. 

With Burke and Wilkes it forms the 48th Senatorial District. Its 
members in the General Assembly as follows : — 


William Dickson. 
William Dickson. 
E. P. Miller. 
E. P. Miller. 
John Hayes. 




A. Burgin, 


B. S. Gaither, 


S. F. Patterson, 


S. F. Patterson, 


Todd R. Caldwell, 



Date of erection — Origin of name — Situation and boundaries — Population 
and products — Early History — Members of Assembly. 

Camden County was formed in 1777, from Pasquotank County, 
and derives its name from the Earl of Camden, who was a distin- 
guished English Statesman, Judge, and friend of popidar rights. In 
Parliament he strongly opposed the taxation of America, and from 
his liberal principles was removed from his elevated position as Lord 
High Chancellor of England, 1770, by Lord North's ministry. 

The name of this county in the original act, is spelt Cambden. 

It is situated in the north-eastern portion of the State, and 
bounded on the north, by the Virginia line ; south by Albemarle 
Sound ; east by Currituck County ; and west by Pasquotank River, 
which separates it from Pasquotank County. 

The celebrated Dismal Swamp, whose lake (Drummond) preserves 
to posterity the name of the first Governor of North Carolina, has 
been enshrined in the poetic numbers of Thomas Moore : 

"Where all night long, by a fire-fly lamp, 
She paddles her white canoe."* 

Its canal connecting the waters of Virginia and North Carolina, 
is 22 miles long, 40 to 60 feet Avide, and admits vessels of 70 or 80 
tons burthen, drawing 7 feet water. Its cost of construction was 
$500,000 ; it yields a revenue of about $87,000 in tolls ; the locks, 
ten in number, are composed of beautiful hewn stone. 

* Moore's Works, iii. 91. 



Population, 3,572 whites; 290 free negroes; 2,187 slaves; 5,174 federal 

Its products, according to census of 1840, 2,739 bushels of wheat; 9.480 
bushels of oats ; 285,574 bushels corn; 6,792 lbs. cotton; 253 barrels fish; 
$14,807 lumber ; 2,664 gallons of brandy. 

The soil of Camden is remarkable for its fertility.^ 

It is a matter of regret that the cause of education is so neglected 
in Camden. The census of 1840 proves, that in a population of 
5,663, there are 691 persons over 20 years of age, who cannot read 
or write. The census of 1850 shows, that in a white population of 
3,572, there are 773 over 20, who cannot read or write. 

The revolutionary history of Camden is connected with that of Pasquotank. 
The officers in 1776, for the second regiment of Pasquotank, since Camden, 
were, Isaac Gregory, Colonel; Deupst Bcrges-s, Lt. Colonel; Josuua Camp- 
bell, First Major; Peter Daugh, Second Major. 

Colonel, afterwards Gex. Gregory, was in the hard fought battle of Eutaw, 
in South Carolina, and was a brave ofiBcer, and honorable man ; was much 
respected, and often represented Camden in the Legislature. 

Colonel Burgess was often in the Legislature, and in 1795 represented 
this District in the Congress of the United States. 

Lemuel Sawyer was born in Camden, in 1777 ; educated at Flat Bush, 
New York, under care of Dr. Peter Wilson. He studied law, and was licensed 
to practice. In 1800, he represented Camden in the House of Commons, and 
again in 1801 ; in 1804 Elector, and voted in the Electoral College for Thomas 

In 1807 elected to Congress, from this district, which he continued to repre- 
sent with some intervals until 1829, an unusually long period of service. 

Mr. Sawyer is now in one of the public offices at AVashington. 

Mr. Sawyer was succeeded in Congress by Hon. Wm. 13. Shepard, for a 
sketch of whom see Pasquotank, Chapter LIX. 

Members of the General Assembly from Camden, from the adop- 
tion of the Constitution to the last session : — 

Years. Senate. 

1778. Isaac Gregory, 

1779. Isaac Gregory, 

1780. Isaac Gregory, 
1782. Isaac Gregory, 

1786. Isaac Gregory, 

1787. Isaac Gregory, 

1788. Isaac Gregory, 

1789. Isaac Gregory, 

1790. Peter Dauge, 

1791. Peter Dauge, 

1792. Peter Dauge, 

1793. Peter Dauge, 

1795. Isaac Gregory, 

1796. Isaac Gregory, 

1797. Joseph Forksey, 

1800. Joseph Forksey, 

1801. Joseph Forksey, 

1802. Thomas Burgess, 

1803. Nathan Snowden, 

1804. Arthur Old, 

1805. Arthur Old, 

1806. Arthur Old, 

1807. Arthur Old, 

1808. Nathan Snowden, 

1809. Caleb Perkins, 


Members of the House of Commons. 
John Gray, Caleb Grandy. 
AVillis Butt, Caleb Grandy. 
William Burgess, D. Sawyer. 
Dempsey Sawyer, Benjamin Jones. 
Lemuel Sawyer, Peter Dauge. 
Enoch Sawyer, Peter Dauge. 
Enoch Sawyer, Peter Dauge, 
Enoch Sawyer, Peter Dauge. 
Charles Grandy, AVilliam Burgess, 
Charles Grandy, William Burgess. 
Charles Grandy, William Burgess. 
William Neavill, Nathan Snowden, 
Nathan Snowden, Caleb Grandy. 
Enoch Daily, Josiah Morgan. 
Enoch Daily, Z. Burgess. 
Thomas Mercer, Lemuel Sawyer. 
Thomas Mercer, Lemuel Sawyer. 
Thomas Mercer, Caleb Perkins. 
Joseph Morgan, Caleb Perkins. 
Joseph Morgan, David Dunkin. 
Joseph Morgan, Caleb Perkins. 
Joseph Morgan, Caleb Perkins. 
Caleb Perkins, Thomas Bell. 
Caleb Perkins, Thomas Bell. 
Thomas Bell, Dempsey Sawyer. 



Years. Senate. 

1810. Gideon Lamb, 

1811. Caleb Perkins, 

1812. Joseph Dozier, 

1813. Thomas Bell, 

1814. Thomas Bell, 

1815. Caleb Perkins, 

1816. Caleb Perkins, 

1817. Caleb Perkins, 

1818. John Kelly, 

1819. Caleb Perkins, 

1821. Luke J. Lamb, 

1822. Mason Culpepper, 

1823. Caleb Perkins, 

1824. Caleb Perkins, 

1825. Willis Wilson, 

1826. Willis Wilson, 

1827. Willis Wilson, 

1828. Haywood S. Bell, 

1829. Haywood S. Bell, 

1830. Caleb Perkins, 

1831. Haywood S. Bell, 

1832. Haywood S. Bell, 

1833. Enoch Nash, 

1834. Edm'd I. Barco, 

1835. Thomas Tillet, 

1836. Daniel Lindsay, 
1838. Caleb Etheridge, 
1840. Caleb Etheridge, 
1842. Caleb Etheridge, 
1844. Caleb Etheridge, 
1846. John Barnard, 
1848. John Barnard, 
1850. John Barnard, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Tliomas Bell, Dempsey Sawyer. 
Dempsey Sawyer, William Mercer. 
Dempsey Sawyer, John Kelly. 
Dempsey Sawyer, Thomas Etheridge. 
John Kellar, Baily Parker. 
Baily Barco, John H. Brocket. 
Willis Wilson, Ezekiel Trotman. 
Baily Barco, Willis Wilson. 
William Hearing, William Mercer. 
AVilliam Mercer, John Jones. 
William B. Webster, Samuel Mercer. 
William B. Webster, John Jones. 
William B. Webster, Thomas Tillet. 
William B. Webster, Thomas Tillet. 
Thomas Tillet, Thomas Dozier. 
Thomas Dozier, Simeon Jones. 
Thomas Tillet, Thomas Dozier. 
Thomas Dozier, William B. Webster. 
Thomas Dozier, A. H. Grandy. 

A. H. Grandy, Thomas Dozier. 
. A. H. Grandy, Thomas Dozier. 

B. D. Harrison, Thomas Tillet. 
Thomas Tillet, Caleb Barco. 
Thomas Tillet, Jas. N. McPherson. 
Jas. N. McPherson, J. 
D. Pritchard. 
J. S. Burgess. 
A. H. Grandy. 
Cornelius G. Lamb. 
Cornelius G. Lamb. 
D. D. Ferebee. 
D. D. Ferebee. 
Caleb Barco. 

S. Burgess. 



Origin of name — Date of formation — Situation and boundaries — Beaufort, its 
capital — Population and products — Climate — Early history — Teaches Hole. 

Carteret was one of the original precincts of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, and was called in honor of one of them, who is stjled in the 
charter of Charles II. as " oui' right truly and "well beloved counsel- 
lor, Sir George Carteret, Knight and Baronet, Vice-Chancellor of 
our Household." He is described by a cotemporary writer, as 
" the passionate and ignorant, and not too honest Sir George 

He died in 1695, and was succeeded by his son John,t afterwards 

* Pepys, i 3G6. 

t See Martin, Vol. i. p. 190. Vol. i. (these sketches) p. 41. 


Earl of Granville, wlio retained his portion of tlie sovereignty of 
North Carolina, when the other proprietors, in 1729, surrendered 
to the Crown. 

Its situation is in the extreme eastern portion of the State, and 
is bounded on the north, by the Pamplico Sound, and County of 
Craven ; south and east by the Atlantic Ocean, west by the Coun- 
ties of Jones and Onslow. 

Its capital is Beaufort, which possesses a fine harbor, great depth 
of water, and is destined to become the marine depot of North Caro- 
lina. Its distance from Raleigh is one hundred and sixty-eight 

To this county belongs the honor of having been seen by the first 
adventurers to these United States. Two ships, one called the 
Tyger, the other the Admiral, commanded by Philip Amidas, and 
Arthur Barlow, were fitted out under the charge and expense of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, under a patent from Queen Elizabeth. These sailed 
from England on April 27th, 1584, and arrived on this coast on 
the 4th day of July, 1584. 

" After sailing along the coast one hundred and twenty English miles," 
says Amidas,* in his report, " before we could find any entrance or river 
issuing into the sea. The first that appeared unto us we entered and cast 
anker. After thanks given to God for our safe arrivall thither, we went to 
view the land adioyning and to take possession of the same in the right of 
the Queene's most excellent Maiestie, and rightful Queeue and Princesse of 
the same, and after delivered the same over to ouer vse, according to her 
Majesties grant and letters patent vnder her Higheness' great scale." 

The patent, as well as the report of these officers to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, is recorded in Hakluyt's Voyages, (vol. iii. p. 301.) This 
land was Roanoake Island, in Currituck County. For extracts from 
said report, see Currituck County. 

" They were the first that ever burst 
Into that silent sea."t 

In Oct., 1749, a furious storm destroyed Beacon Island, near 
Ocracoke Inlet.| 

The United States have a fort at Beaufort, called Fort Macon, 
and a light-house on Cape Look-out. 

Population, 3,572 whites ; 290 free negroes ; 2,187 slaves ; and 5,174 federal 

Products, 2,133 bushels of wheat ; 32,674 bushels of corn ; 4,283 pounds of 
cotton; 3,755 pounds of wool; $41,200 value of vessels owned; and 15,347 
barrels of turpentine. 

The chief inlet of our State is on the northern point of this county, 
Ocracoke Inlet, through which all vessels navigating the Albemarle 
Country must pass. It is obstructed by a bar of sand, over which 
vessels drawing more than twelve feet water must be lightened. 
This is a great drawback to the commerce of North Carolina. 

* Bancroft's History of the United States, vol. i. p. 92. 
- -f Coleridge. + Williamson, vol. ii. p. 64. 


Near it is TeacJis Hole* which preserves the name of a noted 
pirate, in the days of Governor Eden, whose career and fate are 
already recorded, and with whose name tradition still associates 
heaps of bm'ied treasm*es. 

In the Assembly of freemen that first assembled in North Carolina, without 
the consent and independent of the English Crown, which met at Newbern, 
August 25th, 1774, Wm. Thompson appeared for Carteret. 

In the Assembly at Newbern, in April, 1775, William Thompson and Solo- 
mon Sheppard. 

In the Assembly at Hillsboro', in August, 1775, John Eason, Wm. Thomp- 
son, Brice Williams, Solomon Sheppard and Enoch Ward. 

In the Assembly at Halifax, on Nov. 12th, 1776, which formed our consti- 
tution, appeared for Carteret, Solomon Sheppard, Brice Williams, Wm. 
Borden, John Easton and Thomas Chadwick. 

In the organization of the Continental troops by the State Congress, in 
August, 1775, for Carteret County, William Thompson was Colonel; Solo- 
mon Shepard, Lieutenant-Colonel; Thomas Chadwick, Major ; and Malachi 
Bell, Second Major. 

In 1809, the seat of Jacob Henry, one of the members from this county, 
was vacated on the ground that " he denied the divine authority of the New 

This was the first time in the history of the State that this question had 
been made, which underwent in the Convention which reformed the Consti- 
tution in 1835, so able and searching investigation. Mr. Henry, in an able 
speech, said to be the production of Chief Jus^tice Taylor, defended his rights, 
and he was aided by the luminous efforts of Judge Gaston. 

Speech of Mr. Jacob Henry. 

" I certainly, Mr. Speaker, know not the design of the Declaration of Rights 
made by the people of this State in the year 1776, if it was not to conse- 
crate certain great and fundamental rights and principles which even the 
Constitution cannot impair ; for the 44th section of the latter instrument 
declares that the Declaration of Rights ought never to be violated, on any 
pretence whatever ; if there is any apparent difi'erence between the two in- 
struments, they ought, if possible, to be reconciled ; but if there is a final 
repugnance between them, the Declaration of Rights must be considered 
paramount ; for I believe it is to the Constitution, as the Constitution is to 
law ; it controls and directs it absolutely and conclusively. If, then, a belief 
in the Protestant religion is required by the Constitution, to qualify a man 
for a seat in this house, and such qualification is dispensed with by the De- 
claration of Rights, the provision of the Constitution must be altogether in- 
operative ; as the language of the Bill of Rights is, "that all men have a 
natural and inalienable right to worship Almightv God according to the dic- 
tates of their own consciences." It is undoubtedly a natural right, and when 
it is declared to be an inalienable one by the people in their sovereign and 
original capacity, any attempt to alienate either by the Constitution or by 
law, must be vain and fruitless. 

" It is difiicult to conceive how such a provision crept into the Constitution, 
unless it is from the difficulty the human mind feels in suddenly emancipating 
itself from fetters by which it has long been enchained: and how adverse it 
is to the feelings and manners of the people of the present day every gentle- 
man may satisfy himself by glancing at the religious belief of the persona 
who fill the various offices in this State : there are Presbyterians, Lutherans, 
Calvinists, Mennonists, Baptists, Trinitarians, and Unitarians. But, as far 
as my observation extends, there are fewer Protestants, in the strict sense of 
the word, used by the Constitution, than of any other persuasion ; for I sup- 

*Vol. i. p.31. 


pose that they meant by it, the Protestant religion as established by the law 
in England. For other persuasions we see houses of worship in almost every 
part of the State, but very few of the Protestant; so few, that indeed I fear 
that the people of this State would for some time remain unrepresented in 
this House, if that clause of the Constitution is supposed to be in force. So 
far from believing in the Thirty-nine Ai-ticles, I will venture to assert that a 
majority of the people never have read them. 

" If a man should hold religious principles incompatible with the freedom 
and safety of the State, I do not hesitate to pronounce that he should be ex- 
cluded from the public councils of the same ; aad I trust if I know myself, 
no one would be more ready to aid and assist than myself. But I should 
really be at a loss to specify any known religious principles which are thus 
dangerous. It is surely a question between a man and his Maker, and re- 
quires more than human attributes to pronounce which of the numerous 
sects prevailing in the world is most acceptable to the Deity. If a man ful- 
fils the duties of that religion, which his education or his conscience has 
pointed to him as the true one, no person, I hold, in this our land of liberty, 
has a right to arraign him at the bar of any inquisition : and the day, I trust, 
has long passed, when principles merely speculative were propagated by force ; 
when the sincere and pious were made victims, and the light-minded bribed 
into hypocrites. 

"The purest homage man could render to the Almighty was in the sacrifice 
of his passions and the performance of his duties. That the ruler of the uni- 
verse would receive with equal benignity the various ofi"erings of man's ado- 
ration, if they proceeded fi'om the heart. Governments only concern the 
actions and conduct of man, and not his speculative notions. Who among 
us feels himself so exalted above his fellows as to have a right to dictate to 
them any mode of belief? Shall this free country set an example of perse- 
cution, which even the returning reason of enslaved Europe would not sub- 
mit to ? Will you bind the conscience in chains, and fasten conviction upon 
the mind in spite of the conclusions of reason and of those ties and habitudes 
which are blended with every pulsation of the heart ? Are you prepared to 
plunge at once from the sublime heights of moral legislation into the dark 
and gloomy caverns of superstitious ignorance? Will you drive from your 
shores and from the shelter of j'our constitution, all who do not lay their 
oblations on the same altar, observe the same ritual, and subscribe to the 
same dogmas? If so, which, among the various sects into which we are 
divided, shall be the fixvored one ? 

"I should insult the understanding of this House to suppose it possible 
that they could ever assent to such absurdities ; for all know that persecution 
in all its shapes and modifications, is contrary to the genius of our govern- 
ment and the spirit of our laws, and that it can never produce any other 
eifect than to render men hypocrites or martyrs. 

"When Charles V., Emperor of Germany, tired of the cares of government, 
resigned his crown to his son, he retired to a monastery, where he amused 
the evening of his life in regulating the movements of watches, endeavoring 
to make a number keep the same time ; but, not being able to make any two 
go exactly alike, it led him to reflect upon the folly and crimes he had com- 
mitted, in attempting the impossibility of making men think alike!! 

"Nothing is more easily demonstrated than that the conduct alone is the 
subject of human laws, and that man ought to suffer civil disqualification for 
what he does, and not for what he thinks. The mind can receive laws only 
from Him, of whose Divine essence it is a portion; He alone can punish dis- 
obedience; for who else can know its movements, or estimate their merits? 
The religion I profess, inculcates every duty which man owes to his fellow 
men; it enjoins upon its votaries the practice of every virtue, and the detest- 
ation of every vice -, it teaches them to hope for the favor of heaven exactly 
in propoi-tion as their lives have been directed by just, honorable, and bene- 
ficent maxims. This, then, gentlemen, is my creed; it was impressed upon 
my infimt mind ; it has been the director of my youth, the monitor of my 
manhood, and will, I trust, be the consolation of my old age. At any rate, 



Mr. Speaker, I am sure that you cannot see anything in this Religion, to de- 
prive me of my seat in this house. So far as relates to my life and conduct, 
the examination of these I submit with cheerfulness to your candid and 
liberal construction. What may be the religion of'him who made this ob- 
jection against me, or whether he has any religion or not I am unable to say. 
I have never considered it my duty to pry into the belief of other members 
of this house. If their actions are upright and conduct just, the rest is for 
their own consideration, not for mine. I do not seek to make converts to my 
faith, whatever it may be esteemed in the eyes of my officious friend, nor do 
I exclude any one from my esteem or friendship, because he and I differ in 
that respect. The same charity, therefore, it is not unreasonable to expect, 
will be extended to myself, because in all things that relate to the State and 
to the duties of civil life, I am bound by the same obligations with my fellow- 
citizens, nor does any man subscribe more sincerely than myself to the 
maxim, " whatever ye would that men should do unto you do ye so even unto 
them, for such is the law and the prophets." 

The members of the Legislature from Carteret are as follows : — 

Vears. Senators. 

1778. John Easton, 

1783. John Easton, 

1785. John Easton, 

1786. John Easton, 

1787. John Easton, 

1788. Joseph Hill, 

1791. Malachi Bell, 

1792. David Ward, 

1793. D. Ward, 
1791. D. AYard, 

1795. D. Ward, 

1796. JohnFulford, 

1797. John Fulford, 

1800. Xewell Bell, 

1801. Asa Bishop, 

1802. William Fisher, 

1803. W. Fisher, 

1804. Asa Bishop, 

1805. Nathaniel Pinkham, 

1806. N. Pinkham, 

1807. X. Pinkham, 

1808. Elijah Piggot, 

1809. Belcher Fuller, 

1810. B. Fuller, 

1811. B. Fuller, 

1812. B. Fuller, 

1813. B. Fuller, 

1814. A. Wilson, 

1815. Lebbeus Hunter, 

1816. John Robards, 

1817. George H. Dudley, 

1818. Whittington Davis, 

1819. Andrew Wilson, Jr., 

1821. AVhittington Davis, 

1822. W. Davis, 

1823. W. Davis, 

1824. W. Davis, 

1825. W. Davis, 

1826. W. Davis, 

1827. Nathan Fuller, 

1828. Otway Burns, 

1829. Otway Burns, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Sol. Shepard. 
Enoch Ward, Eli West. 
Enoch Ward, Eli West. 
Eli West, John Fulford. 
Eli West, John Fulford. 
John Fulford, Wm. Shepard. 
John Fulford, A. Jones. 
Adam Gaskins, William Russell. 
A. Gaskins, Wm. Russell. 
A. Gaskins, Wm. Russell. 
James Wallace, Wm. Russell. 
James Wallace, Aden Jones. 
Asa Bishop, Newell Bell. 
Elijah Piggot, John McKairn. 
Elijah Piggot, John McKairn. 
Elijah Piggot, Samuel Easton. 
Samuel Easton, Thomas Harriss. 
Samuel Easton, John Robards. 
Thomas Russell, John Robards. 
T. Russell, J. Robards. 
T. Russell, John Robards. 
Jacob Henry, John Robards. 
Jacob Henry, John Robards. 
John Robards, N. Pinkham. 
J. Robards, Abraham Piggot. 
J. Robards, Nathaniel Pinkham. 
J. Robards, Nathaniel Pinkham. 
J. Robards, H. Hill. 
Hatch Hill, John Robards. 
Whittington Davis, Elijah Piggot. 
John Mayo, N. Pinkham. 
Nat. Pinkham, Isaac Ilellen. 
Isaac Ilellen, N. Pinkham. 
W. D. Styron, Otway Burns. 
Otwav Burns, Isaac Hellen. 
Isaac^ Ilellen, Edw'd H. Bell. 
Otway Burns, Wm. H. Borden. 
Otwav Burns, Wm. II. Borden. 
Edw'd II. Bell, Otway Burns. 
David W. Borden, Otway Burns. 
J. S. W. Hellen, David W. Borden. 
J. S. W. Hellen, David W. Borden, 


Years. Senators. Members of the House of Commons. 

1830. David "W. Borden, Thomas Marshall, John F. Jones. 

1831. Otway Burns, John F. Jones, J. "W. Hunt. 

1832. Thomas Marshall, Ot^Yay Burns, D. W. Borden. 

1833. Otway Burns, Samuel Leffers, David AVhitehurst. 

1834. Otway Burns, James Manny, Elijah S. Bell. 

1835. James W.Bryan, James W. Hunt, Thomas Marshall. 

(Under the new Constitution, Carteret and Jones form one Senatorial district 
-the 20th), 

1836. Jas. TV". Bryan, Thomas Marshall. 
1838. Enoch Foy, Elijah S. Bell. 
1840. Isaac Hellen, Elijah Whitehurst. 
1842. Jas. W. Howard, Thomas Marshall. 
1844. Isaac Hellen, E. Whitehurst. 
1846. James W. Howard, Jennings Piggot. 
1848. E. S. Bell, Jennings Piggot. 
1850. M. F. Arendell, Jennings Piggot. 



Date of formation, origin of name, situation and boundaries — Yanceyville,- 
capital — Population and products — Climate and soil — Distinguished citizens 
— Marmaduke Williams, Bartlett Yancey, R. M. Saunders, Bedford Brown, 
and others, members of the General Assembly. 

Caswell County was erected in 1777, out of Orange County. 

It derives its name from Richard Caswell, the first Governor 
under the Constitution, whose life, services, and death, have already 
received a full notice.* 

The heathen philosophers endeavored to write their Mythology 
on the heavens, beyond the pages of history, by naming the planets 
and stars after their divinities and heroes, indulging the hope that 
as long as their radiant effulgence existed, these names would be 
known to all time, and venerated in all ages. 

So has North Carolina preserved in perpetual memory the name 
of one of her purest patriots and devoted sons. His name is worthy 
of such a country. His example is left to urge us to follow his acts 
of honor and patriotism. 

" And by his light 
Shall every gallant youth with ardor move, 
To do brave deeds." 

Caswell County is situated in the north-western part of North 
Carolina, and forms a beautiful compact square, having the Virginia 

* Vol. i. 


line on the north ; Person County on the east ; Alamance and 
Orange on the south ; and Rockingham County on the west. 

Its capital is Yanceyville, named in compliment to Bartlett 
Yancey (whose services are herein recorded), and distant from 
Raleigh 66 miles. 

Population, 7,081 whites; 7,770 slaves; 418 free negroes ; 12,161 federal 

Products, 78,682 bushels of wheat; 121,885 bushels of oats ; 2,800 bushels 
of rye ; 509,480 bushels of corn ; 3,005,842 pounds of tobacco ; 82,649 pounds 
of cotton ; 8,524 pounds of wool. 

Its climate is salubrious, and its lands fertile. Its revolutionary 
history is connected with Orange. 

Few counties can present citizens whose services are entitled to 
more respect, and whose devotion to the welfare of the State, was 
more sincere than Caswell. 

Many of her sons have gone to other States, iNIississippi, Ala- 
bama, and elsewhere, and whose talents have been shown and vir- 
tues acknowledged by their adopted country by elevating them to 
high and distinguished positions. 

Marmaduke "Williams was one of these. lie was born in Caswell County 
on the Gth of April 1772, married Mrs. Agnes Harris, whose maiden name 
was Payne. 

In 1802 elected to the State Senate, and the next year elected to Con- 
gress to succeed his brother, liobert Williams, who was appointed by 
3Ir. Jefferson, Governor of Mississippi. He remained in Congress until 1809. 
In 1810 he removed to Alabama, Tuscaloosa County, and was a delegate from 
that county to the convention which formed the Constitution. 

In 1832 elected a Judge of Tuscaloosa County. He died on the 29th of Oct. 

The county seat of Caswell is Yanceyville ; and this is associated, too, with 
the name of Bartlett Yancey. Ilis character was one of which his county 
and State may well be proud, and which deserves to be cherished by every 
citizen. Though many of us who have associated with and known this dis- 
tinguished individual, and therefore are too near the Colossus to admire its 
perfect proportions, yet he was a man "worthy of Rome in Eome's beat 
days." Raised by his own energies and exertions to a rank high among his 
fellow-men, with a mind if not naturally overpowering, yet cultivated by edu- 
cation, with a person and manners, "to win golden opinions from all sorts of 
men," his name well deserves to be embalmed by the capital of the county 
in which he lived, by the people whom he served, and among whom he died. 
The regard of his native State has carried this feeling still fiirther, and named 
one of the most beautiful of her trans-montane counties after this distin- 
guished patriot. It will be for some pen more intimately acquainted with 
his private life, to give to his country the earlyaccount of this worthy citizen. 
The writer of this only knew him in the later periods of his public career. 
He was educated at the University of North Carolina, and was for a time, it 
is believed, a tutor in that institution. His first appearance in politics was 
in 1813, as member of Congress, where he served four years. In 1817 he 
was Senator from Caswell County, and he succeeded, as Speaker of that body, 
Hon. John Branch, when the latter was elected governor. From that period 
until his death, in_1828, he was a member of the Senate, and Speaker with 
little or no intermission. Such was his unbounded popularity, that a manu- 
script sketch of this gentleman by Mr. McQueen states that wlien a candidate 
for Congress, he received every vote but one in Caswell County ! As a law- 
yer, he had few equals and no superiors. But it was chiefly while presiding 
as Speaker, for a series of years, of a body that was graced by many of the 


proudest intellectual ornaments of the State, and agitated by some of the most 
important questions of tlie day, that the superiority of Mr. Yancey consisted. 
Early was this talent ^o developed that while a member of the House of Re- 
presentatives in Congress, the Speaker (Mr. Clay), as will appear by refer- 
ence to the Journals, often supplied his place by the substitution of Mr. 
Yancey; and he did not suffer by comparison with that distinguished gen- 
tleman, who, as a Speaker, still stands unrivalled. Combining with great 
energy and quickness, an astuteness of mind, his bland and elegant manners 
render him peculiarly fitted for this station. The duties of this position 
necessarily excluded him from an active participation in discussions on the 
floor. But whenever occasion called for it, the Senate resolved itself into a 
committee of the whole, and his splendid ability, his cogent reasoning and 
thrilling eloquence were ever ready for his country's welfare. He was a 
most energetic and powerful debater. Blessed with a manly person, an ob- 
servant and active mind, a well-regulated and harmonious voice, therewas a 
resistless impetuosity and vehemence in his efforts that bore down like an 
avalanche every opposition. The present Supreme Court system, the order 
and regularity of the Treasury and Comptroller's departments of the State, 
the various acts regulating the Internal Improvement of the State, and 
many other public measures, received an impulse and support from him 
that secured their success. His death, which occurred while elected a mem- 
ber of the Senate (in 1828), so unexpected, caused a sensation throughout the 
whole State which, even at this distant day, is painfully remembered. All 
eyes had been turned to him as the appropriate successor to Gov. Branch in 
the Senate of the United States. Of such a son, Caswell may well be proud. 

Hon. Jacob Thompson, at present a member of Congress from the State of 
Mississippi, is a native son of Caswell. 

He was educated at our University, and graduated in 1831, and for a time 
was a tutor in the institution. 

In 1839, he was elected to Congress from his adopted State, and has 
continued ever since. Although his talents and services are devoted to 
another State, North Carolina and Caswell are proud of her son. 

Hon. Bedford Browx was born in Caswell, in 1795. His first appearance 
in public life, was in the year 1815, as member of the House of Commons, 
from Caswell. His colleague was Hon. R. M. Saunders, in the_ Commons ; 
both distingnished in after life, and competitors for same political honors. 
Mr. Brown entered public life at an interesting and eventful period of our 
country's history. The war with Great Britain that our country was then 
engaged in, divided parties in angry and acrimonious collision. Mr.Brown 
took a prominent stand for the administration and the war, and at this early 
age evinced that prominent trait in his character, of indomitable firmness 
and unconquerable tenacity to his principles. 

He served many years in both Houses of the General Assembly, and m 
1829, was elected to the Senate of the United States by one vote. He served 
in this exalted position with so much satisfaction, at a most excited period 
of public affairs, that he was again elected to this important office, which he 
resigned under instructions from the General Assembly. 

In 1842, he was again a member of the General Assembly, as Senatprfrom 
Caswell, and was a candidate for the Senate of the United States. After an 
animated and angry contest, which terminated in the election of Mr. Hay- 
wood, Mr. Brown withdrew from public life. He removed to Missouri, then 
returned to North Carolina, and is now at or near Baltimore, in Maryland, 
superintending the education of his children. 

To the same session of the General Assembly in which Mr. Brown first ap- 
peared (1815), Hon. Romulus Mitchell Saunders was elected. Mr. Saunders 
has been ever since on the stage of public action. 

He was born in Caswell County, in March, 1791 ; son of William Saunders, 
an officer of the Revolution. He was educated at Hyco and Caswell Academy, 
and was two years at the University. Studied law with Hon. Hugh Lawsoa 


"White, of Tennessee, and was licensed to practice in that State in 1812. He 
returned to Xorth Carolina, and was elected to the House of Commons in 
1815, to 1820, and was Speaker of the House in 1819 and 1820. 

In 1821, he was elected member of Congress, and served until 1827. 

The demands of a young and rising family requiring his attention to his 
profession, he was not a candidate for re-election, but turned his whole time 
aud attention to his profession. 

In 1828, he was elected Attorney-General of the State. 

In 1833, he was appointed by the President one of the Board of Commis- 
sioners to decide and allot the amounts due citizens of the United States for 
injuries by France, as settled by Treaty of 4th of July, 1831. 

Here it was the fortune of the Author of these sketches to be associated with 
General Saunders on this commission, and it cannot be improper to record 
the facts of the manner in which these important duties were discharged. 

This was a most important commission. The amount to be distributed, as 
secured by treaty, was twenty-five millions of francs ; it was to be distributed 
among thousands of claimants. Hon. Geo. W. Campbell, of Tennessee, late 
member of Congress, Minister Plenipotentiary to Russia, and Secretary of 
Treasury, and Hon. John K. Kane, now U. S. Judge of Pennsylvania, were 
his colleagues. 

The first legal talents of the nation appeared before this Board as Advo- 
cates ; among them were Daniel Webster, Chancellor Kent, Francis Key, 
and David B. Ogden. Such were the patient and laborious habits of General 
Saunders, the acumen of his intellect aud the clearness of his decisions, that 
he won for himself the respect and esteem of all in this arduous duty. 

In 1835, he was elected by the Legislature Judge of the Superior Courts, 
which he resigned in 18-40, "on being nominated as the Democratic candidate 
for Governor. The heat and ardor of this political campaign will be long 
remembered. Judge Saunders shared the fortunes and fate of his party, and 
was defeated by John M. Morehead, Esq. 

In 1841, he was again elected to Congress, and he served until 1845. 

In 1846, he was appointed by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States to 
Spain, where he remained until 1850, when he was recalled at his own request. 
He was the second person in North Carolina (General William R. Davie being 
the first) who ever received such a distinguished mark of high honor at the 
hands of the Federal Government. 

He returned home in October, 1849. As an evidence of the confidence of 
his country while abroad, and the respect of the President, he was intrusted 
Avith a special commission to negotiate on the subject of Cuba, now the object 
of much interest to the country. 

In 1850, he was elected a member of the House of Commons from Wake, in 
which capacity he served last session. 

He has taken a decided aud active part in the Railroad Improvements of 
the State, and by his ardor and ability contributed much to their success. 

To another age and at another day these data may afford material to the 
historian and biographer. No elfort is made to extract from the various 
speeches of Judge Saunders, or allude to various questions of public policy 
or principles that he had advocated or opposed. But justice and truth, when 
divested of all bias or prejudice must say, that his character is worthy of the 
State, and his services have contributed to her elevation aud honor. 

Many other names connected with Caswell might be alluded to, and in 
another edition may be referred to. 

The following are tlie members of the General Assembly from 
Caswell county, from 1777 to 1851. 

years. Senate. House of Commons. 

1778. Dempsey Moore, John Atkinson, Richard Moore. 

1782. Dempsey Moore, David Shelton, Robert Dickens. 



Years. Senate. 

1785. Dempsey INIoore, 

178G. Dempsey Moore, 

1788. Robert Payne, 

1791. Robert Dickens, 

1792. James Williamson, 

1793. John Williams, 

1794. John Williams, 

1795. John Williams, 

1796. Wynn Dickson, 

1797. Wynn Dickson, 

1800. Samuel Morton, 

1801. Samuel Morton, 

1802. Marmaduke Williams, 

1803. Samuel Morton, 

1804. Samuel Morton, 

1805. Azariah Graves, 

1806. A. Graves, 

1807. A. Graves, 

1808. A. Graves, 

1809. A. Graves, 

1810. A. Graves, 

1811. A. Graves, 

1812. Nathanial Williams, 

1813. N. Williams, 

1814. B. Graves, 

1815. B. Graves, 
1817. Bartlett Yancey, 
1819. B. Yancey, 

1821. B. Yancey, 

1822. B. Yancey, 

1823. B. Yancey, 

1825. B.Yancey, 

1826. B. Yancey, 

1827. B. Yancey, 

1828. Bedford Brown, 

1829. B. Brown, 

1830. James Kerr, 

1831. J. Kerr, 

1832. J. Kerr, 

1833. J. Kerr, 

1834. J. Kerr, 

1835. J. Kerr, 

House of Commons. 
Robert Dickens, Adam Sanders. 
Adam Sanders, Robert Dickens. 
Benjamin Douglass, John Graves. 
James Williamson, John Graves. 
John Graves, David Shelton. 
•John Graves, David Shelton. 
Gabriel Lea, William Parks. 
Solomon Graves, David Burfort. 
Robert Blackwell, Solomon Graves. 
Robert Blackwell, Solomon Graves. 
James Yancey, Richard Simpson. 
James Yancey, John McAden. 
John McAden, James Yancey. 
James Yancey, Young McAden. 
Richard Hornbuckle, Laurence Lea. 
Richard Hornbuckle, John McMullen. 
James Burton, John McMullen. 
J. Burton, James Yancey. 
J. Yancey, James Burton. 
Isaac Rainey, Nathaniel Williams. 
Isaac Rainey, Nathaniel Williams. 

James Yancey, Isaac Rainey. 

Samuel Dabney, James Rainey. 

Quinten Anderson, B. Graves. 

Isaac Rainey, John P. Harrison. 

Romulus M. Saunders, Bedford Brown. 

B. Brown, R. M. Saunders. 

R. M. Saunders, B. Graves. 

Quinten Anderson, B. Graves. 

James Yancey, B. Graves. _ 

Bedford Brown. James Rainey. 

John E. Lewis, Charles D. Donoho. 

John E. Lewis, C. D. Donoho. 

John E. Lewis, C. D. Donoho. 

James H. Ruffin, James Kerr. 

John Wilson, James Kerr. 

Littleton A. Gwinn, Stephen Dodson. 

L. A. Gwinn, John F. Garland. 

Barzillai Graves, L.'A. Gwinn. 

John E. Brown, Stephen Dodson. 

J. E. Brown, L. A. Gwinn. 

L. A. Gwinn, Stephen Dodson. 

(The delegates to the Convention to amend the Constitution, in June, 1835, 
were William A. Lea and Calvin Graves.) 

1836. J. Kerr, 

1838. James Kerr, 

1840. James Kerr, 

1842. Bedford Brown, 

1844. L. A. Gwynn, 

1846. Calvin Graves, 

1848. Calvin Graves, 

1850. George Williamson, 

L. A. Gwynn, William A. Lea. 
Levi Walker, L. A. Gwinn. 
Calvin Graves, Levi Walker. 
Calvin Graves, Levi Walker. 
Calvin Graves, J. K. Lea. 
John B. McMullen. 
John B. McMullen, Richard Jones. 
Samuel P. Hill, D. S. Johnson. 




Catawba County was formed in 1842 from Lincoln County, and 
derives its name from the riyer which forms its northern and east- 
ern boundaries. ' .: -'■ ■ 

It is located in the north-western portion of the State, and 
bounded on the north by the Catawba River, which separates it 
from Caldwell County; on the east by the Catawba River, which 
separates it from Iredell County ; on the south by Lincoln ; and on 
the west by Burke. 

Its population is 7,272 whites; 1,5G9 slaves; 21 free negroes; and 8,234 
federal population. 

Its revolutionary history is connected with Lincoln County, its 
separation from which caused an angry political animosity, which 
time we trust has removed. It is blessed with a most healthful cli- 
mate, fertile lands, and every advantage to nourish a useful and 
intelligent population. 

Its county seat is Neivton^ that sprung up only as on yesterday, 
and has a commodious Court House, and other Public Buildings ; 
many stores and handsome private residences ; 175 miles from Ra- 
leigh. Its inhabitants are distinguished for their industry and in- 

For her representatives, as she votes with Lincoln until after the 
session of 1852, see Lincoln County. 

Hon. Henry W. Conner resides in Catawba County, on the Catawba River. 
He was born in Prince George County, Virginia, in August 1793. Educated 
at the University of South Carolina, at Columbia, at which institution he 
graduated in 1812. In 1814 he entered the army as Aide-de-camp to General 
Jos. Graham, and marched with the detachment of troops to the Creek Na- 

In 1821 he was elected to Congress and served continuously until 1841 ; 
when he declined a re-election. Major Conner is a disciple of the Macon 
school of politics. He was a member of the Senate of the General Assembly 
in 1848 ; after which he declined all public honors and public service. He 
married in 1839 Lucy, the daughter of the late Governor Hawkins, who left 
him for a bettter world in 1849. 




Date of formation, origin of name— Population and products— Capital— Revo- 
lutionary history — Regulators— The character, exploits, and death of David 
Fannen— The character of James F. Taylor, Attorney-General of North 
Carolina and a native of Chatham— Abraham Rencher — John D. Toomer 
and others — List of members of Assembly. 

Chatham County was formed in 1770, and called in compliment of that 
distinguished English statesman and orator William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 
whose talents and eloquence were displayed in the British Parliament in^de- 
fence of the rights of America. He was a son of Robert Pitt, born in_1708, 
elevated at the early age of twenty-one to be Premier of England. His last 
forensic display was in defence of America, when he was carried in the House 
of Lords on a couch, and there, in all the resistless power of his mighty 
intellect, in the music and majesty of his eloquent voice, he portrayed the 
deep and burning injustice of 'England, and the crying wrongs of suffering 
America. He died in 1778, not until he told our oppressors t<) their teeth 
that he rejoiced that America had resisted, and predicted the brilliant career 
that awaited her, and the destiny which she has since fulfilled. His speeches 
are among the best specimens of oratory in our language. Worthily is his 
name preserved in this intelligent portion of our State. 

Chatham County, situated near the centre of the State, is bounded 
on the north by ALamance and Orange ; on the east by Wake and 
a small portion of Cumberland ; on the south by Moore ; and west 
by Randolph. 

Its capital is Pittsboro', 34 miles west of Raleigh. 

Its population is 12,164 whites ; 5,985 slaves ; 300 free negroes ; 16,055 
representative population. 

Its products are 94,342 bushels wheat; 93,368 bushels oats; 446,708 
bushels of corn ; 536,886 pounds of tobacco ; 399,728 pounds of cotton ; 1000 
pounds of iron; 500 dollars worth of lumber. 

The immediate cause of the division of Orange at the time (1770) 
into Chatham, Wake and Guilford, was the troubles of the regu- 
lation in this section. The feeling of resistance to the crown offi- 
cers from their extortionary and oppressive conduct, is already 
recorded in the chapter on Alamance, to which the reader is re- 
ferred ; Governor Tryon resorted to the plan of dividing this region, 
so that the people would not so often congregate at one point. 

Its early history is connected with these troubles, and a full re- 
cord of which the chapters on Alamance and Orange present, and 
renders any further allusion here unnecessary. 

In the Revolutionary struggle of our country Chatham did her 


To the meeting of delegates at Ilillsboro' on 21st August, 1775, there ap- 
peared as members from Chatham, Elisha Cain, Richard Kexxox, Mat- 
thew Jones, Jeduthax Harper, Johx Birdsong, Ambrose Ramsay, Joseph 
RossER, Robert Rutherford, Johx Thompson, and Wm. Clark. 

This body appointed as Field Officers for Chatham, Ambrose Ramsay, Colo- 
nel ; Jeduthax Harper, Liutenant-Colonel ; Mial Scurlock, Major; Elisha 
Caix, 2d Major. 

At the Congress held at Halifax on the 12th November, 1776, which 
formed our State Constitution, the members from Chatham County were : — 
Ambrose Ramsay, Johx Birdsoxg, Mial Scurlock, Isaiah Hogax, and Je- 
duthax Harper. 

These men have all gone — their names are here recorded '; but 
their lives, services, and death beyond this record are unknown. It 
is to be hoped that some friend of Chatham will collect some me- 
mento worthy of their fame. Men are like the summer cloud, that 
the breath of evening wafts away. But patriotic acts and heroic 
services are not thus transient. A grateful country delights to 
cherish the recollection and record of their deeds, and inscribe their 
names on her monuments. 

There lived in Chatham a man notorious for his marauding dis- 
position, his fearless and active temper, his dark and dangerous 
services against the cause of liberty. 

While we preserve the names of the philanthropist and patriot, 
duty compels us to describe others whose conduct has marked 
them with ignominy, and whose names deserve execration. This is 
but just. Indiscriminate eulogy is as illy applied to a nation as 
to individuals. 

History informs us that when Cromwell was about to sit for his 
portrait to Sir Peter Lely, the painter of the age, he peremptorily 
told him, "Paint me as I am." So commands North CaroKna 
to any who attempts to describe her history or that of her sons. 

David Fanxex was born about 1754 in Wake County. He was appren- 
ticed to a carpenter or loom maker. In 1778 he moved to Chatham. The 
occupation of Wilmington by the British under Colonel Craig oflfered other 
prospects to his ambitious views. He was distinguished for his marauding 
exploits, and one of the earliest sufferers from his violence and rapacity was 
Charles Shearing, on Deep River, to whose house he went in the night, and 
shot him as he ran from the house. His energy of character was appre- 
ciated by the British authorities. He was appointed a Colonel of the Loyal 
militia. An old Tory, by the name of Lindsy, gave him a mare called Red Doe, 
whose blood even to this day is highly prized. Major Craig at Wilmington 
presented him with a uniform, and pair of pistols and holsters. An interest- 
ing event is recorded, by which he lost "the Red Doe" and his pistols. An 
active and zealous Whig named Hunter, afterwards of South Carolina, was 
taken by this ferocious bandit and his myrmidons. He was sentenced to be 
hanged. The rope was around his neck. Fannen rode up and dismounted 
to witness his execution, leaving his mare standing near. In an instant, the 
prisoner threw off the rope, and leaped on the back of the noble steed. The 
guard seized their arms, and Fannen orders them to " fire high" to save his 
mare. Hunter escaped with a shot in his shoulder, but the " Red Doe" and 
the holsters were his booty. 

When Cornwallis raised the royal standard at Hillsboro' (Feb. 1781), Fan- 
nen was a terror to the whole country. The daring of his enterprises, the 


cruelty of his conduct, and his success, excite our admiration for this bold, 
bad man, much braver than and equally base as his more polished namesake 
of Orange County. His forces, with Col. Hector McNeill and Ray, were be- 
tween 600 and 1,000 men. 

Among his earliest successes was the capture of Col. Philip Alston at his 
house in Chatham with a few followers. 

On 18th July, 1781, he made a descent upon a court-martial at Pittsboro', 
and took the officers prisoners, and carried them to Wilmington. 

On 14th August, 1781, he entered Campbellton (now Fayetteville), and 
carried off Col. Ennett, Captain Winslow and others. 

On 1st September following, a battle was fought at McFalFs mill, on the 
Raft Swamp, between him and the friends of liberty. On the 13th he and 
McNeill entered Hillsboro', then the seat of government, seized the Go- 
vernor of the State (Thomas Burke), and other prominent Whigs, and pro- 
ceeded with the utmost rapidity to Wilmington. General Butler endeavored 
to intercept them with a superior force, and did so at Lindley's Mills on 
Cane Creek, where an engagement took place on the following day, Fan- 
nen was severely wounded, but retreated with his prisoners, whom he de- 
livered to Major Craig at Wilmington. 

In 1782 Fannen made his way to Charleston, and from thence retreated 
to Nova Scotia, where he died in 1825. * 

James Fauntelroy Taylor was a native of Chatham County. He was a 
son of Captain Philip Taylor, of the revolutionary army. He was born July, 
1791. His early education was conducted by Wm. Bingham, in Orange County. 
He graduated at Chapel Hill in 1810 ; studied law with Chief Justice Taylor ; 
licensed in 1812; elected a member of the House of Commons from Wake 
County in 1823 ; elected Attorney-General in 1825 ; and died June, 1828, 
leaving a widow and several children; one of whom (the only son), is the 
present Librarian of the State, at Raleigh, and one of the daughters, wife of 
Perrin Busbee, Esq., of Raleigh. 

Mr. Taylor was blessed with a clear, discriminating intellect, improved by 
all the advantages of the age. His talents were of a high order, and duly 
appreciated by his country. In the administration of the criminal law, 
while the guilty had nothing to hope, the oppressed and innocent had no- 
thing to fear. He was loved by all who knew him for his generous and social 
qualities, and had his career not terminated at so early an age, it would have 
been brilliant to his own fame and useful to the State. When the cruel 
hand of death enters and destroys such bright prospects and glowing hopes, 
we feel, with Burke, " the vanity of all earthly pursuits, and what shadows 
we are, and what shadows we pursue." 

Hox. Charles Manly is a native of Chatham ; graduated at the University 
in 1814 ; studied law with the late Robert Williams, whom he succeeded as 
Treasurer of the University. He was for a long time Reading Clerk of the 
House of Commons. 

In 1845, he was elected Governor, and, in 1849, defeated by the Hon. David 
Settle Reid. 

Hon. Abraham Rencher is a resident of Chatham County. 

He graduated at Chapel Hill, in 1822 ; elected a member of Congress in 
1829, and served continuously until 1839 ; elected again in 1841. 

In 1843, he was appointed Charge d' Affaires from the United States to 
Portugal, where he resided for several years, discharging his duties with 
satisfaction to the government and honor and credit to himself. 

* I am indebted to a letter from the Hon. David L. Swain to Dr. Johnson, of Charleston, 
for the facts relative to this man. I have had very many reasons to thank Gov. Swain for 
his liberality and kindness, and for a friendship (commenced in 1827 in Judge Taylor's 
law office), which has contmued to this day. In gratitude for this uninterrupted friend- 
ship, the many acts of kindness, and a high esteem for his talents and his worth, I have 
dedicated mv work to him. 



Hon. John D. Toomer resides in Chatham, for a sketch of whom the reader 
is referred to Cumberland County. 

Hugh McQueen is a native of Chatham, and represented her several years 
in both branches of the Legislature ; member of the Convention in 1835 ; 
Attorney-General in 1840, which he resigned in 1842. lie removed to Texas 
soon after, and took a distinguished part in the struggles for liberty. 

John S. Guthrie, now dead, was a native and resident of Chatham, and 
represe^ed her for many years in the Legislature. Of him, one may say, as 


" Alas, poor Yorick ! 
I knew him well, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest, 
Of most excellent fancy." 

Nature had done much for him ; education but little ; he, himself, much less. 
There might be other names recorded in these sketches connected with 
Chatham, but our limits require precision ; another edition may extend the 
notices of this patriotic county and her sons. 

Members of the General Assembly from Chatham County, from 
the first session under the Constitution to the last session 1850-51. 

Years. Senators. 

1777. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1778. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1779. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1780. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1781. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1782. William B. Smith, 

1783. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1784. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1785. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1786. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1787. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1788. Ambrose Ramsay, 

1789. George Lucas, 

1790. Joseph Stewart, 

1791. Joseph Stewart, 

1792. Joseph Stewart, 

1793. Joseph Stewart, 

1794. Joseph Stewart, 

1795. Joseph Stewart, 

1796. Lemuel Smith, 

1797. George Lucas, 

1798. Joseph Stewart, 

1799. James Gaines, 

1800. James Gaines, 

1801. Lemuel Smith, 

1802. Joseph J. Alston, 

1803. Joseph J. Alston, 

1804. William Brantley, 

1805. William Brantley, 

1806. Winship Stedman, 

1807. John Farrar, 

1808. John Farrar, 

1809. Roderick Gotten, 

1810. Micajah McGee, 

1811. Roderick Gotten, 

1812. Micajah McGee, 

1813. John Farrar, 

House of Commons. 
Alexander Clark, John Birdson. 
Alexander Clark, James Williams. 
Jeduthan Harper, John Lutrcll. 
Mial Scurlock, James Williams. 
James Williams, John Ledhill. 
James Williams, John Ledhill. 
Matthew Jones, Richard Hennon. 
Elisha Cain, Joseph Stewart. 
Joseph Stewart, Roger Griffith. 
James Anderson, Joseph Stewart. 
James Anderson, Joseph Stewart. 
James Anderson, Joseph Stewart. 
James Anderson, Joseph Stewart. 
James Anderson, John Mebane. 
John Mebane, James Anderson. 
James Anderson, John Mebane. 
George Lucas, John Mebane. 
George Lucas, John Dabney. 
John Mebane, Mial Scurlock. 
John Dabney, Thomas Stokes. 
Thomas Stokes, John Dabney. 
George Lucas, John Mebane. 
John Dabney, John Mebane. 
James Alston, John Mebane. 
John Dabney, John Mebane. 
George Dismukes, John Dabney. 
John Mebane, John Dabney. 
John Farrar, Andrew Headen. 
John Farrar, William O'Kclly. 
Andrew Headen, John Fai-rar. 
John Mebane, Andrew Headen. 
John Mebane, Andrew Headen. 
John Mebane, Charles Kennon. 
Mark Bynum, Nathan Stedman. 
Andrew Headen, John Mebane. 
Mark Bynum, William O'Kelly. 
Bartholomew Lightfoot, John B. Mebane. 



Years. Senators. 

1814. Andrew Ileaden, 

1815. John Farrar, 

1816. John Farrar, 

1817. John Farrar, 

1818. William O'Kellv, 

1819. John Farrar, 

1820. Jesse Bray, 

1822. Jesse Bray, 

1823. Robert Marsh, 

1824. Robert Marsh, 

1825. Robert Marsh, 

1826. Robert Marsh, 

1827. Joseph Ramsay, 

1828. Joseph Ramsay, 

1829. Joseph Ramsay, 

1830. Joseph Ramsay, 

1831. William Reneber, 

1832. Nathan A. Stedman, 

1833. Nathan A. Stedman, 

1834. Hugh McQueen, 

1835. Hugh McQueen, 

1836. William Albright, 

1838. William Albright, 

1840. William Albright, 

1842. William Albright, 

1844. William Albright, 

1846. AVilliam Albright, 

1848. William Albright, 

1850. J. H. Ilaughton, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
John A. Ramsay, William O'Kelly. 
John A. Ramsav, William O'Kelly. 
William O'Kelly, Richard C. Gotten. 
Richard C. Gotten, John J. Alston. 
Richard C. Gotten, John A. Ramsay. 
Thomas Hill, John A. Ramsay. 
Richard Freeman, James C. Barbee. 
W. G. Gotten, W. Underwood. 
William Underwood, A. Ramsay. 
Ambrose K. Ramsay, William Underwood. 
William Underwood, J. J. Brooks. 
Ambrose K. Ramsay, Thomas Hill. 
Nathaniel G. Smith, Nathan A. Stedman. 
Nathaniel G. Smith, Joseph J. Brooks. 
Joseph J. Brooks, Hugh McQueen. 
Nathaniel G. Smith, Joseph J. Brooks. 
Joseph J. Brooks, Hugh McQueen. 
John S. Guthrie, Hugh McQueen. 
R. C. Gotten, .John S. Guthrie. 
R. C. Gotten, William Foushee. 
R. G. Gotten, John S. Guthrie. 
Spencer McGlennahan, John S. Guthrie, 

Richard C. Gotten. 
Spencer McGlennahan, John S. Guthrie. 

R. G. Gotten. 
Spencer McGlennahan, John S. Guthrie, 

Isaac Glegg. 
John S. Guthrie, Thomas Lassiter, John J. 

D. Hackny, J. H. Haughton, J. S. Guthrie. 
Daniel Ilackny, Thomas Lassiter, Maurice 

Q. Waddle. 
Daniel Hackny, McGlennahan, Headen. 
R. G. Gotten, Dan. Hackny, G. M. Brazier. 



CnEROKEE County was formed in 1839, from Macon County. 
Its name is derived from the tribe of Indians who once owned a 
part of this county. 

It is situated in the extreme south-western part of the State, and 
bounded on the north by White Mountain, which separates it 
from Tennessee and the County of Macon, on the east by Macon 
County, south by the Georgia line, and west by Tennessee. 

Its capital is 3Iurphj^ named in compliment to the Hon. Archi- 
bald D. Murphy, once a Judge of our Superior Court, and for whose 
biography reference is made to Orange County, of which he was a 


resident. Distance from Raleigh, three hundred and sixty-seven 

This region of country is picturesque and beautifuh The early 
traditions of the aborigines in this region, have been preserved in 
the pleasant fiction of Oneguskee, written by the Hon. Robert 

Its population is 6,493 whites ; 337 slaves ; 8 free negroes ; 6,703 represent- 
ative population. 

Its products are 2,760 bushels of wheat; 12,787 bushels of oats; 1,203 
bushels of rye ; 167,167 bushels of corn ; 1,075 dollars in gold. 

By the act of 1840, Cherokee, Haywood, and Macon Counties, 
form the fiftieth Senatorial District. Her senators were — 1844 and 
1846, Michael Francis ; 1848 and 1850, Wm. H. Thomas. 

Ever since Cherokee has had a representative in the General 
Assembly, that honor has been conferred on George W. Hayes, 
whose indefatigable exertions, untiring energy and abilities have 
greatly contributed to her advancement and relief. 



Date of formation — Origin of name — Situation and boundaries — Capital, 
Edenton — Population and products — Climate and soil — Colonial and revo- 
lutionary history — Its distinguished citizens — Samuel Johnston, Hugh Wil- 
liamson, James Iredell, Sen., James Iredell, Jr., Stephen Cabarrus, Joseph 
Hewes and others — Members of Legislature. 

Chowan County was one of the original precincts of the Lords 
Proprietors, under charter of King Charles II., and derives its name 
from the tribe of Indians, Chowanokes, who once owned and in- 
habited this territory. 

It is situated in the north-eastern part of the State ; bounded on 
the north by Gates County, on the east by Perquimans, on the 
south by the Albemarle Sound, and on the west by the Chowan 
River, which separates it from Gates and Hertford Counties. 

Its capital is Edenton, named in compliment after Charles Eden, 
the royal Governor of the Province in 1720. He died in 1722, 
and lies buried in Bertie County. A sketch of Governor Eden has 
been already written, and will be found in vol. i. page 39. 

This ancient borough was settled in 1716, which was originally 
called Queen Anne's Creek. 

Its population is 2,944 white ; 104 free negroes; 3,673 slaves; 5,251 federal 

Its products are 15,349 bushels of wheat ; 13,962 bushels of oats ; 282,209 


bushels of corn ; 1,207,297 pounds of cotton ; 2,681 pounds of wool; 18,455 
barrels of fish ; 624 barrels of turpentine. 

About five miles south-east of Edenton, about one hundred yards from 
Albemarle Sound, are the graves of Henderson AValker, and others, from 
whose tombs the following is copied. 

"Here lies ye body of Henderson Walker, Esq., President of ye Council, 
and Commander-in-chief of North Carolina; during whose administration ye 

Srovince enjoyed that tranquillity which it is to be wished it may never want. 
[e departed this life, 14th April, 1704, aged 44 years."_ 
On another grave near, is a stone with the following inscription : — 
" Here lies ye body of Madam Anne Mosely, wife of Edward Mosely, Esq. 
She was ye daughter of Major Alexander LiUington, Esq., and ye widow of 
the Hon. Henderson Walker, Esq., late President of his Majesty's Council in 
North Carolina. She departed this life, November 18th, Anno Domini, 1732, 
aged 55 years and 5 months." 

The ancient records of the Court at Edenton are of great Interest. They 
are filed in the Superior Court Clerk's office. These records are well written, 
containing four hundred and twenty-five pages. From these it appears that 
the courts for Carolina, north of Cape Fear, were first held at the house of 
Capt. John Hecklefield, 28th Oetoljer, 1712, on Little River; then in March, 
1715, at the house of Capt. Richard Sanderson ; and on the 27th March, 1722, 
at Edenton ; Christopher Gale, Chief Justice, and seven assistants presiding. 

Seth Sothel, who was Governor of North Carolina in 1683, resided in 
this county. His character reflects no credit upon his memory. It is refer- 
red to in vol. i. 31. 

Ilis will is extant.* The first item "gives to his loving friend Francis 
Hartly, the plantation on which he lived for the term of four years, and two 
thirds of his seignory, bounded on Flatty Creek, and Pasquotank River, for 
the term of the lives of said Hartly, after the decease of his wife, Anna 

lie gives, in the second item, "to Edward Forster.his father-in-law, his plan- 
tation at Cuscopenum, and thirty head of cattle, and a negro man. He gives, 
in the third item, William Duckeutield, AVilliam AVilkinson, and Henderson 
Walker, five pounds each, to buy a good mourning ring. He gives, in the 
fourth item, Edward Wald the plantation whereon Thomas Edwards now 
lives, on Little River, for his life, and, after his death, to Anna Sothel." 

In the fifth item, he gives "all the remainder of his estate, goods, and 
chattels, to Anna Sothel forever, and appoints her whole and sole executor 
of his will." 

The will is dated January 20th, 1689, and witnessed by Wm. Wilkinson, 
Henderson Walker, John Lowds, William AVobland, and Sarah AVoblaud, and 
proved in Court 3d February, 1693. 

The personal estate was appraised on the 9th July, 1695, and delivered to 
Thomas Pollock, and consisted of a negro man valued at £40 ; an Indian 
woman and child, £15 ; an Indian boy, =£12; 21 bushels salt, at 3s., £3 os. ; 
1 gun, at £1; 203 pounds nails at £1: 100 sheep, at £40; 300 pounds of 
tobacco, at £1 5.v. ; bed and bolster, £2; 97 dressed buckskins, £9 166-. ; 126 
dressed doeskins, £9 95. ; 50 pounds gunpowder, £3 15s. ; rum, 2s. 6f?. in 
counfy pay. 

Until July, 1680, all accounts in the colony were kept in tobacco. 

The beautiful sheet of w^ater in front of Edenton preserves the 
name of General George jMonk, Duke of Albejiarle ; whose efforts 
restored Charles the Second to his crown and kingdom, and who 

* In the office of Secretary of State at Kaleigh, " rroceedings of the General Court of 
Albemarle, from Nov. 1709 to 1712;" l;ouiid in parchment. I am indebted to the kindness of 
the Hon. David L. Swain for this. 


was one of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina. He was born 1608. 
He was originally a soldier of fortune in the royal army of Charles 
the First ; he deserted him and offered his services to Cromwell, and 
on his death contributed to restore Charles the Second. Pepys, a 
cotemporary, styles him " as a dull heavy man, who will not hinder 
but cannot aid business. He took advantage of circumstances 
to make his fortune and gratify his passion for power and place. 
He cared nothing for his country, but only for himself."* He had 
some pretensions to literature, and wrote on political and military 
subjects. He died in 1670. 

From an old custom house book now in the possession of J. M. 
Jones, Esq., of Edenton, it appears that in July 1T68 the ship 
Amelia cleared hence with an assorted cargo, among which were 
"three bags of cotton." 

The climate is mild, but in the fall unhealthy. The winter is 
generally mild, but sometimes severe. The Albemarle Sound in 
1772 was completely frozen over.f 

The early history of Chowan is full of incident, and with a 
biography of its distinguished citizens presents an inviting field of 
itself for a volume of interest and information. Will not some 
able hand enter the field, reap its rich products, and garner up a 
harvest "so fair, so bright, and so full of goodly fruit?" 

The devotion of her sons to the cause of liberty is worthy of 
our admiration and regard. 

To the general meeting of deputies of the inhabitants of North Carolina 
at Newbern on 25th August, 1774, (the first assembly of the people adverse 
to the royal authority,) the members from Chowan were Samuel Johnson, 
Thomas Oldham, Thomas Benbury, Thomas Jones, and Thomas Hunter. 

The same appeared at Newbern in April 1775, and at Hillsboro' at the 
meeting on 21st August, 1775: the same appeared with James Blount, and 

Josiah Grandberry. , . , ^ , , o. X 

In the Congress at Halifax 12th November, 1/ /6, which formed the btate 
Constitution, the delegates were James Blount, Thomas Benbury, Thomas 
Jones, Luke Sumner, and Jacob Hunter. 

The patriotism of the men was even exceeded by that of the women. 

By some strange freak of circumstance many years ago, there was found 
at Gibraltar, a beautiful picture, done in a skillful style enameled on glass, "a 
meeting of the ladies of Edenton destroying the tea (their favorite beverage) 
when taxed by the English Parliament." This picture was procured by some 
of the officers of our Navy, and was sent to Edenton, where I saw it in 1830. 

The following record is" extracted from the American Archives (4th series, 
vol. i. 891). 

" Edenton, North Carolina, 

" 2bth Oct., 1774. 

" As we cannot be indifferent on any occasion that appears to affect the 
peace and happiness of our country, and as it has been thought necessary for 
the public good to enter into several particular resolves by a meeting of the 
members of" the deputies from the whole province, it is a duty we owe, not 
only to our near and dear relations and connections, but to ourselves, who 
are essentially interested in their welfare, to do everything as far as lies iu 

* Bancroft, ii. 29. t Williamson, i. 177. 


our power to testify our sincere adherence to the same ; we therefore do ac- 
cordinglj^ subscribe this paper as a witness of our fixed intention and solemn 

■ " Signed by fifty-six ladies." 

Samuel Johnstox, who resided and died in Chowan, was a native of Scot- 
land. He AYas as distinguished for his amiable virtues as for his zeal in the 
cause of liberty. 

He was a member from Chowan County in 1775 to the General Meeting at 
Xewbern. He, on the death of John Harvey, succeeded as Moderator of 
this assembly, and was the President of the Provincial Council. This officer 
was the actual Governor of the State in the interregnum between the abdica- 
tion of Governor Martin, the last of the royal governors, and the accession of 
Governor Caswell under the Constitution. He was present at Halifax during 
the deliberations of the Convention which formed the Constitution, although 
not a member, took a deep interest in the momentous questions before that 
body, and contributed by his genius, talents, and influence, to preserve its 
conservative character. It is wonderful that the Constitution then formed 
was so free from objection, as that it should remain nearly sixty years un- 
touched or altered. North Carolina was the first State to declare her indepen- 
dence, so her State Constitution was among the earliest formed. Xo other 
State had made landmarks as a guide in this new and untried journey. Just 
bursting from the shackles of the aristocratic forms of the English Govern- 
ment, new questions arose that demanded the sagacity and prudence of the 
most experienced statesman. The views of Samuel Johnston were eminently 
conservative. He was opposed to many features of the Constitution, as at 
first reported. He viewed the departure too great from the principles of the 
English Government, and considered the unbridled will of the people as 
dangerous to true liberty, as the tyranny of an irresponsible monarch. He 
opposed vehemently the clause giving to the people the election of Justices of 
the Peace. Had he lived to this day and viewed the working of our system, 
time and experience might have modified his views. 

In 1780 he was elected a member of the Continental Congress which as- 
sembled at Philadelphia, and served until 1782. 

He was elected governor in 17!S7. He was the unqualified admirer of the 
Federal Constitution, and was President of the Convention, while Governor 
of the State, which met at Hillsboro' 21st July 1788, to consider the Constitu- 
tion, and by Avhich body it was rejected; and also of the Convention which 
met at Fayetteville Nov. 1789, which ratified that instrument. 

He was the first Senator from North Carolina in 1789, and served until 
1793. He was appointed Judge of the Superior Court in February 1800, 
■which he resigned in November 1803. 

After enjoying every honor that the State could heap upon him, he volun- 
tarily resigned all public employment, deeming what the wise soldier of 
Charles V., when he resigned his commission, declared so necessary, "Aliqidd 
tempus inferesse debet vitam mortem que," and peacefully departed this life in 
the year 1816.* 

He left one son, James C. Johxstox, Esq., of Edenton. His sister Hannah 
married Hon. James Iredell, whose biography we shall presently ofi'er. 

Hugh Williamsox was a member of the House of Commons in 1782, from 
the borough of Edenton, and again from the county in 1785. Elected by 
the Colonial Congress a member of the Continental Congress in 1782, and 
served until 1785 ; and again in 1787, and served until 1788. He was 
selected in 1787 as a delegate from North Carolina to the Convention which 
formed the Federal Constitution, to which instrument, his name (with Wil- 
liam Blount and Richard Dobbs Spaight) is appended. 

He was a native of Pennsylvania, born 5th of December, 1735, in West 
Nottingham township. His father was an Irishman, a respectable clothier 

* " Some time ou?ht to intervene between the life and death." 


in Dublin, and emigrated to this country in 1730, His mother, Mary David- 
son, was Irish, and came to this country Avith her father, George Davidson, 
when about three years old. On their way they were captured by Teach, or 
Blackbeard, the celebrated pirate, by whom, after being plundered, they were 
released. His parents were married in 1731, and had ten children, of which 
Hugh was the oldest. He was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, 
at which he graduated in 1757. He studied Divinity, and was licensed to 
preach by the Philadelphia Presbytery ; but after preaching two years, he 
resigned on account of ill health. In 17G0, he was appointed Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania. In 1764, he resigned and 
went to Edinburgh to study medicine. In 1772, he returned and practiced his 
profession in Philadelphia. He was sent with Ilev. Dr. Ewing to England, • 
to raise funds for a literary institution at Newark. This was at the time of 
the destruction of tea in the Boston Harbor, and the vessel in which Dr. 
Williamson sailed to England, took the first news of this occurrence to 
England. This daring measure excited much feeling in England_^ Dr. Wil- 
liamson was examined before the Privy Council in February, 1774. ^ He as- 
sured the Council that if the measures of Parliament were persisted in, civil 
war and revolution must be the inevitable consequences. 

Dr. Williamson obtained the possession of certain letters while in England, 
written by the Royal Governor of Massachusetts, and Mr. Oliver, Secretary 
of the Province, and others, to Thomas AVhately, Esq., member of Parlia- 
ment, and Private Secretary to Lord Granville. These letters he handed to 
Dr. Franklin, and sailed next day for Holland. Dr. Franklin transmitted 
these letters to his friends in Boston, and they were published. The indig- 
nation of the people knew no bounds. The House of Representatives, in a 
remonstrance to the King, charged the Governor with perfidy and falsehood, 
and declared him an enemy to the colonies.* 

Dr. Williamson made a tour through Holland and the low countries, when 
the news of the Declaration of Independence reached him, and he determined 
to return home. 

He sailed for the United States in December, from Nantz. When off the 
Capes of Delaware, the vessel was attacked and captured by a British man- 
of-war; but he escaped in an open boat, with important dispatches to our 

He undertook a journey next year to Charleston, with a younger brother, 
in a mercantile speculation. At Charleston, he purchased a vessel, and 
loaded her for Baltimore. General Howe at this time entered the Chesa- 
peake Bay; to avoid capture. Dr. Williamson ordered his vessel to Edenton. 
That circumstance carried him to Edenton, and he was induced to remain; 
a position favorable to the practice of his profession. He was also con- 
cerned with his brother in his mercantile operations in the West India trade. 

In the winter, 1779, when the British had possession of Charleston, the 
State of North Carolina ordered a draft of five thousand men, under command 
of Governor Caswell. Governor Caswell appointed Dr. Williamson at the head 
of the medical staff, and was with the army at the fatal battle of Camden, 
August, 1780. After the battle, he requested a flag of truce, under which he 
went to his unfortunate countrymen, wounded and prisoners, and remained 
two months, dressing their wounds, clothing them out of his own pocket. 
This act was highly philanthropic, and deservedly places the character of 
Dr. Williamson in high esteem as a patriot and Christian. 

He returned to Edenton, and in 1782, represented Edenton in the House 
of Commons. In 1784, he was sent to Congress for three years, and 1787, 
appointed a delegate to the Convention which formed the Constitution of the 
United States, 17th September, 1787. 

The Constitution was unpopular in North Carolina, and for his devoted 
advocacy to its forms, Dr. Williamson lost much of his popularity. But this 
was but momentary, for he represented the Edenton District in Congress, in 

* Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Franklin. Quarto, page 183, Lend, ed., 1818. 


1790, '91 and '92. He had married in New York, in 1789, Maria, daughter of 
Hon. Charles Ward Apthrope. 

By this union he had two sons, his wife dying when the youngest was but 
a few days old. 

This severe affliction caused Dr. Williamson to retire from public employ- 
ment, and devote himself to literary pursuits, at the time residing in New 

In 1811, he published "Observations on Climate in the different parts of 
America, compared with the Climate in corresponding parts of the other 
continent," in 1 vol. 8vo. 

In 1812, appeared his " History of North Carolina," in 2 vols. Svo. 

In 1814, he was associated with De Witt Clinton in forming the Literary 
and Philosophical Society of New York. 

His health, never strong, had been wonderfully preserved by the uniform 
temperance and regularity of his habits. 

He died very suddenly, on the 22d of May, 1819, while taking his usual 
evening ride with his niece. 

No man ever lived in our State, whose character for justice and integrity 
stood higher. His aims were for his country and her honor. His labors as 
a member of Congress, were more in the closet and committee-room, than in 
debate, and yet his elocution was striking and effective. Mr. Jefferson said 
of him that " He was a very useful member, acute mind, and of a high de- 
gree of erudition." 

Hon. William Cummixg was a lawyer in Chowan in olden times. He 
represented the State in the Continental Congress, in 1784, and the town 
of Edenton, in 1788, in the House of Commons. 

James Iredell, one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United 
States in 1790, was from Chowan County. 

He was a native of England, born at Lewes, in Sussex County, on the 5th 
October, 1750. He emigrated to North Carolina when only 17 years old. 
He studied law with Gov. Samuel Johnston, whose sister Hannah he married 
in July, 1773. He held, under his relative, Henry Eustace McCullock (who 
was, under the crown, Collector of the port of Edenton), the office of Deputy 
Collector, and was afterwards appointed Collector, which valuable office he 
held until the Revolution. He was removed in consequence of his adherence 
to the principles of freedom and interests of America. He was a gentleman 
of fine personal appearance, great intelligence, profound acquirements, and 
unspotted integrity. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1776. By his talents and industry he soon 
rose to position and influence. He was elected by tbe General Assembly 
Judge of the Superior Court, on the 20th December, 1777, which he resigned 
in August, 1778. 

He (in 1778) was a member of the Convention at llillsboro', to delibe- 
rate upon the Federal Constitution, and was its able exponent and eloquent 

He was afterwards (in November, 1779) appointed Attorney-General, and 
resigned soon afterwards. 

In February, 1790, without his knowledge, he was appointed by General 
Washington one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

Chief Justice Marshall, in a letter to Judge Murphy (Oct. 6th, 1827), ex- 
pressed his opinion as to the merits of Judge Iredell as a man of talents and 
professional worth. 

In the presidential election of 1797 he received three electoral votes for 
■ President of the United States, 

The State has preserved his memory in the patriotic county named after him 
(in 1788), which was done on motion of General John Steele, of Rowan County. 

Full of years and full of honors, he died 20th October, 1799, leaving two 
daughters and one son, 


James Iredell, who has been a Judge of the Superior Court, Speaker of the 
House of Commons, Governor of the State, and Senator in Congress. 

lie was born in Chowan County in 1788. His first appearance in public 
life was in 1816, as member of the House of Commons. In 1817 and 1818 
he was elected Speaker. 

In the war of 1812 he commanded a company of volunteers, and marched 
to Norfolk, Va., to repel the invasions of the British. In this company, the 
late Gavin Hogg, Esq., of Raleigh, was a lieutenant. 

In March, 1819, he was appointed a Judge of the Superior Court, which he 
resigned in the May following. 

He was elected Governor of the State December, 1S27, and Senator in 
Congress in 1828, in which he served until 1831. He now resides at Raleigh, 
where he is engaged in the practice of his profession, and is Reporter of the 
Decisions of the Supreme Court. 

He married a daughter of the late Samuel Treadwell, late Collector of 
the port of Edenton, by whom he has a large and interesting family ; one of 
whom married Cadwallader Jones, Jr., Esq., of Hillsboro' ; another to 
Grifiiths J. McRee, of Wilmington, and another to Dr. Charles E. Johnson, 
of Raleigh. 

Stephen Cabarrus was also a resident of Chowan. He was a native of 
France, and a man of active mind, generous feelings, and liberal sentiments. 
In 1784 he entered politics, and was repeatedly elected a member of the 
House of Commons from Edenton, and often Speaker of the House. The 
County of Cabarrus preserves his name, and of his early life, character, and 
services more will be presented at some future period. 

Thomas Jones, of Chowan, in early days, was a devoted patriot and tried 
republican. Between him, Willie Jones, Richard Caswell, and Thomas 
Burke rests the honor of having written the Constitution of North Carolina. 

We regret that more is not known of his life, character, services, and 

Joseph Hewes, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence of 
4th July, 1776, was a resident of Chowan. He was born in New Jersey in 
1735, and was a merchant by profession. He represented this county in the 
Assembly in 1774 and 1775. In 1774 he was elected a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress, and served until 1777, and was chosen again to the same 
place in 1779-80. In April, 1776, by the Provincial Congress at Halifax, he 
was appointed (with AVm. Hooper and John Penn) delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress, at Philadelphia. He died while attending to his duties as 
a member of Congress at Philadelphia, and was buried in Christ Church in 
that city. His funeral, attended by the President, Congress, the French 
minister, and other persona of distinction, was conducted with much pomp. 
He left a large fortune, but no children to inherit it. Mr. Hewes was in 
person prepossessing, his countenance expressive of great amenity of temper. 
His reputation for probity and honor was unspotted.* 

It has been before stated that it is not very flattering to our State pride 
that not one of the signers to our national Declaration of Independence from 
North Carolina was a native of our State. Wm. Hooper was a Boston man, 
Joseph Hewes was a New Jersey man, and John Penn was a Virginian. 

Hon. Charles Johnson was often a member of the Senate, and a member 
of Congress from this district in 1801. He lived on Chowan River, and was 
father of Charles E. Johnson, and grandfather of Dr. Charles Johnson, now 
of Raleigh. 

Hon. Samuel T. Sawyer, now of Norfolk, Va., is a native of Chowan. 

* Sanderson's Bioarraphy of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence, vol. v. p. 
147. Philadelphia, 1828. 



His father, Dr. Matthias B. Sawyer, was distinguished for his talents and 
learning. His uncle, Hon. Lemuel Sawyer, represented this district for 
many years. Maj. Sawyer was by education a lawyer. He entered public 
life in 1829 as a member of the House of Commons, and served until 1832. 
In 1837 he was elected to Congress, and served one Congress. In 18-10 he 
was defeated by Hon. Kenneth Kayner. He has since settled in Norfolk, 
where he is pursuing his profession, and the able editor of a paper (Argus). 

Col. Robert T. Paine is a native of Chowan ; born 18th February, 1812. 
Edueatedat Trinity College, Connecticut. By profession a lawyer. Entered 
public life in 1888 as member of the House of Commons. He was appoint- 
ed by Governor Graham Colonel of the North Carolina Regiment, in the 
war with Mexico, with John A. Fagg, of Buncombe, Lieutenant-Colonel ; and 
M. S. Stokes, of Wilkes, as Major. 

After his return from Mexico he was appointed by the President (with 
Hon. George Evans and another) Commissioner, to settle the claims under the 
Mexican treaty. 

On the 21st September, 1846, Charles Hoskixs, of this county, in the 33d 
year of his age, was killed in the battle of Monterey. He was a native of 
Edenton, graduated at the Military Academy in 1836, and joined his com- 
pany in the 4th regiment of infantry in the Cherokee nation. In 1839 he 
went with his regiment to Fort Gibson, Arkansas. 

In 1845 he accompanied his regiment to Corpus Christi, and did good ser- 
vice at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and fell at Monterey. 

On the 2d January, 1847, the General Assembly adopted resolutions ex- 
pressive of their sincere respect for his character, and their sympathy for his 
early fate. 

Hon. Augustus Moore, late a judge of our Superior Court, was a resident 
of Edenton. He was graduated at the University in 1824, read law with 
Charles R. Kinney, in Elizabeth City, and practiced with great success. He 
was appointed Judge in 1848, but he resigned the same year, and died very 
suddenly in April 1851. 



Years. House of Commons. 

1774. Joseph Hewes, 

1775. Joseph Hewes, 

1776. Joseph Hewes, 

1777. John Green, 

1778. Joseph Hewes, 

1779. Joseph Hewes, 

1780. Robert Smith, 

1781. Robert Smith, 

1782. Hugh Williamson, 

1783. William Cumming, 

1784. Stephen Cabarrus, 

1785. Stephen Cabarrus, 

1786. Stephen Cabarrus, 

1787. Stephen Cabarrus, 

1788. William Cumming, 

1790. John Hamilton, 

1791. John Hamilton, 

1792. John Hamilton, 

1793. William Cumming, 

1794. Robert Hardy, 

1795. Stephen Cabarrus, 

1796. Thomas Johnson, 

Years. House of Commons. 

1797. Thomas Johnson, 

1798. James Greenbury, 

1799. John Blount, 

1800. William Slade, 

1801. Josiah Collins, 

1802. Nathaniel Allen, 

1803. Jos. B. Littlejohn, 

1804. Thomas Johnson, 

1805. Allen Gilchrist, 

1806. William Slade, 

1807. Jos. B. Skinner, 

1808. Wm. A. Littlejohn, 

1809. John Beasley, 

1810. Mathias E. Sawyer, 

1811. Mathias E. Sawyer, 

1812. Henry Flury, 

1813. James Iredell, 

1814. Jos. B. Skinner, 

1815. Jos. B. Skinner, 

1816. James Iredell, 

1817. James Iredell, 

1818. James Iredell, 



Years. House of Commons. 

1819. James Iredell, 

1820. James Iredell, 

1821. George Blair, Jr. 

1822. George Blair, Jr. 

1823. James Iredell, 

1824. James Iredell, 

1825. James Iredell, 
182G. James Iredell, 
1827. James Iredell, 

Years. House of Commons. 

1828. .James Bozman, 

1829. Samuel T. Sawyer, 

1830. Samuel T. Sawyer, 

1831. Samuel T. Sawyer, 

1832. Samuel T. Sawyer, 

1833. J. Malachi Haughton, 

1834. Frederick Noscum, 

1835. Hugh W. Collins. 

Members of the General Assembly from Chowan County, from 
the adoption of the Constitution to 1850-51. 
















































Luke Sumner, 
Luke Sumner, 
Luke Sumner, 
Luke Sumner, 
Charles Johnson, 
Charles .Johnson, 
Charles .Johnson, 
Charles .Johnson, 
Michael Payne, 
Jacob Jordan, 
Jacob Jordan, 
Charles Johnson, 
Charles .Johnson, 
Charles Johnson, 
Charles -Johnson, 
Lemuel Creecy, 
Lemuel Creecy, 
Lemuel Creecy, 
Lemuel Creecy, 
Lemuel Creecy, 
Lemuel Creecy, 
Frederick Luton, 
Richard Benbury, 
John Bond,. 
John Bond, 
John Bond, 
John Bond, 
Thomas Brownrigg, 
Thomas Brownrigg, 
Thomas Brownrigg, 
Thomas Brownrigg, 
Fi'ederick Norcum, 
Richard Iloskins, 
Richard Iloskins, 
Richard Iloskins, 
Thomas Coffield, 
Richard Iloskins, 
Richard Iloskins, 
Henry Skinner, 
Charles E. .Johnson, 
Rich'd T. Brownrigg, 
Charles E. Johnson, 
Charles E. -Johnson, 
Richard Iloskins, 
Rich'd T. Brownrigg, 

House of Commons. 

Thomas Benbury, Jacob Hunter. 
Wm. Boyd, Thomas Benbury. 
Wm. Boyd, Thomas Benbury. 
Wm. Boyd, Thomas Benbury. 
Michael Payne, Thomas Benbury. 
Michael Payne, Thomas Benbury. 
Stephen Chambers, Richard Benbury. 
Clement Hall, Michael Payne. 
Hugh Williamson, Clement Hall. 
Josiah Copeland, Lemuel Creecy. 
Josiah Copeland, Lemuel Creecy. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Lemuel Creecy. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Lemuel Creecy. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Richard Benbury. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Lemuel Creecy. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Benjamin Coffield. 
Benjamin Coffield, Richard Benbury. 
Benjamin Coffield, Richard Benbury. 
Richard Benbury, Benjamin Coffield. 
Richard Benbury, Benjamin Coffield. 
Richard Benbury, Shadenck Felton. 
John B. Bennett, Stephen Cabarrus. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Reuben Small. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Reuben Small. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Reuben Small. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Samuel McGuire. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Reuben Small. 
Stephen Cabarrus, Benjamin Coffield. 
Samuel McGuire, Baker Iloskins. 
Frederick Norcum, Baker Iloskins. 
Samuel McGuire, Baker Iloskins. 
Samuel McGuire, Miles Welch. 
Samuel McGuire, Micajah Bunch. 
Thomas Coffield, Samuel McGuire. 
Micajah Bunch, Thomas Coffield. 
John Goodwin, Henry Skinner. 
John Goodwin, Henry Skinner. 
Wm. Saunders, Henry Skinner. 
Richard T. Brownrigg, -Jeremiah Mixson. 
Jeremiah Mixson, -James Skinner. 
Samuel McGuire, Samuel Gregory. 
James Skinner, Samuel Gregory. 
James Skinner, Samuel Gregory. 
James Skinner, Samuel Gregory. 
Henry Elliott, James Skinner. 



Years. Senate. 

182.3. William Bullock, 

1824. William Bullock, 

1825. William Bullock, 

1826. William Bullock, 

1827. William Walton, 

1828. AVilliam AValton, 

1829. William Walton, 

1830. AVilliam Walton, 

1831. Rich'd T. Brownrigg, 

1832. William Bullock, 

1833. Jos. B. Skinner, 

1834. Samuel T. Sawyer, 

1835. AVilliam Bullock, 

1836. William W. Cowper, 
1838. Rufus R. Speed, 
1840. Rufus R. Speed, 
1842. Whitmel J. Stallings, 
1844. Whitmel J. Stallings, 
1846. Whitmel J. Stallings, 
1848. Henry WiUey. 
1850. Henry Willey, 

House of Commons. 
Joshua Mewborn, Wm. Walton. 
Wm. Walton, J. N. Iloskius. 
Wm. Walton, Joshua Mewborn. 
Josiah McKiel, William Jackson. 
William Beyrum, Wm. Jackson. 
Josiah McKiel, Wm. Beyrum. 
Wm. Beyrum, George Blair. 
Wm. Jackson, George Blair. 
Josiah H. Skinner, Wm. Jackson. 
Josiah n. Skinner, Baker F. Welch. 
Baker F. AYelch, Chas. W. Nixon. 
Baker F. Welch, Wm. Beyrum. 
Wm. Beyrum, Thomas S. Hoskins. 
Thomas S. Hoskins. 
Robert T. Paine. 
Robert T. Paine. 
Wm. R. Skinner. 
Robert T. Paine. 
Robert T. Paine. 
Robert T. Paine. 
Wm. C. Bond. 



Date of formation— Origin of name, situation and boundaries— Capital — Popu- 
lation and products— Revolutionary history— Original documents relative 
to the battle of King's Mountain, fought Oct. 7, 1780, in which the British 
and Tories were routed, and their commander. Colonel Patrick Ferguson, 
was killed, and others — List of members. 

Cleaveland County was formed in 1841, out of Rutherford and 
Lincoln Counties, and derives its name from Colonel Benjamin 
Cleaveland, of Wilkes County, who with a detachment of men from 
Wilkes and Surry under his and the command of Major Joseph Win- 
ston, engaged in the battle of King's Mountain. For life, character, 
and services of Colonel Cleaveland, see the chapters on Wilkes and 
Watauga (chapters 78, 80). 

It is situated in the south-western part of the State, and is bounded 
on the north by Burke County, on the east by Lincoln and Gaston, 
on the south by the South Carolina line, and on the west by Ruther- 
ford and McDoAvell Counties. 

Its capital is Shelby, which town preserves the name of Isaac 
Shelby, a distinguished revolutionary officer, whose biography is 
here recorded. Its distance from Raleigh is one hundred and ninety 
miles, and located on the main road from Rutherford to Salisbm-y ; 
through which the stage passes tri-weekly. 


Near Shelby is a celebrated mineral spring (Wilson's), justly cele- 
brated for its excellent sulphur water ; and is jnuch resorted to in 
the summer by invalids and the votaries of pleasure. 

Its climate is healthful, soil luxuriant, and its inhabitants indus- 

Its population is 8,592 whites ; 57 free colored ; 1,747 slaves; 9,697 repre- 
sentative population. 

Although a new county, its revolutionary history is full of glow- 
inor incidents. It was on the heights of King's Mountain, which is 
partly in this county, that on the 7th Oct., 1780, the brave moun- 
taineers of this region attacked the British troops under Colonel 
Ferguson, routed them and slew him. 

This glorious achievement occurred at a most gloomy period of 
the Revolution. The tide of war had flown disastrously to American 
liberty. The battle of Camden had prostrated all the hopes of the 
patriots, and encouraged the enemies of America. But this battle 
turned the tide in the South ; as the victory of Trenton under 
Washington, did at the North. 

In a letter of Thomas Jefferson, dated in 1822, a copy of which is before us, 
in relation to this victory, he says, "I remember well the deep and grateful 
impression made on the mind of every one, by that ever memorable victory. 
It was the joyful enunciation of that turn in the tide of success, that termi- 
nated the revolutionary war with seal of our independence." 

It was achieved by raw, undisciplined men, who never before were 
in battle, without any government officers, or any authority from 
the government under which they lived and for which they fought, 
without pay, rations, or ammunition, reward, or the hope of reward. 
The spirit that animated" them was the patriot spirit that feels 
"how sweet it is to die for one's country." 

The minute occurrences of this battle have been detailed in the 
biography of General McDowell, of Burke County, to which the 
reader is referred. The documents now for the first time collected 
and published, afford the most satisfactory and complete proofs of 
this interesting and important event. 

The life and character of Isaac Shelby, that is preserved in the name of the 
capital of this county, is worthy the attention of every lover of his country. 

His father. General Evan Shelby, was a Welchman by birth, and came to 
this country when a small lad. He settled in Maryland about a century ago. 
He was distinguished for his indomitable courage, iron constitution, and clear 
intellect. He fought as a Captain of Rangers under Braddock; and distin- 
guished himself in the attack under General Forbes in 1758, in which he led 
the advance, and took from the French Fort Du Quesne, 

In 1772 he removed to the west, and in 1774, commanded a company under 
Lewis and Dunmore, against the Indians, on the Scioto Eiver. He was in 
the sanguinary battle of Kenhawa, Oct. 10th, 1774, when Colonels Lewis, 
Fleming, and Field were killed, and he was left the commanding officer. 

In 1779, he led a strong force against the Chicamauga Indians, on the Ten- 
nessee River; and was for his services and gallantry appointed a Brigadier- 
General by the State of Virginia; the first officer of that grade ever appointed 
on the western waters. 


Such -was the ancestor of Isaac Shelby. He -was horn in Maryland, Dec. 
11th, 1750. Born to the use of arms, blessed with afirm and Herculean frame, 
capable of great fatigue, his education was such as fitted him for the scenes 
in which he was by Providence destined to become so prominent an actor. 
His first essay in arms was as a Lieutenant, in a company commanded by hia 
father, in the celebrated battle at the mouth of the Kenhawa, on October lOth, 
1774, on the Ohio River, the most severe and sanguinary conflict ever main- 
tained with the north-western Indians. The action was from sunrise to sun- 
set, with varied success. Night closed the conflict; under its cover the cele- 
brated chief. Cornstalk, who commanded the Indians, abandoned the ground. 

He was employed, as surveyor under Judge Henderson's company, and re- 
sided in the then wilderness of "that dark and bloody ground," Kentucky, 
amid dangers, privations, and difiBculties, for nearly a year; when from expo- 
sure, without bread or salt, his health gave way, and he returned home. 

During his absence, in July, 1776, he had been appointed Captain of a 
minute company, by the Committee of Safety in Virginia. 

In 1777, Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, appointed him Commis- 
sary of Supplies for an extensive body of troops to guard the frontiers and 
the commissioners, who were appointed to form a treaty at the Long Island 
of the Holston River, with the Cherokees. 

He was, in 1778, a member of the Virginia Legislature from Washington 
County, and was appointed by Thomas JetFerson, then Governor of Virginia, 
a Major in the escort of guards to the Commissioners, for extending the line 
between Virginia and North Carolina. 

By that line his residence was found to be in North Carolina, and he was by 
Richard Caswell, then Governor of North Carolina, appointed Colonel of Sul- 
livan County. 

In the summer of 1780. he was engaged in Kentucky, surveying, locating, 
and securing the lands which he had five years previously marked out, pre- 
pared and improved ; when the disastrous surrender of Charleston, and the 
loss of our army roused his daring spirit to arms. He returned home, deter- 
mined to enter the service of his bleeding country, and never to leave it, until 
her liberty and independence were secured. On his arrival at Sullivan, he 
found a requisition from Gen. Charles McDowell, to furnish all the aid in his 
power, to check the enemy, who had conquered Georgia and South Carolina, 
and who, flushed with success, had entered North Carolina. He imme- 
diately called on the militia of Sullivan, and in a few days he crossed the 
Alleghany, at the head of three hundred mounted riflemen. He reported to 
General 5lcDowell near Cherokee Ford, on Broad River, and was by him 
detached with Cols. Sevier and Clarke to surprise and take a fort held by 
Captain Patrick Moore, a distinguished Tory, on the waters of Pacolet. This 
was accomplished without loss of time, or men. The enemy surrendered as 
prisoners of war. Capt. Moore, one British Sergeant-Major, ninety-three Tories, 
two hundred and fifty stand of arms and ammunition (so needed at this crisis), 
were the fruits of this victory. 

Ferguson, an ofiicer of great bravery and enterprise, a Major in the British 
army and a Brigadier-General of militiu, was detached by Lord Cornwallis 
with a strong force to overcome the western portion of this State, and win 
them to the support of the Crown. He make several attempts to surprise 
Shelby, but was baffled by his vigilance and activity. On the 1st of August 
1780, at Cedar Spring, the advance of the British force came up and attacked 
vShelby. The grounds had been chosen by Shelby, and his adventurous spirit 
did not avoid battle. A sharp conflict ensued, which lasted a half an hour, 
when the whole force of Ferguson advanced. Shelby retreated, carrying from 
the field fifty prisoners, and tAvo British officers. The enemy made a rapid 
pursuit, but Shelby by availing himself of every advantageous ground, gave 
them such checks, that the pursuit was abandoned, and the prisoners secured. 
He joined Gen. McDowell, with only a loss of ten or twelve killed and 

Under orders of Gen. McDowell, he again attacked, with 700 mounted men 


on the 19th of August 1780, a lai'ge body of Tories, at Musgrove^s mill on the 
south side of Enoree. Ferguson with his whole force lay between. On the 
night of the 18th of August, Colonel Shelby, with Colonels Clarke, and Wil- 
liams, of South Carolina, left Smith's Ford on Broad River, took a cii'cuitous 
route through the woods, to avoid Ferguson, and at dawn of day (after riding 
about 40 miles), attacked the patrol of the Tories, about half a mile from their 
camp. A skirmish ensued, and several were killed ; the patrol was driven 
in. At this moment, a countryman who lived near, informed Shelby that 
the enemy had been the night before reinforced by a strong body of GOO regu- 
lars, under Col. Innes (Queen's American Regiment from New York). This 
was unexpected news. Fatigued as were their horses, after the hard ride all 
night, retreat was impracticable ; to attack the enemy of such superior force, 
•well armed and in full discipline, would have been rashness and certain 

" Destruction was before them, and death was behind." With a courage 
that never quailed, an expedient promptness never at fault, the talents of 
Shelby met this trying emergency. He instantly ordered the whole force, 
except Capt. Inmau, to form a breastwork of old logs and brush, to make as 
brave a defence as circumstances admitted, and to sell their lives as dearly 
as possible. Captain Inman, with twenty-five men, was sent out to meet the 
enemy, as soon as he crossed the river (Enoree). The sounds of the drums 
of the infantry and bugles of the cavalry, soon announced to this devoted 
band, the approach of the enemy in strong force. Inman's orders were to 
fire upon them and retreat. The "British and Tories, confident of success, made 
a furious onset, which Capt. Inman was unable to withstand, and therefore 
retreated. Thinking that he had forced the whole of our party, the enemy 
rushed forward without order and in great confusion ; the American riflemen 
■with sure and steady aim, opened a destructive and deadly fire, which was kept 
up sharply for an hour, by which Colonel Innes was wounded ; all the British 
of&cers except a subaltern, were killed or wounded; the Tory Captain Hawsey 
was shot down. The British retreated, losing sixty-three men killed, and one 
hundred and sixty prisoners. The American loss was only four killed and 
nine wounded. The brave Capt. Inman Jn the pursuit, drove the enemy over 
the river and fell fighting hand to hand. 

Excited by this brilliant and unexpected victory, Shelby prepared to attack 
the British post at Ninety-Six, then distant thirty miles, when an express 
arrived from Gen. McDowell, with a letter from Governor Caswell, dated on 
the battle ground of Camden, informing him of Gates' defeat, and advising 
him to get out of the way. Prompt to act, Shelby instantly distributed his 
prisoners among his men, so as to make one to every three men, and carry- 
ing them alternately on horseback, and marching all night and all next day 
until late in the evening without halting a moment for refreshments. This 
saved the troops and secured the prisoners, for the next day a strong detach- 
ment from Fei-guson sallied out to overtake the victors ; but the energy and 
activity of Shelby bafiied their intent. Shelby, after seeing his party safe 
over the mountains, sent the prisoners into Virginia, in charge of Cols. Clarke 
and Williams, lie then returned home. 

The brilliancy of this aflfair was more bright by the dark gloom which over- 
spread the public mind from the disgraceful and disastrous defeat of Gates 
at Camden. This caused Gen. McDowell to disperse his corps, and at this 
moment there was no appearance of a corps of Americans south of Virginia. 

This, as has been recorded, was a " dark and doleful period" to the south. 
Cornwallis at Charlotte with the main body of the whole British forces, Fer- 
guson with a strong detachment which could be increased to twice its num- 
bers, at Gilbert town in Rutherford County ; the whole country was under 
the influence of the British : the hopes of the patriot, for his country were 
dimmed, and man}' took protection under the British standard. Lut firm as 
their native mouutaius, the brave spirits of the west wei-e undismayed. If 
fur a moment subdued, they were not conquered. 

Shelby at this gloomy moment in consultation with Col. Charles McDowell, 

IGO men, 












proposed to Cols. Sevier and Campbell, to raise a force from their several coun- 
ties and attack Ferguson. 

They met at Watauga on 25th September, 1780, and marched upon Fergu- 
son. Their force was as follows: — 

From Burke 'and Rutherford Counties, commanded by Charles 

McDowell --.-... 

From Wilkes and Surry Counties, under Colonel Benjamin Cleave- 

land and Major Joseph Winston .... 

From Washington County, North Carolina (now Tennessee), under 

John Sevier --.--.. 
From Sullivan County, North Carolina, now Tennessee, under 

Isaac Shelby ----.-. 
From Washington, Virginia, under Colonel William Campbell - 

With this force they prepared to march. 

Ferguson anticipating their attack from some deserters, left Gilbert town. 
In the meantime he dispatched a letter to Lord Cornwallis, at Charlotte, 
soliciting aid. His messenger was Abraham Collins (since of counterfeit 
memory), and was received too late to be of any service. He encamped the 
first night at the Cowpens (soon to become immortal for the success of our 
arms over Tarleton, 17th January, 1781). On the 5th October, he crossed 
Broad, River at Deer Ferry, and marched sixteen miles ; on 6th he marched 
up the Ridge Road, until he came to a right hand fork across King's Creek, 
and through a gap towards Yorkville, about fourteen miles ; and on the sum- 
mit of King's Mountain he encamped. Here he declared was "a place that 
God Almighty could not drive him from." 

The official accounts prove the results of this battle and its important 

It completely broke down the Tory influence in North Carolina, and alarmed 
the British so much that Lord Cornwallis retreated from his position, marched 
all night, and retrograded as far as Winnsboro', some sixty or eighty miles, 
where he remained until reinforced by General Leslie, with troops from the 

Inspired by this victory, the forces of North Carolina assembled under Ge- 
neral Davidson, at New Providence, near the South Carolina line. General 
Smallwood, with Morgan's light corps and the Maryland line, advanced to 
the same point; General Gates, with the remains of his army, as well as the 
levies from Virginia of one thousand men under General Stevens, enabled 
General Greene, who was appointed to the command in December, 1780, to 
hold Lord Cornwallis in check. 

The Legislature of North Carolina voted their thanks to Colonel Shelby 
and a splendid sword. 

In 1781, Shelby served under General Marion, an officer of great courage 
and enterprise. He with Colonel Mayhem were ordered to take a British 
postal Fairlawn, near Monk's Corner, under the command of General Stuart. 
On attacking this post it surrendered with one hundred and fifty prisoners. 
Immediately after this the whole force of the English retreated to Charleston. 

Colonel Shelby obtained leave of absence from Marion to attend the Gene- 
ral Assembly of North Carolina, of which he was a member from Sullivan 
county. In 1782, he was again a member, and was appointed a commissioner 
to settle the pre-emption claims upon the Cumberland, and lay off the lands 
allotted to the officers and soldiers south of where Nashville now stands. lie 
performed this service in 1782, and returned to Boonsboro' in the April fol- 
lowing, where he married Susanna Hart, whose father was one of the partners 
of Judge Henderson. Now that tlie li);erties of his country were established 
in peace, he devoted himself to his farm, on the first pre-emption and settle- 
ment granted in Kentucky. It is a remarkable fact, that at his death he was 
the only person who occupied his original pre-emption. 

He was a member of the Convention in Kentucky to obtain a separation 
of that State from Virginia, and was a member of the Convention in April, 


1792, that formed the Constitution of that State, and was elected the first 
Governor of Kentucky. 

He was again elected in 1812, a stormy period of our history, during the 
second war with England. His spirit was not calmed by the frosts of age ; 
but at the request of the Legislature, at the age of sixty-three, he headed in 
person four thousand troops, and marched under General Harrison in 1813 
to Canada. The battle of the Thames, which has covered with glory the 
name of R. M. Johnsox, was witnessed by Governor Shelby. 

In 1817, Mr. Munroe called him to the Department of War, but from bis 
advanced age he declined this honor. 

In 1818, with General Andrew Jackson, he was selected by the President 
to form a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians, by which they ceded their lands 
west of the Tennessee River, within the limits of Tennessee and Kentucky. 

This was his last public act. In February, 1820, he was attacked by a 
paralytic afi'ection. His mind was, however, jinimpaired ; but on the 18th of 
July, 1826, he expired from a stroke of apoplexy, in the seventy-sixth year of 
his age, enjoying the love and respect of his country, blessed with every 
honor it could bestow, and consoled by the rich hopes of a joyful immortality. 

Such were the services of Isaac Shelby. AVorthy is he to have his name 
preserved in a region that witnessed his patriotism and valor. 

In the battle of King's Mountain, Colonel Williams, of South Carolina, 
Major Chronicle, of Lincoln County, and Captain John Mattocks, were killed ; 
Colonel Hambrite, wounded. Our loss was, as stated, twenty-eight killed, 
and sixty wounded. 

The next day a court-martial was held, and about twenty Tories hung. 

At the forks of the branch where Major Chronicle and Captain Mattocks 
were buried, a monument is erected. On it is the following inscription : — 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Major William Chronicle, 

Captain John Mattocks, 

William Robb, and 

John Boyd, 

Who wore killed in this place on the 7th of October, 1780, 

fighting in defence of America. 

On the west side of said monument : — 

Colonel Ferguson, 

An Officer of His Britannic Majesty, 

Was defeated and killed 

At this place, 

On 7th October, 1780. 

Patrick Ferguson was no ordinary man. He was a finished soldier, and 
brave as a lion. 

He was a Scotchman by birth ; son of an eminent judge, James Ferguson, 
Lord of Sessions and Justiciary, and nephew of a nobleman of great literary 
talents, Patrick Murray (Lord Elibank), deemed by Robertson, Ferguson, 
Ilurae, and cotemporary sages, equal to the best authors of the Scottish Au- 
gustan age. Patrick Ferguson sought renown in a diiFerent career, but pos- 
sessed an equally vigorous mind and brilliant parts. At the early age of 
eighteen, he entered the army in the German war, and was distinguished by 
his cool and determined courage. He early displayed an inventive genius, 
sound judgment, and intrepid heroism, which constitute the successful 
soldier. He had invented anew species of rifle, that could load at the breech 
and fire seven times in a minute, with accuracy and precision. 

He was present in 1777, at the battle of Brandywine, and in that achieve- 
ment, used with his corps, his invention with fatal efl'ect. 

He distinguished himself on the North River, in 1779, and was sent to 
aid General Clinton in the South. His signal service in the reduction of 



Charleston, in INIay, 1780, is mentioned with great praise in the dispatches of 
the Commander-in-chief. 

His disposition and manners were conciliatory, and well calculated to gain 
friends. He was dispatched by Lord Cornwallis to the western portion of 
North Carolina, to win the inhabitants to the British cause. In this he dis- 
played much tact and judgment. la his address published to the inhabit- 
ants, he says, "We come not to make war upon women and children, but to 
give them money, and to relieve their distresses." 

Providence assigned to him the fate that befell him on the heights of King's 
Mountain. His talents and valor were worthy of a better cause and a less 
severe fate. 

Copy of a circular letter from Major Patrick Ferguson to the 
Tory leaders in North Carolina : — 

Donard's Ford, Broad River, 

Tryon County, Oct. 1, 1780. 

Gextlemex — Unless you wish to be cut up by an inundation of barbarians, 
who have begun by murdering the unarmed son before the aged father, and 
afterwards lopped off his arms, and who by their shocking cruelty and irregu- 
larities, give the best proof of their cowardice and want of discipline ; I say, 
if you wish to be pinioned, robbed, and murdered, and to see your wives and 
daughters, in four days, abused by the dregs of jnankind — in short, if you 
wish or desire to live and bear the name of men, grasp your arms in a mo- 
ment and run to camp. 

The Backwater men have crossed the mountain; M'Dowell, Hampton, 
Shelby and Cleaveland are at their head, so that you know what you will 

have to depend upon. If you choose to be p d upon for ever and ever by 

a set of mongrels, say so at once, and let your women turn their backs upon 

vou, and look out for real men to protect them. 


Major list Regiment. 

Letter from General Davidson, of North Carolina, to General 
Sumner: — 

Camp, Rocky River, 

Oct. 10, 1780. 

Sir— I have the pleasure of handing you very agreeable intelligence from 
the West. Ferguson, the great partisan, has miscarried. This we are as- 
sured of by Mr. Tate, Brigade Major in General Sumpter's late command. 
The particulars from that gentleman's mouth stand thus: — That Colonels 
Campbell, Cleaveland, Shelby, Sevier, Williams, Brandon, Lacey, &c., formed 
a conjunct body near Gilbert Town, consisting of 3,030 ; from this body were 
selected 1,600 good horse, who immediately went in pursuit of Colonel Fer- 
guson, who was making his way to Charlotte. Our people overtook him 
well posted on King's Mountain, and on the evening of the 7th instant, at 
four o'clock, began the attack, which continued forty-seven minutes. Colonel 
Ferguson fell in the action, besides 150 of his men ; 810 were made prisoners, 
including the British ; 150 of the prisoners were wounded ; 1,500 stand of 
arms fell into our hands. Colonel Ferguson had about 1,400 men. Our 
people surrounded them, and the enemy surrendered. We lost about twenty 
men, among whom is Major Chronicle, of Lincoln County. Colonel Williams 
is mortally wounded. The number of our wounded cannot be ascertained. 
This blow will certainly affect the British very considerably. The Brigade 
Major who gives us this, was in the action. The above is true. The blow is 
ereat. 1 give vou iov upon the occasion. I am, &c., 

Hon. Gex. Sumner, 

Camp Yadkin Ford. 



Extract of a letter from Maj. Gen. Gates to Governor Jefferson, 

HiLLSBORo', Nov. 1, 1780. 

Sir — Last night Col. Campbell, who commanded our victorious troops in 
the action of the 7th ultimo, at King's Mountain, arrived here. He has de- 
livered to me the enclosed authentic and particular account of that affair. 
I beg your Excellency will, immediately after perusal, forward it to 
Congress : — 

A statement of proceedings of tlie Western Army, from the 25th day of Sep- 
tember, 1780, to the reduction of Major Feryuson and the army under his com- 

On receiving intelligence that Major Ferguson had advanced as high up 
as Gilbert Town, in Rutherford County, and threatened to cross the moun- 
tains to the Western waters. Col. Wm. Campbell, with four hundred men 
from Washington County, of Yirginia ; Col. Isaac Shelby, with two hundred 
and forty men from Sullivan County, of N. Carolina ; and Lieut.-Col. John 
Sevier, with two hundred and forty men of Washington County, N. Carolina, 
assembled at Watauga, on the 25th day of September, where they were joined 
by Col. Chas. M'Dowell, with one hundred and sixty men from the counties 
of Burke and Rutherford, who had fled before the enemy to the western 

We began our march on the 26th, and, on the 30th, we were joined by 
Col. Cleaveland, on the Catawba River, with three hundred and fifty men 
from the counties of Wilkes and Surry. No one officer having properly a 
right to the command in chief, on the 1st of October we dispatched an express 
to Major-Gen. Gates, informing him of our situation, and requested him to 
send a general officer to take command of the whole. In the meantime, Col. 
Campbell was chosen to act as commandant till such general officer should 

We reached the Cowpens, on the Broad River, in South Carolina, where we 
were joined by Col. James Williams on the evening of the 6th of October, 
who informed us that the enemy lay encamped somewhere near the Cherokee 
Ford of Broad River, about thirty miles distant from us. By a Council of 
the principal officers, it was then thought advisable to pursue the enemy that 
night with nine hundred of the best horsemen, and leave the weak horse and 
footmen to follow as fast as possible. We began our march, with nine hun- 
dred of the best men, about eight o'clock the same evening, and marched all 
night ; came up with the enemy about three o'clock P. M. of the 7th, who 
lay encamped on the top of King's Mountain, twelve miles north of the 
Cherokee Ford, in the confidence they could not be forced from so advan- 
tageous a post. Previous to the attack, in our march the following disposition 
was made: — 

Col. Shelby's regiment formed a column in the centre on the left ; Col. 
Campbell's another on the right; part of Col. Cleavelaud's regiment, headed 
in the front by Major Winston and Col. Sevier's, formed a large column on 
the right wing; the other part of Col. Cleavelaud's regiment composed the 
left wing. In this order we advanced, and got within a quarter of a mile of 
the enemy before we were discovered. Col. Shelby's and Colonel Camp- 
bell's regiments began the attack, and kept up a fire on the enemy, 
while the right and left wings were advancing forward to surround them, 
which was done in about five minutes, and the fire became general all round. 
The engagement lasted an hour and five minutes, the greatest part of which 
time a heavy and incessant fire was kept up on both sides. Our men, in 
some parts where the regulars fought, were obliged to give way a small dis- 
tance two or three times, but rallied and returned with additional ardor to 
the attack. The troops upon the right having gained the summit of the 
eminence, obliged the enemy to retreat along the top of the ridge, where 
Col. Cleaveland commanded, and were there stopped by his brave men. A 
flag was immediately hoisted by Captain Depeyster, the commanding officer 


(Major Ferguson having been killed a little before), for a surrender. Our 
lire immediately ceased, and the enemy laid down their arms — the greater 
part of them loaded — and surrendered themselves to us prisoners at discretion. 
It appears, from their own provision returns for that day, found in their 
camp, that their whole force consisted of eleven hundred and twenty-five 
men, out of which they sustained the following loss : Of the regulars, one 
major, one captain, two lieutenants, and fifteen privates killed ; thirtj'-five 
privates wounded — left on the ground not able to march, two captains, four 
lieutenants, three ensigns, one surgeon, five sergeants, three corporals, one 
drummer, and fifty-nine privates taken prisoners. 

Loss of the Tories, two colonels, three captains, and two hundred and 
one privates killed ; one major, and one hundred and twenty-seven privates 
wounded, and left on the ground not able to march ; one colonel, twelve cap- 
tains, eleven lieutenants, two ensigns, one quartermaster, one adjutant, two 
commissaries, eighteen sergeants, and six hundred privates taken prisoners. 
Total loss of the enemy 1,105 men at King's Mountain. 

Given under our hands at camp, 


The loss on our side : — 

Killed. Wounded. 

1 Colonel. 1 Major. 

1 Major. 3 Captains. 

1 Captain. 3 Lieutenants. 

2 Lieutenants. 53 Privates. 
4 Ensigns. — 

19 Privates. 60 — total. 

28— total. 

An account of the Battle of Klng^s Mountain, prepared hy Gen. William Le- 
noir, at the request of Judge Murphy, and furnished for this work by W, 
W. Lenoir, Esq., of Caldwell County. 

Having lately seen in the State Gazette, a publication of Mr, Walker's 
circular letter in which there is a very imperfect statement of the battle at 
King's Mountain, brings to my recollection your request for a true account 
thereof ; and having previously observed, that in all the histories of the Kevo- 
lutionary War that I have seen, the accounts of that battle are very erroneous, 
induces me to attempt to fulfill your desire on that subject, by giving you as 
perfect an account of that transaction from my own knowledge, as my memory 
at so distant a period will enable me to do. 

When a report was circulated that a detachment of the British army had 
advanced through the State of South Carolina, and a part of North Carolina, 
as far as Cane Creek, where a strong party of them were repulsed by the 
neighboring militia, chiefly of Burke County, under the command of Col. 
Chas. McDowell, and Major J. McDowell, the active Whigs of the w-estern 
part of North Carolina, and some from the near part of Yirginia, like patriots 
at a moment's notice, without any call from the Government, turned out and 
concentrated in Burke County, without any aid from public stores, of clothing, 
arms, ammunition, or any article of camp equipage, not having a single tent 
or baggage Avagon amongst them, and advanced to Green River, near the south- 
ern limit of Rutherford County, where they received some further, but im- 
perfect information of the progress of the aforesaid detachment of the British 
army, commanded by the celebrated Col. Ferguson, who was said to be pro- 
gressing through the country in various directions, committing great ravages 
and depredations. 

A council was held by the principal officers of the Whigs : the result of 
which was, that, on presumption that, through the medium of the Tories, Col. 


Ferguson had daily information of the advancement of the Whigs, and was 
so on the alert, that men on foot would not be able to overtake him ; therefore 
orders were given for as many as had, or could procure horses, to go in 
advance as mounted infantry, there not being a single dragoon in the Whig 
army. Whereupon, about live or six hundred were prepared and mai-ched 
oS about sunrise on the 6th day of October, 17X0, leaving the footmen, about 
one thousand five hundred in number, encamped on Green River, under the 
command of Major Joseph Ilerndon. The advance party of mounted infantry 
being joined by Col. AVilliams,* with a few South Carolina militia, in the 
evening arrived at a place called tbe Cowpeus, in South Carolina,! where two 
beeves were killed and orders given for the men to cook, and eat as quick as 
possible ; but marching orders were given, before those that were indolent, 
had prepared anything to eat ; and they marched all night (being dark and 
rainy), and crossed Broad River the next morning, where an attack was ex- 
pected. But not finding the enemy, the detachment almost exhausted by 
fatigue, hunger, cold and wet, and, for want of sleep, pursued their march a 
few miles, when they met two men from Col. Ferguson's camp, who gave some 
account of his situation. Then being revived by the hopes of gaining the 
desired object, the ofiicers held a short consultation (sitting on their horses), 
in which it was concluded that said detachment should be formed into four 
columns; two of the columns should march on each side of the road, as 
silently as they could, and that they should govern their march by the view 
of each other ; Col. Winston was placed at the head of the right hand column ; 
Coh Cleaveland at the head of the left; and Cols. Shelby and Sevier at the 
heads of the two middle columns ; and as Col. Campbell had come the greatest 
distance, and from the State of Virginia, he was complimented with the com- 
mand of the whole detachment. 

AVhen they had marched in that order about a mile. Colonel Winston, by a 
steep hill, had got so far separated from the other columns as to be out of 
sight or hearing of them, when some men rode in sight, and directed him to 
dismount, and march up the hill, which was immediately done, with an ex- 
pectation of meeting the enemy on the hill ; but before his men had advanced 
two hundred paces from their horses, they were again hailed, and directed to 
mount their horses and push on, and that the enemy was a mile ahead. On 
whicn, they ran with great precipitation down to their horses, mounted 
them, and rode like fox hunters, as fast as their horses could run, through 
rough woods, crossing branches and ridges without any person that had any 
knowledge of the woods to direct or guide them. They happened to fall in 
upon the left of the enemy (being the place of their intended destination). 
At this very moment the tiring began on the other parts of the lines,J when 
all dismounted under the fire of the enemy, and the right and left hand 
columns surrounded them as quick as possible. In the mean time, the enemy 
charged bayonets on the two middle columns,? who being armed with rifles, 
and not a single bayonet amongst them, were twice obliged to retreat a small 
distance ; but they wheeled again with increased vigor, and fought bravely. 
The enemy being surrounded, their left wing began to retreat, by drawing 
up in closer order towards their right. At length they hoisted a flag, and 
surrendered themselves prisoners of war ; not a single man of them escaped 
that was in camp at the commencement of the battle. 

After the arms and prisoners were secured, some men were appointed to 
number the dead. They reported two hundred and fifty of the enemy, and 
thirty-two of the Whigs. There were not near so many of the enemy wounded 
as were of the Whigs, about forty of whom afterwards died of their wounds. 
The total number of the Whigs in the battle was between six and seven 
hundred ; and the number of the enemy, agreeable to their daily returns, 

* Col. Williams was wounded in the battle and died one or two days afterwards. 

I Gen. Morgan afierwards defeated Col. Tarleton at the Cowpens. 

J Nothing but the interposition of Divine power could have conducted the said right 
hand column to so great advantage. 

§ A number of Tories who were not provided with bayonets, substituted butcher 
knives, the handles being cut to fit the muzzles of their guns." 


was eleven hundred and eighty-seven. The AYhij^s camped on the battle- 
ground, and marched off with tlieir prisoners the next day; and, having no 
other way to secure the arms taken, compelled the prisoners to carry them, a 
great number of them having to carry two guns each. About sunset we met the 
footmen they had left at Green Iliver, who had pi:ovided a plenty of rations, 
&c. The Whigs who had fought the battle wei-e almost famished. 

A few days afterwards, in Rutherford County, the principal officers held a 
Court-martial over some of the most audacious and murderous Tories, and 
selected thirty-two as victims for destruction ; and commenced hanging three 
at a time, until they hung nine, and respited the rest. 

Col. Ferguson had placed himself on the top of King's Mountain the morn- 
ing before the battle ; in a boasting manner, he had proclaimed that here was 
King's Mountain, and that he was the king of that mountain ; supposing it 
to be a very advantageous position for him ; but it proved the reverse, from 
the manner he was attacked and surrounded. Ilis elevated situation secured 
the Whigs from the danger of their own fire from the opposite side, and he 
being surrounded when his men sheltered themselves on one side, they were 
exposed to danger on the other. Colonel Ferguson had seven or eight bullets 
shot through him, and fell some time before the battle was over. 

The number of the Whigs was so inferior, that Col. Ferguson, or his suc- 
cessor in command, might have easily retreated with very inconsiderable 
loss ; if they had known the number and situation of the Whigs, no doubt 
but they would have retreated instead of surrendering. 

It appears that under the auspices of the same Divine Power that so advan- 
tageously conducted the right hand column of the Whigs to the battle at 
King's Mountain, from that period good fortune seemed to preponderate in 
every direction in favor of the common cause of liberty (except the single 
instance of General Gates, who was defeated by his own imprudence), for 
although the British army kept the battle-ground at Guilford Court House, 
it appears to be given up on both sides, that the Americans had the best of 
that battle, and disabled their enemy. And to contrast the situation of the 
Whigs after the battle of King's Mountain, with what inevitably would have 
been their situation in case Ferguson's army had gained as complete a victory 
over the Whigs, as the Whigs had done over them, it must appear that said 
battle was the most decisive, the most gloriously fought, and, although few 
in numbers, was of the greatest importance of any one battle that ever was 
fought in America. * tc- * «• * * 

I was captain of a company of footmen, and left them at Green River, 
except sis of them, who procured horses and went with us. I went as a com- 
mon soldier, and did not pretend to take command of those that belonged to 
my company; neither did I join any other company; but fell in immediately 
behind Col. Winston, in front of the right hand column, which enables me to 
give a more particular account of the progress of that part of our army than 
any other. Before the battle. Adjutant Jesse Franklin, now Governor of 
JS'orth Carolina, Capt. Robt. Cleaveland, and myself, agreed to stand together 
and support each other ; but, at the commencement of the battle, enthusiastic 
zeal caused us all to separate. Each being anxious to effect the grand object, 
uo one appeared to regard his own personal safety. As to my own part, 
from where we dismounted, instead of going on to surround, I advanced the 
nearest way towards the enemy, under a heavy fire, until I got within about 
thirty paces. Before they began to give ground, being among strangers, I 
noticed one particular instance of bravery. On hearing a man within six 
feet behind me fall, I looked around, and at that instant, another soldier 
jumped at him, saying, "Give me your shot-bag, old fellow !" his own ammu- 
nition being exhausted. The gallant patriot gave him with his dying hand 
his ammunition. About that time I received a slight wound in my side, and 
another in my left arm ; and, after that, a bullet went through my hair above 
where it was tied, and my clothes were cut in several places. From the ac- 
count I have given of the battle, it will be understood that it was fought on 
our side by militia alone. By that victory, many militia officers procured 



swords who could not possibly get any before ; neither was it possible to pro- 
cure a good supply of ammunition. ***** 





Thos. .Jefferson, 
Columbus Mills, 
Dr. W. J. T. Miller, 
John G. Bynum, 

House of Commons. 

J. Y. Hamrick. 
Joshua Beam. 
J. Y. Hamrick. 
G. G. Holland. 



Date of formation- 

-Situation and boundaries — Population and products — 
Members of Assembly. 

Columbus County was formed in 1808, from Bladen and Bruns- 
wick; its name is derived from Christopher Columbus, a native of 
Genoa, who in the year 1492 discovered America. 

It is situated in the south-eastern portion of North Carolina, and 
bounded on the north by Bladen ; on the east, by Brunswick and 
Bladen ; on the south, by the South Carolina line ; and west by Robe- 
son County. 

Its population is 4257 whites ; 1503 slaves ; 149 free negroes ; 5307 repre- 
sentative population. 

Its products are 1366 bushels of wheat; 79,155 bushels of corn ; 725 bar- 
rels turpentine ; ^10,864 w»rth of lumber ; 24,035 lbs. cotton; 6724 lbs. wool. 

Its revolutionary and colonial history is connected with Bladen 
and Brunswick, from which it was formed. 

Its capital is Whitesville, derived from James B. White, one of 
the first members in the General Assembly. One hmidi-ed and 
twenty-five miles distant from Raleigh. 

Members of the General Assembly from Columbus. 

Years. Senators. 

1809. James B. AVhite, 

1810. James B. White, 

1811. Wynn Nance, 

1812. Wynn Nance, 

1813. Wynn Nance, 

1814. Thomas Frink, 

1815. Thomas Frink, 

1816. Thomas Frink, 

1817. Thomas Frink, 

1818. Jonathan Pierce, 

1819. Thomas Frink, 

1820. Jacob Guiton, 

House of Commons. 

Wynn Nance, Thomas Frink. 
Thomas Frink, Wynn Nance. 
Jonathan Pierce, Thomas Frink. 
Thomas Frink, Jonathan Pierce. 
Goldborough Flower, -Jacob Guiton. 
Absalom Powell, P. Coleman. 
John Gore, David Guiton. 
Caleb Stephens, Jacob Guiton. 
Caleb Stephens, Jacob Guiton. 
Caleb Stephens, Jacob Guiton. 
J. H. White, R. Wooton. 
L. II. Simmons, R. Wooten. 



Years. Senators. 

1821. Thomas Frink, 

1822. Alexander Troy, 

1823. Thomas Frink, 
1S24. Thomas Frink, 

1825, Alex. Formyduval, 

1826, James Burney, 

1827, James Burney, 

1828, James Burney, 

1829, James Burnev, 

1830, Luke R. Simmons, 

1831, Luke R, Simmons, 

1832, Luke R, Simmons, 

1833, Luke R. Simmons, 

1834, Caleb Stephens, 

1835, Caleb Stephens, 

1836, James Burney, 
1838. Robert Melvin, 
1840, Robert Melvin, 
1842. Robert Melvin, 
1844. Robert Melvin, 
1846. Richard Wooten, 
1848. Richard Wooten, 
1850. Richard Wooten, 

House of Commons. 
L. R. Simmons, Levi Stephens. 
Caleb Stephens, Richard Wooten. 
J. H. White, Caleb Stephens. 
Richard Wooten, Luke R. Simmons. 
L. R, Simmons, Caleb Stephens. 
Caleb Stephens, L, R. Simmons. 
Caleb Stephens, L. R. Simmons. 
Caleb Stephens, L. R. Simmons. 
L. R. Simmons, Richard Wooten. 
Marmaduke Powell, Caleb Stephens. 
Caleb Stephens, Marmaduke Powell. 
Joseph Maultsby, Caleb Stephens, 
Caleb Stephens, Marmaduke Powell, 
Marmaduke Powell, Thomas Frink. 
Thomas Frink, Marmaduke PoAveli, 
J, Maultsby. 
Augustus Smith. 
Absalom Powell, 
Nathan L, Williamson. 
N, L, Williamson. 
N, L. Williamson. 
N, L, AYilliamson, 
John A, Maultsby. 



Origin of name — Date of formation — Situation and boundaries — Population 
and products — Newbern, its capital — Colonial and Revolutionary history — 
Its distinguished men — Abner Nash — Richard Dobbs Spaight — William 
Gaston — John Stanly — John R, Donnell — George E. Badger — John II. 
Bryan — Richard Dobbs Spaight, juu. — Matthias E. Manly — Charles B, 
Sheppard — William H. Washington, and others — Members of Assembly 
from 1774 to last session, 1850-51. 

Craven County was one of the orio;inal precincts of the Lords 
Proprietors, and derives its name from William, Earl of Craven, to 
whom with others the charter from Charles the Second was granted. 
He was a brave cavalier, an old soldier of the German discipline, 
and supposed husband to the Queen of Bohemia.* 

It is situated in the eastern part of the State, bounded on the 
north by Pitt and Beaufort, on' the east by the Pamplico Sound, on 
the south by Carteret and Jones, and on the west by Pitt, Jones, 
and Lenoir Counties, 

Its population is 7222 whites; 5951 slaves; 1536 free negroes; 12,328 re- 
presentative population. 

'■^ Life of Lord Keeper Guildford, 
States, vol. ii. 129, 


Bancroft's History of the United 


Its products are 6037 bushels wheat ; 10,577 hushels oats ; 3019 bushels 
rye ; 143,835 bushels corn ; 66,833 lbs. cotton ; 8099 lbs. wool ; 139,027 bar- 
rels turpentine ; 1622 barrels fish ; 37,911 dollars worth lumber. 

Its capital is Newbern, one of the largest and oldest towns in 
the State ; beautifully located at the confluence of the Neuse and 
Trent rivers. It derives its name* from Bern, the place of nativity 
of Christopher Baron de Graaffenreidt, who, in 1709, emigrated to 
this State and settled near this place. He had purchased of the 
Lords Proprietors ten thousand acres of land for ten pounds ster- 
ling for every thousand acres, and five shillings of quit rent. In 
the month of December, 1710, the Palatines, as they were called, 
landed in Carolina, and 1,500 Swiss. The fatal attack of the In- 
diansf already alluded to, in 1711, had like to have destroyed this 
colony, which was a great acquisition to North Carolina. De 
Graaffenreidt and Lawson, the sm^veyor of the colony and its ear- 
liest historian, w^hile ascending the Neuse, were seized by the 
Indians ; Lawson was massacred and the Baron narrowly escaped. 
He became disgusted with the country and sold his interest to 
Thomas Pollock, for X800, and returned to Switzerland. 

The early history of Craven County affords ample material for 
a separate volume. It is to be hoped that some worthy son of 
"the Athens of North Carolina," will undertake this pious and 
patriotic duty. 

The members to the General ^Meeting of Deputies of the province at New- 
bern, on 15th of August, 1774, from Craven, were James Coor, Lemuel 
Hatch, Joseph Leech, and Richard Cogdell. 

The members to the Assembly at the same place, in April, 1775, were the 
same, with Jacob Blount, and William Bryan. 

The members to the Assembly at Hillsboro' on the 21st of August, 1775, 
were James Coor, William Bryan, Richard Cogdell, Joseph Leech, Jacob 
Blount, and Edmund Hatch. 

The members at Halifax in November, 1776, were James Coor, Willliam 
Bryan, -John Bryan, Christopher Neale, and John Bryan. 

In 1775, Abxer Nash and James Coor were members of the Provincial 
Council of Safety. 

The District Committee for the Newbern District, were Dr. Alexander 
Gaston, Richard Cogdell, John Easton, Major Croom, Roger Ormond, 
Edward Salter, George Burrow, William Thompson, Benj. Williams, Ri- 
chard Ellis, AVilliam Brown, and James Glasgow. 

The field ofiicers for this county were John Bryan, Col. ; Lemuel Hatch, 
Lieut.-Col. ; John Bryan, jun,, 1st Major; John Tilman, 2d Major. 

The names of these men are here preserved, hoping that some future pen 
may do justice to their services and characters. 

Hon. Francois Xavier Martin was long a resident of Newbern. He was 
born at Marseilles, France, 17th March, 1762. At the age of 20, he emigrated 
to North Carolina, where he studied law, and was distinguished for his labor 
and learning. 

In 1806 he represented Newbern in the House of Commons. _ 

By Mr. .Jefferson he was appointed U. S. Judge of the Mississippi Territory, 
and resided for a time at Natchez. 

On 1st Feb., 1815, he was elevated by Gov. Claiborne, to the Supreme Court 
Bench of Louisiana. He continued in this exalted position until his death, 
which occurred on the 10th December, 1846. 

* Martin's History of N. C. i. 233. j Williamson, i. 85 ; 1 vol. 37. 


lie "was one of the most learned Jurists of his age. With a mind naturally 
acute ; an erudition surpassed by none, equalled by few ; with an unspotted 
intep;rity, his decisions are regarded Avith that respect they merit. 

His labors as an Author were considerable. He was the compiler of the 
Statute Laws of North Carolina : author of a work on Justices of the Peace ; 
and of the best History, according to the means he possessed, ever published 
of our State. 

Hon. William Blount, of this County, was a member of the Continental 

Congress, in 1782-83, and in 178G-87. 

On 23d April, 1787, he was appointed by Richard Caswell, Governor of the 
State, in his place, as a delegate to the Convention which assembled in Phila- 
delphia, in May, to form the Constitution, and his name is appended to that 
document, with those of Ilichard Dobbs Spaight, and Hugh Williamson. He 
was the brother of John Gray, and Thomas Blount, of Beaufort. On the 
organization of the North-western Territory, he was appointed Governor; and 
when Tennessee was admitted as a State, he was elected Senator in Congress. 
He was expelled from the Senate on the 8th of July, 1777, for exciting the 
Indians to make hostile incursions in the Spanish Territory. 

Had he lived in this progressive age, this act so far from expelling him from 
the Senate, might have elevated him to still higher position. 

He married Mary Granger, of Wilmington, and their names have been 
perpetuated in Tennessee, by towns and counties. 

Abner Nash, whose name appears in the Provincial Council, was distin- 
guished in the early history of North Carolina, as one of her devoted sons, 
and most patriotic citizens. He was born in Prince Edward County, Va. 
His ftither was from AY ales. He was educated for the bar, and was elected 
the first Speaker of the Senate, and the second Governor of North Carolina, 
under the Constitution, in 1779. He was defeated in 1781, by Thomas Burke, 
of Orange. 

Jones, in his " Defence of North Carolina,"* states that "Gov. Nash was 
defeated on account of the disordered state of the finances." 

From 1782 to 1785, he represented Jones County in the Assembly. He was 
elected by the Assembly a member of the Continental Congress, in 1782, to 

He was distinguished for his urbane manners, and solid acquirements. 
His bi'other, Gen. Francis Nash, fell in the battle of Germantown, and his 
son is now one of the Judges of our Supreme Court. His first wife was the 
widow of Arthur Dobbs, Governor of the State ; and his second Miss Jones. 
He died at Newbern, respected and esteemed for his high moral character 
and intellectual attainments. His name is preserved in the State in the 
County erected in 1777, while he was Speaker of the Senate. 

PiiCHARD Dobbs Spaight was a resident of tliis County. He sprung from an 
ancient and honorable family connected with that of Gov. Arthur Dobbs. 
He was at an early age left an orphan. He commenced his academic studies 
in Ireland, and completed them at the University of Glasgow, in Scotland, 
and in 1778 he returned home. His country was then engaged in her strug- 
gles for liberty. He joined the army as aide-de-camp to Gen. Caswell, and as 
such was at the battle of Camden, in August, 1780. 

In 1781 he represented the town of Newbern, in the House of Commons; 
and in 1782-83, and 1784, he was elected at the same time to represent the 
'State in the Continental Congress at Philadelphia; and it appears that he 
served in l)oth capacities. In 1785 and 1786, ho was member from Craven 
County. In 1787 he was chosen as one of the Delegates to form the Consti- 
tution of the United States, and his name is appended to that instrument. 

In 1788 he was one of the Delegates from Craven, to the Convention at 
Ilillsboro' to deliberate on the same. 

* Jones's Defence, 313. 


In 1792 he was elected the Governor of the State, in vrhich year he was a 
member of the House from Xewbern. 

In 1798 he -was elected a member of Congress from the Nevrbern District, 
and served one Concrress. 

In 1801 he was elected a member of the State Senate, from Craven. 

In September, 1802, from some expressions of the Hon. John Stanly, in 
regard to his political career, an angry correspondence took place, which 
terminated by a challenge from Mr. Stanly. Dr. Edward Pasteur was the 
friend of Gov' Spaight ; and Edward Graham, Esq., the friend of Mr. Stanly. 

The challenge and acceptance are here recorded. 

JTr. StanJy to Gen. Spaiglit. 

Sir — Your handbill of the 4th instant is before me. It affords abundant 
proof of what I intended the world should be convinced, that the character 
which you attempted to play off before them was assumed, and could not long 
be supported : that you walked on stilts, and had been prevailed upon in a fit 
of frenzy, malice, and despair, to frame a challenge, which was the subject 
of your daily repentance. My object was to show in the face of those de- 
claimers on your heroism and spirit, that no charge could be framed suffi- 
ciently insulting to tempt you to commit again the like indiscretion. In this 
I have had success that must astonish and mortify your friends and foes. 
Yet who can say that you have not deserved it. There yet remains another 
object to be attained. I am no general ; I complained of no injury ; I sent 
no challenge for satisfaction ; nay more, I had set it up as a principle to send 
you none, but your experiment has betrayed you into a difficulty to which 
your calculation did not extend ; to your disappointment this letter informs 
you that, humiliating as it is to my feelings to fight a man who can descend 
to the filth contained in your handbill, I shall expect that you will meet me 
as soon as may be convenient, to give that satisfaction which you assure me 
that "if I ask for it once I shall not be under the necessity of doing it the 
second time." JOHN STAXLY. 

Sept. otk, 1802. 

My friend ^Ir. Graham, who hands you this, wiU receive your answer. 

Gen. SpaigTit to Mr. Stanly. 

Xewberx, Sept. 5t?i, 1802. 

Sir — Yours of tliis date has been received. My friend. Doctor Edward 
Pasteur, will appoint the time and place, and make the other necessary ar- 
rangements with your friend. 


The parties met on Sunday afternoon, on the 5th September ; and upon the 
exchange of the fourth fire, (jov. Spaight received a wound in the right side, 
of which he died in 23 hours. 

JoHX Staxly was often a member of the Legislature. He was a member 
of Congress in 1801 from this district, and again in 1809. His first session 
in the Legislature was in 1812, a period of extraordinary political excite- 
ment. He took a decided stand in opposition to the war ; and was a leader 
of the party opposed to Mr. Madison's administration. His unfortunate 
affair with Gov. Spaight had grown out of political feeling. He petitioned the 
General Assembly in 1803, for an act of pardon, but it was refused on the 
ground that the pardoning power had been vested in the Governor by the 
Constitution. The Governor, Benjamin "Williams, upon petition pardoned 
him. A copy of Mr. Stanly's petition is herewith copied from the original 
in his own hand, in j^ossession of Gov. Swain. 

"Sir — I have the honor of laying before your excellency several publica- 
tions by General Richard Doblis Spaight and myself on the subject of a con- 
troversy between us. Your Excellency will learn from them the rise and 


progress of a difference which has had a melancholy termination. I beg 
leave, sir, to ask you to judge from the puldications themselves whether I have 
not on my part acted with decency and moderation? whether I do not dis- 
cover a disposition to forbearance rather than provocation? Yet, this man- 
ner of mine, so far from protecting me from insult, was treated by my oppo- 
nent as pleas of cowardice, and appears to have encouraged the use of those 
opprobrious epithets which have so li))erally been bestowed upon me. 

" Had I been indifferent to the good opinion of the world, could I have 
extinguished those principles of virtue and honor which teach me neither to 
give cause for reproach or to submit to the stigma which such publications, 
unnoticed, would have fixed upon me ; I might have borne ' the robbery of 
my good name' with humility. I might have then preferred to pass the remain- 
der of my days with submission to the affronts which such a weakness of dispo- 
sition would encourage, and which such charges unrepelled would justify ; to 
have existed the object of scorn, contempt, and derision of mankind, rather 
than to have created, at the hazard of my own life, those difficulties and dis- 
tresses to which I am now subjected by a measure adopted to preserve a 
character which I fondly trust has hitherto been free from dishonorable im- 

" I appeal, sir, to the feelings of every gentleman ; permit me, sir, to appeal 
to that dignified sense of honor which adorns your own character, to decide 
whether it was possible, or would have been proper in me to acquiesce with 
humility, to have bowed myself to the opprobrious epithets of ' liar and 
scoundrel,' which General Spaight, in his publication of the 4th, applies to 
me, at the same time braving me to ask satisfaction. 

" I felt an obligation due to myself, and no less urgent duty to the people 
whom I have the honor to represent, to remove these dishonorable terms. I 
took that step which I hope cannot be condemned, the one most likely to pro- 
cure that redress which I wished, a retraction of the epithets, or, on refusal, 
to punish the man who could so unjustly apply them to me. A copy of my 
challenge of the 5th inst. accompanies the other papers. This was accepted. 
We fought the same day. General Spaight received a wound, of which he 
has since died. 

" From this fatal result of a measure which I trust the candid and discern- 
ing will admit to have been necessary, if not indispensable, an event which 
I shall not cease to deplore, I have become criminal to the laws of my coun- 
try, I am exposed to all the persecution which the resentful feelings of the 
malevolent and uncandid may stimulate, or the forms of the law require. 
Were my own feelings alone to be affected by the probability of imprison- 
ment and arraignment, I should endeavor to support myself with that forti- 
tude which the situation would require. But there are others whose con- 
nection with me create all the anxieties I mj^self can feel without the forti- 
tude to allay them. These I feel an obligation, if possible, to remove. 

" If your Excellencj^ will examine the case, I trust it will appear that Gene- 
ral Spaight acknowledged himself satisfied with my explanation of my con- 
versation which had first given him offence. That our subsequent difference 
was occasioned by his publishing Smyth's certificate, with a view, as he after- 
words avows, of impeaching my veracity and the truth of the very state- 
ment with which he had said 'he should rest satisfied.' That the remarks 
extorted from me by the publication were moderate and respectful — that I sup- 
ported the controversy with temperance, departing in no instance from the 
language of a gentleman — and that my sul)sequent expressions of warmth 
were provoked by the harsh language of my opponent. I hope that your 
Excellency will be of that opinion, that when the most opprobi'ious epithets 
were applied to me, that respect for the opinion of the world, an honest and 
laudable desire to wipe off such vile and undeserved reproach actuated me 
to adopt the measure most likely to accomplish that object. Though these 
circumstances and considerations may not leave me entirely free from offence, 
in the severe constructions of the law, I trust that they will so far extenuate 
it as to induce your Excellency to believe that my conduct does not merit the 


sevei-e, distressing, and humiliating consequence that must result fi'om a 
rigorous prosecution. 

" 3Iay it please your Excellency to exercise in my favor that power of 
granting pardons which the Constitution has vested in you. 

"I have the honor to be, with every sentiment of respect, 

"Your Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant, 

" His Excellency, Governor Williams. 
"Sept. Vdih, 1802." 

He .continued without much intermission in the House of Commons, of 
•which he was often Speaker, until 1826, when he was struck with a paralytic 
stroke, which terminated his political career, and in a few years his life. 
He died 3d of August, 1834. 

"William Gastox, late Judge of the Supreme Court of the State, was a 
native of Newbern. His father. Dr. Alexander Gaston, " a native of Ireland, 
and a man of letters," was one of the most determined patriots of his day. He 
was killed on the 20th August, 1781, under the most painful circumstances. 
He was retreating from the attack of the Tories, with his wife and two small 
children, when a party of Tories appeared. Mrs. Gaston was left on the wharf, 
Avhile her husband pushed off in a boat. One of these monsters leveled his 
gun over the shoulder of Mrs. Gaston, and her patriotic husband fell dead, 
leaving her and two children; a son, the distinguished subject of this notice, 
and a daughter, who afterwards was the wife of Chief Justice Taylor. 

Judge Gaston was born in Newbern, 19th September, 1778. 

Happily for him, and happy for his State, his mother was a woman of great 
energy of character, of devoted piety, and extraordinary prudence. Naturally 
of a quick temper ; her counsel, example and advice, taught him to subdue it. 
The great object of her life seemed to be to prepare herself for a better world, 
and to train in "wisdom's ways" the precious charge left to her care un- 
der such afiiicting and tragical circumstances. She felt like the mother of 
Moses — the words of Pharaoh's daughter — "Take this child and nurse it 
for me, and I will give thee thy wages." His unparalleled success in after 
life, his extensive usefulness and exalted public services, prove how faithfully 
her duty had been discharged. 

" This tells to mothers what a holy charge 
Is theirs; with what a kingly power their love 
May rule the fountains oi'the new-born mind ; 
Warns them to wake at early dawn and sow 
Good seed belbre the world doth sow its tares."* 

Mrs. Ellet, in her work, " Women of the Revolution," renders any further 
allusion to Mrs. Gaston unnecessary, except to quote from her beautiful pro- 
duction,! one anecdote, which gives in graphic minuteness, her method of edu- 
cation. When her son was only seven or eight years old, he was, even then, 
remarkable for his aptitude and cleverness. "William, why is it," said one 
of his little schoolmates, "that you are always head of the class, and I am 
always foot?" " There is a reason," replied he, "but if I tell you, you must 
promise to keep it a secret, and do as I do. Whenever I take up a book to 
study, I first say a little prayer my mother taught me, that I may be able to 
learn my lessons." 

Judge Gaston has often been heard to declare, that whatever distinction he 
had attained in life, was owing to her pious counsel and ftxithful conduct. J 
Under her eye his early education Avas conducted. In the fall of 1791, he 
was sent to the Catholic College, at Georgetown, then only fourteen years 
old. The rigor of this bleak climate, the painful and rigid discipline, and 
exiled from the comforts and attentions of afiection, caused his health to give 
way, and in the spring of 1793, it was feared that he was sinking under a con- 

* Mrs. Sigourney. t Women of the Revolution, ii. 139 

{ Life and character of William Gaston, by Wm. li. Battle, Chapel Hill, 1844. 


sumption ; and it was arlvised by his physicians that he should'return to the 
mild air of his native climate. He returned home, and his health soon im- 
proved. Under the care of the Ilev. Thomas P. Irwing, he was prepared for 
college. He entered the Junior Class, at Princeton, in the foil of 1794. He 
graduated at the early age of eighteen, with the tirst honors of that renowned 
and ancient institution. 

Judge Gaston has left this tribute to his venerated mother: — " The proudest 
moment of my life, was when I conununicated the information to her that I had 
not only graduated, but with honor.'"* Their meeting on his return home, 
was one of no confmon character. Loaded with all the honors of science and 
literature, he kneels at the feet of her who was the author of his being and 
true cause of his success. 

He studied law with Francois Xavier Martin, then residing in Newbern ; 
afterwards the author of a History of North Carolina, and late Judge in 
Louisiana, whose character the reader has just read. 

In 1798, before his arriving at manhood, Mr. Gaston was admitted to the 
bar. The elevation of his brother-in-law, John Louis Taylor, to the bench 
in that year, threw all his business into the hands of Mr. Gaston, at once 
heavy and lucrative. To his well-disciplined mind, laborious habits, and in- 
defatigable industry, this only stimulated him to increased exertion. He 
not only sustained this responsibility, but his reputation was established ; it 
continued to increase in such rapid strides, until he attained, by the appro- 
bation of all, the head of his profession. The people, who delight to honor 
merit, soon perceived the rich jewel that was among them. When only 
twenty-two, he was elected a member of the Senate (in 1800), from Craven 
County. But the labors of his profession, and duties to those who entrusted 
their fortunes and lives to his hands, with his small patrimony, denied to 
him that service to the people that they required. He did not appear again 
in public life until 1808, Avhon he was elected a member of the House of 
Commons from Newbern, of which body he was chosen Speaker. He was 
elector on the Presidential ticket in this year. After his re-election to the 
House of Commons in 1(S09, he retired from the House of Commons. 

But he was not allowed to remain by the people long from their service. 
He was elected a member of Congress in 1813 from this district, and re- 
elected in 1815. 

His life now becomes a part of our national property, and we may 
" Read its history in a nation's eyes." 

This period was one of extraordinary excitement. He took a prominent 
stand in opposition to the Administration, sustained as it was by the ability 
of Lowndes, of South Carolina, the intellectual power of Calhoun of the 
same State, and the resistless eloquence of Clay, of Kentucky. Amid this 
galaxy of the political firmament, the bright star of North Carolina shone 
with peculiar brilliancy, even amid the influence of Webster, Grosvenor and 
others. It is not the province or the part of the historian to express any 
opinion as to the political course of individuals, their merits, or their errors. 
His duty is to state plainly and frankly the course pursued, and let each 
form their own conclusions as to its propriety or correctness. But whatever 
line of conduct Mr. Gaston pursued, that course was marked by talent, labor, 
and genius of the highest character. His efforts in Congress on "the Pre- 
vious Question" and " the Loan Bill," are left to us, and have attracted the 
admiration of competent judges, for their power and eloquence. 

At the end of his second tei-m he voluntarily resigned his charge ; and at- 
tended to the laborious duties of his extended practice of the law. 

He did not appear again in public life until 1827, when from the increased 
indisposition of Mr. Stanly, who had been elected that year a member of the 
House of Commons from Newbern, a vacancy occurred, and Mr. Gaston was 
elected to supply his place. This he accepted as a matter of duty, not of in- 
clination ; as a return of gratitude for favors received, not with the hope of 
honors or laurels yet to be acquired. 

It was known at Raleigh that Mr. Stanly had resigned ; but it was not 

* Eulog^^ by Kobert Strange, Fayetteville, 1844. 


known who was to be his successor, and it was a matter of some interest to 
know upon whom the mantle of this distinguished tactician had fallen. No 
one suspected that Mr. Gaston would accept. 

The writer well recollects that, while sitting in the office of Judge Tay- 
lor, then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (the house now occupied by 
Judge Saunders), and reading under his care the elements of the law, that 
on a l)right morning in Nov., 1S27, the Newbern stage drove up. When the 
State House bell rung, he was preparing to go to the Capitol to attend to his 
duties (he was that year a member from his native county of Hertford, and 
the youngest member in the house), he met at the door Judge Taylor, who 
asked him in the house, as Mr. Gaston was there. He was introduced, and 
Mr. Gaston accompanied him to the Capitol. As yet it was not known to 
him the motive of the introduction, or the object of Mr. Gaston in going to 
the Capitol. When we reached the House of Commons, all eyes were turned 
upon Mr. Gaston, then in the zenith of his fame and popularity. He pre- 
sented to the writer, a certificate of his election, as the member from Newbern, 
and most quietly requested him to present it to the House. It was done. 
This was his first interview with this distinguished man, and his first motion 
in the House of Commons. He well recollects the high satisfaction and im- 
provement that he derived from an intimate and personal intercourse with 
him — the lessons and practical wisdom that his course and conversation 
afforded — the charm of his wit in private circles — the brilliancy of his elo- 
quence in the Hall. 

_ Thomas Settle, now a judge of the Superior Court, was Speaker; the Judi- 
ciary Committee was : Hon. Frederick Nash, William Gaston, John D. Eccles, 
of Fayetteville, Jos. A. Hill, of Wilmington, Geo. E. Spruill, of Halifax, and 
John H. Wheeler, of Hertford. 

On one occasion, when Mr. Nash, now of the Supreme Court, had intro- 
duced a bill for the re-organization of that court, after an able and lucid 
explanation, and elaborate speech from him, during the delivery of which 
Mr. Gaston remained as immovable as a statue, with folded arms and eyes 
fixed on the floor. When the author of the bill had finished, Mr. Gaston 
moved an adjournment. 

The next day he replied, and with such force of argument and such power 
of eloquence in opposition to the bill, that its distinguished author had but 
few adherents. He was well aware of the importance of the occasion, the 
connection of the court with the vital interests of the State, the power and 
ingenuity of the advocate of the present measure. He met the combat with 

" That stern joy which warriors feel 
In meeting foemen worthy of their steel." 

This effort cost him a long winter night of study, to which he added all the 
power of argument and the brilliancy of his genius. 

_ Not only in argument was he powerful ; in repartee and wit he was invin- 
cible. His anecdotes were pointed and most pungent, and his sarcasm was 

He served in the following year and in 1835. He then left, never to re- 
turn, the legislative arena, the scene of so many intellectual conflicts, and 
the theatre of his glory. 

In li-!34, he was elected Judge of the Supreme Court, to supply the vacancy 
occasioned by the death of Judge Henderson. W^ithout any solicitation or 
suggestion on his part, all eyes turned to him as the most suitable person in 
the State for this elevated position. 

Once more he appeared in public as a statesman, in the Convention of 
1835, as member from Craven, to amend the Constitution. This was an 
important occasion. The Constitution formed by the State Congress in Nov. 
1776, while our country was in the midst of war, and preparing to meet its 
emergencies, with the minds of the members occupied by its stirring and 
important events, was not free from errors and imperfections. The people 
felt the importance of the occasion, and sent their ablest men to devise and 
consult— Nathaniel Macon, Judge Daniel, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr., John 
Branch, Daniel L. Swain, and others. 


To others who ■witnessed the intellectual labors, the eloquent efforts, and 
patriotic services of Mr. Gaston on this occasion, is left the duty of recording 
them. Their journal and their debates have been published. His speech 
on the 32d article, which was supposed to exclude Catholics from any office 
or place of trust or profit in this State, under the peculiar circumstances of 
the case (he being a member of the Roman Catholic Church), was considered 
one of his highest intellectual efforts, and was extensively published and read 
throughout the Union. 

This was the last service he ever performed in a representative capacity. 
lie now applied the whole vigor of his capacious mind and his varied ac- 
quirements, to his duties as Judge of the Supreme Court. He was, however, 
solicited in 1840, by the dominant party, to accept the post of Senator in 
Congress. This was no idle compliment. The party had the power to 
elect him without a contest. lie had but to give his consent and it was ac- 
complished. But to that solicitation he turned a deaf ear. 

In a letter to General John Gray Bynum, dated October, 1840, which does 
honor to his head and his heart, he says, " I believe the faithful j^erformance 
of the duties of the office I now hold, by the kindness of my fellow citizens, 
is as important to the public welfare, as any services which I could render 
in the political station to which you invite me. To give a wholesome exposi- 
tion to the laws ; to settle the fluctuations and reconcile the seeming conflict- 
ing analogies of judicial decisions ; to administer justice in the last resort 
with a steady hand and upright purpose ; appear to me among the highest 
of civil functions. And so long as God spares me heaUh and understanding 
to perform these faithfully, how can I better serve my country V 

This elevated position. Senator in Congress, the most dignified in our land, 
and preferable to even the Presidency by many, was declined by Judge 
Gaston. Let the politician in his toilsome and Sabbathless career for pre- 
ferment, stop and admire this example. 

The manner in which he discharged his important duties ; his profound and 
varied literature ; his extensive legal knowledge ; his severe and patient re- 
search ; his polished and clear compositions, render his opinions from this 
exalted tribunal, not only monuments of legal learning, but models of ele- 
gant literature. A much higher opinion is given by one who knew him lone 
and knew him well, pronounced from the judgment seat (Chief Justice 
Ruffin), when he said, " he was a great Judge and a good man." 

His opinion in case of State v. Will ;* and his dissenting opinion in case 
of State V. Miller;! have been pronounced by onej well qualified to judge 
"one of the finest judicial arguments to be found in any country.'' 

But this useful citizen and valuable officer had to pass the same ordeal 
that all must encounter : — 

" Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede 
Pauperum tabernas, regumque turres."| 

On the 23d January, 1844, Judge Gastox took his seat on the Supreme 
Court bench. He complained ; for he had felt for some days chilly sensa- 
tions, and difficulty of breath. During an argument from Hon. Robert 
Sti'angc at the bar, he was attacked with faintness, and carried from the 
court room to his chamber. A physician was called in, who soon relieved 
him. That evening, he seemed more lively than usual. He told several 
anecdotes, at which his friends laughed cordially. It was but the flickering 
of an expiring luminary. He was relating an account of a convivial party 
at Washington city with graphic delineation ; and spoke of one who on that 
occasion, avowed himself a Free Thinker on the subject of religion. || " From 
that day," said he, " I viewed that man with distrust. I do not say that a 
Free Thinker may not from education and high motives be an honorable 
man ; hut I dare not trust him. A belief in an all-ruling Providence, Avho 
shapes our ends and will reward us according to our deeds, is necessary. 

* 1 Dev. and Battle Rep. 121. t Ibid. 500 { Hod. W. H. Battle. 

§ " Pale Death beats with equal foot at the cottages of the poor and palaces of kings."' 
— Horace. 

II Tobias Watkins, late Auditor of the Treasury. 


We must believe and feel that there is a God, Allwise and Almighty." As 
he pronounced this last word, he raised himself up from his bed to give it 
greater emphasis ; in a moment, there seemed a sudden rush of blood to the 
brain, and he fell back a lifeless corpse. His spirit fled from the scenes of 
earth to meet that God in vrhom he had throughout his -whole life trusted, 
and vrhose Almighty name last vibrated from his tongue. 

Of such a man may our State be well proud. She has inscribed his name on 
her towns and counties, and as long as talents are revered, services honored, 
and virtue esteemed, the name of Gaston will be cherished. 

His taste for poetry was of an elevated character, which he had cultivated 
to some extent. The following lines are from his pen : — 


Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her! 
"While we live, we will cherish and love and defend her ; 
Though the scorner may sneer at, and witlings defame her, 
Our hearts swell with gladness, whenever we name her. 

Hurrah ! Hurrah ! ihe old North State for ever ! 

Hurrah! Hurrah! the good old North State ! 

Though she envies not others their merited glory, 
Say, whose name stands the foremost in Liberty's story ! 
Though too true to herself, e'er to crouch to oppression, 
Who can yield to just rule more loyal submisision? 
Hurrah, &c. 

Plain and artless her sons, but whose doors open faster. 
At the knock of the stranger, or the tale of disaster ? 
How like to the rudeness of their dear native mountains. 
With rich ore in their bosoms, and lite in their fountains. 
Hurrah, &c. 

And her daughters, the Queen of the forest resembling, 
So graceful, so constant, yet to gentlest breath trembling, 
And true lightwood at heart, let the match be applied them. 
How they kindle and flame ? Oh, none know but who've tried them. 
Hurrah, &c. 

Then let all who love us, love the land that we live in, 

(As happy a region as on this side of Heaven,) 

Where Plenty and Freedom, Love and Peace smile before us, 

Raise aloud, raise together, the heart thrilling chorus ! 

Hurrah! Hurrah! the old North State forever! 

Hurrah ! Hurrah ! the good old North State ! 

He was thrice married. On the 4th Sept., 1803, to Miss Susan Hay (daughter 
of John Hay, of Fayetteville). 

On Oct. Gth, 1805, to Hannah McClure, the only daughter of General McClure, 
who died on the 12th of July, 1813, leaving one son and two daughters ; and 
in August, 1816, he married again, Eliza Ann Worthington, daughter of Dr. 
Charles Worthington, of Georgetown, D, C. She died Jan. 2Gth,1819, leaving 
two infant daughters. 

The General Assembly, at its next session (1845), through Dr. Thomas N. 
Cameron, late Senator from Cumberland, Chairman of the Committee to whom 
the subject was referred, reported the following resolutions: — 


Adopted unanimously by the General Assembly of the State of 
North Carolina, at the Session of 1844-45, and ordered to be re- 
corded in the Journals of both houses : — 

The General Assembly of North Carolina have learned that since their last 
session, one of the most distinguished of our citizens has died. On the 23d 
of January, 1844, William Gaston, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, after an illness of a few hours departed this life. The 



General Assembly of the State, from the unsullied character and inestimable 
worth of this distinguished citizen, is conscious that no acts or words can ex- 
press their deep veneration for his character, or their sorrow for his irrepara- 
ble loss. 

" Storied urn, or animated bust," cannot remind us more sensibly of his 
exalted worth ; for this is impressed deeply on every heart. 

Literally baptized in the blood of his distinguished ancestor who fell in the 
revolutionary struggles of our country, he was early impressed with an aliid- 
ing love of his native State, and devoted the whole energies of his well dis- 
ciplined mind to its service. 

In all the varied stations of importance to which he was called by the con- 
fidence of his fellow-citizens, he devoted with untiring energy all the powers 
of his mind to the promotion of the public weal. As a man, he was exem- 
plary in all the relations of life ; a devoted husband, an affectionate father. As 
a statesman, he was pure and patriotic; the honor of his country was the 
chief object of his heart. As an advocate, he was faithful and zealous. As 
a Judge, he was learned and impartial ; and he died, as the whole of his life 
had been spent, in the service of the State. 

When such a man dies the State may well mourn. The sensation caused 
by his death testified the estimation in which he was held by his countrymen. 
Nothing could exceed his long, bright, and glorious career in life, but the 
tranquil manner in which he left it. 

We are informed by the proceedings of the Supreme Court, on the mournful 
occasion of his death, that at the moment of his dissolution his mind was 
cheerful, and his conversation instructive. Full of years, and full of honors, 
he left without a struggle or a murmur, a world of gloom for an eternity of 
gloi'y. Truly was it said by one who knew him long, and knew him well, 
" he was a good man and a great Judge." 

The General Assembly of the State of North Carolina feel their inability 
to express their own feelings, or those of their constituents, in view of the 
loss which the State has sustained ; yet they deem it due to the memory of 
departed talents, and gratitude for his long and faithful services, to offer the 


Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of North Carolina, that in 
the death of William Gaston, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, the 
State has experienced a loss of one of its most patriotic citizens, a faithful 
public servant, and a learned and impartial judge. That in the course of a 
long and varied life, his bright career is left to us an example worthy of 
imitation, and his unsullied character one of the brightest jewels of the State. 

Resolved, That the Governor of the State transmit a copy of these resolu- 
tions, with the preamble, to the family of the deceased ; and that they be 
spread on the journals of both branches of the General Assembly.* 

Hon. John Sitgreaves was a resident of Newbern. He was appointed a 
Lieutenant by the State Congress in 177C, in Captain Cassell's company. He 
was in the battle of Camden (August, 1780) as aid to Governor Caswell. He 
was a member of the Continental Congress in 1784, and from 1787 to 1789, 
was in the Legislature, from Newbern. 

He succeeded Judge John Stokes as U. S. District Judge of North Carolina, 
appointed by Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Jefferson's private journal has the follow- 
ing: — 

" 1789. Hawkins recommended John Sitgreaves as a very clever gentle- 
man, of good deportment, well skilled in the law for a man of his aj^e, and 
should he live long enough, he will be an ornament to his profession. Spaight 
and Blount concurring, he was nominated." 

* These resolutions passed unanimously both liouses, and were, by order, spread upon 
their journals ; and were prepared ou this occasion, at the request of the Chainuan, Ijy the 
Author of these sketches. 



He died at Halifax in 1800, where he lies buried, and was succeeded by the 
lion. Henry Potter. 

Rev. Thomas P. Irtine was celebrated "in the olden time" of Newbern aa 
a teacher. Many anecdotes, rich in humor, might have been detailed of him, 
for he was a man 

-if severe in aught, 

The love lie bore to learning was his fault." 

He was a scholar " rare and ripe," and prepared some of our first men with 
great cai-e for the duties of life. Many, whose hands have since guided the 
afiairs of State, have felt the stringent application of his Tippoo Saib, and 
many whose shoulders have been honored by the ermine of the laws, early 
felt the infliction of his Great Mogul. Peace to his manes ! 

Richard Dobbs Spaight, son of Governor Spaight, was born in Newbern 
in 1796 ; educated at the University, at which he graduated in 1815. He 
was a lawyer by profession. He was first elected to the Legislature in 1819, 
in the House of Commons. In 1820 he was elected to the Senate, and also 
in 1821 and 1822. 

In 1823, he was elected to Congress from this district, and served one Con- 
gress. He was elected to the Senate again in 1824, and served continuously 
until 1834, when he was elected Governor of the State. 

After this he never was in the public service, but declining all political 
honors, devoted himself to agricultural pursuits. He died in 1850, much 
esteemed by his fellow citizens, as a liberal politician and courteous gentle- 
man. He never was married. 

John R. Donnell, of this county, was born in Ireland ; educated at the 
University, and graduated in 1807, with the first honors of this venerable in- 
stitution. He studied law, and entered the practice with great success. 

In 1815, he was elected Solicitor of the Newbern Circuit, and in 1819, 
elected Judge of the Superior Court, which he resigned in 1836. He has 
"chosen the wise part," avoided politics, and now enjoys, "in a green old 
age,'' affluence, and the respect of all who know him. He married a daughter 
of the first Governor, Richard Dobbs Spaight, by whom he has had several 
children. One of whom was 

Hon. Richard S. Donnell, who was in Congress from this district in 1847, 
and served one Congress. One of the daughters married the Hon. Chai-les B. 
Shepard, and who is now his widow ; another, James B. Shepard, Esq., of 


Hon. Charles Biddle Shepard was born in Newbern on the 5th December, 
1807 ; was graduated at Chapel Hill in 1827 ; elected a member of Congress 
from this district in 1837, <ind served until 1841. He died in October, 1843. He 
Avas twice married, first to Miss Jones, who died, leaving one son ; and 
secondly to Mary Donnell, who survived him, with two children. He died 
31st October, 1843. 

He was distinguished as a man of ready genius, unquestioned talent, and 
indomitable courage. 

Hon, John II. Bryan, now of Raleigh, is a native of Newbern, and his 
family were early distinguished for their devotion to liberty and popular 
rights. In the State Congress of November, 1776, at Halifax, three of his 
name were members. He was born in 1798. 

Mr. Bryan entered the Legislature in the Senate in 1823, and served the 
next session. The next summer, while absent fi'om home, he was elected 
again to the Senate of the State Legislature, and a member of Congress from 
the Newbern District, a circumstance almost unprecedented in political his- 
tory, and shows his unbounded popularity. He served in Congress during 
the whole administration of John Quincj Adams; when he declined, prefer- 


ring the quiet joys of home, and the pursuit of his profession, to the troubled 
waters of political life. 

He was educated to the law, of which profession he is, at this time, 

" A well deserving pillar." 

He married the daughter of William Shepard, Esq., of Newbern, and sister 
to the Hon. Charles B. Shepard, Hon. Wm. B. Shepard, and James B. 
Shepard, Esq., by whom he has a large and interesting family. One of them, 
Lieut. Francis T. Bryan, of the Topographical Engineers, has distinguished 
himself in the army by his gallantry and diligence in his profession. He was 
brevetted for his gallantry and good conduct at Buena Vista. 

Hon. George E. Badger, now one of our senators in Congress, is a native 
of Newbern. He was born in 1795. His father was a firm Whig, and a native 
of Connecticut ; his mother, a daughter of Richard Cogdell, who, with Dr. 
Alexander Gaston, was of the Provincial Council of Safety for the Newbern 
District in 1775. He was educated at Yale College ; read law with Hon. 
John Stanly, who was his near relative, and whom he succeeded in the Legis- 
lature in 1816. 

He was elected Judge of the Superior Court in 1820, which he resigned in 

He was Secretary of the Navy under General Harrison in 1841, which he 
resigned soon afterwards. 

In 1816 eletted a senator in Congress ; and was re-elected in 1848, which 
distinguished post he now occupies. 

He has been thrice married. His first wife was a daughter of Gov. Turner, 
of Warren ; his second a daughter of Col. Polk, and his third (and pre- 
sent wife), Mrs. Williams, who was a daughter of late Sherwood Haywood, 
Esq., of Baleigh. 

Hon. Matthias E. Manly is a resident of Craven, but a native of Chatr 
ham. He was educated at the University, at which he graduated in 1824, 
in same class with Hon. Wm. A. Graham, now Secretary of the Navy; Hon. 
Augustus Moore, late Judge of Superior Court ; and Hon. David Outlaw, at 
present in Congress. He divided the first honor with Gov. Graham, Profes- 
sor Simms, and late Thomas Dews, of Lincoln County. 

He studied law with his brother, Hon. Charles Manly, of Raleigh, and was 
first elected a member of the House of Commons in 1834 from the town of 
Newbern, and represented it again in 1835. He was the last representative 
of that ancient and literary borough, the Convention to amend the Consti- 
tution in 1835, having abolished its right of representation. 

In 1840 he was elected a Judge of the Superior Court by the General As- 
sembly, which responsible position he now occupies. 

Judge Manly has been twice married. His first wife was a daughter of 
the distinguished William Gaston, and the second, Miss Simpson. 

Hon. Wm. H. Washington is a resident of this county. He is by profes- 
sion a lawyer. 

He was elected a member of Congress in 1841, and served until 1843. 

In 1844 he was a member of the House of Commons from Craven, and in 

In 1848 he was elected a member of the Senate, and re-elected in 1850, 
which position, alike useful to his country and honorable to himself, he now 

On 7th Feb. 1847, Capt. J. H. K. Burgwin, a native of this section, captain 
in 1st Regiment of U. S. Dragoons, died at Taos in New Mexico, from a 
wound in his breast, from a rifle ball received in action on the fifth of that 
month with the Pueblo Indians. 

Although Craven presents so far a record of patriotism, yet truth compels 
the record to speak that there were some exceptions. 



The Journal of the Congress at Halifax, 5th Dec. 1776, shows that, 
"William Heath, of the town of Newbern, charged with Toryism, was 
taken in custody and imprisoned by order of Congress." 

Many other names might be mentioned in connection with her 
history and that of her distinguished sons. But we have akeady 
allotted to her far more than her average portion of space, and 
leave for another edition, or some other abler hand, to complete 
her history, which of itself might form a respectable volume. 



Years. House of Commons. 

1777. Abner Nash. 

1778. Richard Cogdell. 

1779. Richard Cogdell. 

1780. James Green, Jun. 

1781. Richard D. Soaight. 

1782. Richard D. Spaight. 

1783. Richard D. Spaight. 

1784. Spvers Singleton. 

1785. William Lisdale. 

1786. John Sitgreaves. 

1787. John Sitgreaves. 

1788. John Sitgreaves. 

1789. John Sitgreaves. 

1791. James Coor. 

1792. Richard D. Spaight. 

1793. Isaac Guion. 

1794. Daniel Carthy. 

1795. Isaac Guion. 

1796. Thomas Badger. 

1797. Edward Graham. 

1798. John Stanly. 

1799. John Stanly. 

1800. George Ellia. 

1801. George Ellis. 

1802. Edward Harris. 

1803. Edward Harris. 

1804. Frederick Nash. 

1805. Frederick Nash. 

1806. Francis X. Martin. 

Years. House of Commons. 

1807. Francis X. Martin. 

1808. William Gaston. 

1809. William Gaston. 

1810. Daniel Carthy. 

1811. Daniel Carthy. 

1812. John Stanly. 

1813. John Stanly. 

1814. John Stanly. 

1815. John Stanly. 

1816. George E. Badger. 

1818. John Stanly. 

1819. John Stanly. 

1820. Edward E. Graham, 

1821. Francis L. Hawks. 

1822. E. E. Graham. 

1823. John Stanly. 

1824. William Gaston. 

1825. John Stanly. 

1826. John Stably. 

1827. William Gaston. 

1828. William Gaston. 

1829. Charles B. Spaight. 

1830. Charles B. Spaight. 

1831. William Gaston. 

1832. Charles B. Shepard. 

1833. Charles B. Shepard. 

1834. Matthias E. Manly. 

1835. Matthias E. Manly. 

Years. Senate. Members of House of Commons. 

John Tillman, Nathan Bryan. 
Nathan Bryan, Abner Nash. 
Hardy Bryan, Benj. Williams, 
Wm. Bryan, William Blount. 
Wm. Bryan, John Tillman. 
Wm. Bryan, John Tillman. 
Wm. Blount, William Bryan. 
William Blount, AVilliam Bryan. 
Richard D. Spaight, Abner Neale. 
Richard D. Spaight, Abner Neale. 
Richard Nixon, Richard D. Spaight. 
Richard Nixon, John Allen. 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


James Coor, 


Benjamin Williama; 




















































James Coor, 
John Bi\yan, 
John Carney, 
John Carney, 
John Carney, 
John C. Bryan, 
John C. Bryan, 
Wm. McClure, 
Wm. McClure, 
John Bryan, 
.John Bryan, 
William Gaston, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
John Bryan, 
Stephen Harris, 
Wm. Bryan, 
Wm. Bryan, 
Wm. Bryan, 
Wm. Bryan, 
Henry Tillman, 
Wm. Bryan, 
John S. West, 
John S. West, 
William Gaston, 
Vine Allen, 
Wright Stanly, 
Reuben P. Jones, 
John S. Smith, 
John S. Smith, 
William Gaston, 
William Gaston, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
John H. Bryan, 
John n. Bryan, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Richard D. Spaight, 
Thos. J. Pasteur, 
John M. Bryan, 
Saml. J. Biddle, 
Thos. J. Pasteur, 
Thos. J. Pasteur, 
Thos. J. Pasteur, 
N. H. Street, 

Members of House of Commons. 
Richard Nixon, John Allen. 
Levi Dawson, John Allen. 
Levi Dawson, John Allen. 
John Tillman, John Allen. 
John Tillman, John Allen. \ 

John Tillman, John Allen. 
John Spence West, Wm. Bryan. 
John S. AVest, Wm. Bryan. 
Henry Tillman, AVm. Blackledge. 
Philip Neale, William Blackledge. 
Philip Neale, William Blackledge. 
James Gatling, John S. Nelson. 
Lewis Fonville, Henry Tillman. 
Lewis Fonville, Wm. Bryan. 

Lewis Fonville, Wm. Bryan. 
Jno. S. Richardson, Lewis Fonville. 
John S. Nelson, Chas. Hatch. 
Lewis Fonville, John S. Nelson. 
Edward Harris, John S. Nelson. 

Stephen Harris, John S. Nelson. 

Wm. Blackledge, John S. Nelson. 

Vine Allen, John S. Nelson. 

Vine Allen, John S. Nelson. 

Henry Tillman, Fred. J. Cox. 

Fred. J. Cox, Benners Vail. 

Henry Carroway, James Ray. 

Joseph Nelson. 

John S. Nelson, Thos. O'Bryan. 

John S. Nelson, Thos. O'Bryan. 

Abner Neale, Vine Allen. 

Richd. D. Spaight, Abner Neale, 

Amos Rowe, Wm. S. Blackledge. 

John M. Bryan. 

John M. Brvan, James C. Cole. 

John M. Bryan, S. Whitehurst. 

S. Whitehurst, T. C. Bryan. 

Saml. Whitehurst, Andrew H. Richardson. 

Andrew H. Richardson, Saml. Whitehurst. 

Chas. J. Nelson, Lucas Benners. 

Chas. J. Nelson, John M. Bryan. 

Nathl. Smith, John ]M. Bryan. 

John M. Bryan, Alex. F. Gaston. 

Abner Hartley, Wm. M. Nelson. 
Abner Hartley, Wm. M. Nelson. 
John B. Dawson, F. P. Latham, 
Abner Hartley, F. P. Latham. 
John M. Bryan, Abner Neale. 
Abner Hartley, Abner Neale. 
Saml. Ilyman, Wm. C. Wadsworth. 
Saml. Ilyman, Wm. C. Wadsworth. 
Oliver S. Dewey, Nathl. II. Street. 

Wm. II. Washington, F. J. Prentiss. 

Wm. II. Washington, II. T. Guion. 
Wm. IL Washington, W. C. Wadsworth, Geo. S. Stevenson. 
Wm. II. Washington, Geo. C, Stevenson, A. J. Jerkins. 




Date of formation — Situation and boundaries — Population and products — 
Fayetteville its capital — Colonial and Revolutionary history — The cha- 
racter of Farquard Campbell, Flora MacDonald, William Duffy, John Louia 
Taylor, late Chief Justice of Supreme Court; John D. Toomer, late Judge 
of Supreme Court ; Robert Strange, late Judge of Superior Court, and 
Senator in Congress; Louis D. Henry, and others. 

Cumberland County was formed in 1754, from the upper part 
of Bladen ; derives its name from the Duke of Cumberland, at that 
time very popular as a brave officer in England.* 

It is situated in nearly the centre of the State, having Wake 
County, the seat of government, on the north ; Johnston and 
Sampson on the east; Bladen and Robeson on the south; Richmond 
and Moore Counties on the west. 

Its capital town is Fayetteville. This flourishing and ancient 
town was settled in 1762. It was first called Campbelltown, then 
Cross Creek, and in 1784, its name was changed to Fayetteville, in 
honor of General Lafayette, who was a native of France, and who 
perilled his life and fortune in the cause of liberty. He was a 
Major-General in the American army, fought in her battles, was 
wounded at Brandywine, and having aided in the freedom of this 
country, he returned to his native land. 

Fayetteville is distant from Raleigh sixty miles. It is located on 
the Cape Fear River, which is navigable to this place for steam 
and other boats. 

On the 29th of May, 1,831, Fayetteville was almost wholly 
destroyed by fire. 

The population of Cumberland, according to the census of 1850, is 12,447 
whites; 7,217 slaves; 940 free negroes; 17,723 representative population. 
Its products, according to the census of 1840, were : — • 

6,037 bushels of wheat, 459,747 pounds of cotton, 

16,577 " oats, 16,800 " wool, 

3,019 " rye, 1,794 barrels of turpentine, 

291,630 " corn, 78,540 dollars worth of lumber. 


This Arsenal is located at Fayetteville, and is commanded by 
Capt. A. B. Dyer, Ordnance Corps, is still unfinished and under 
construction — will be finished in two years. There are no enlisted 

* See Revised Statutes, ii. 118. Martin's History of N. C. 


men at tlie Arsenal. The building operations are being conducted 
by hired mechanics and laborers. Supplies of ordnance, munitions 
of war, &c. considerable, and yearly increased. 

The County of Cumberland early presented a firm devotion to 

The delegates to the General Assembly of Deputies, at Newbern, on the 
25th of August, 1774, were Farquard Campbell, and Thomas Rutherford. 

At the same place, on the 3d of April, 1775, the same were delegates. 

At the meeting at Ilillsboro', on the 21st of August, 1775, were Farquard 
Campbell, Thomas Rutherford, Alexander McAllister, David Smith, and 
Alexander McKay. 

In June, 1775, an Association was formed in Cumberland. 

I copy from the original paper now in the Executive office, in Raleigh, and 
communicated by a letter from Thomas J. Robinson, of Cumberland County, 
in December, 1830, to General Thomas G. Polk. 

The Association, June 20, 1775. 

The actual commencement of hostilities against the continent, by the 
British troops, in the bloody scene on the 19th of April last, near Boston, 
the increase of arbitrary impositions from a wicked and despotic Ministry, 
and the dread of instigated insurrections in the colonies, are causes sufficient 
to drive an oppressed people to the use of arms. We, therefore, the sub- 
scribers, of Cumberland County, holding ourselves bound by the most sacred 
of all obligations, the duty of good citizens towards an injured country, and 
thoroughly convinced, that, under our distressed circumstances, we shall 
be justified in resisting force by force, do unite ourselves under every tie of 
religion and honor, and associate as a band in her defence against every foe, 
hereby solemnly engaging, that whenever our Continental or Provincial 
Councils shall decree it necessary, we will go forth and be ready to sacrifice 
our lives and fortunes to secure her freedom and safety. This obligation to 
continue in full force until a reconciliation shall take place between Great 
Britain and America, upcn constitutional principles, an event we most 
ardently desire ; and we will hold all those persons inimical to the liberty of 
the colonies, who shall refuse to subscribe to this Association ; and we will 
in all things follow the advice of our General Committee respecting the pur- 
poses aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of 
individual and private property. Signed, 

Robert Rowan, Theophilus Evans, David Shepherd, 

Lewis Barge, Thomas Moody, Micajah Farrell, 

Maurice Nowlan, Jos. Do Lespine, John Wilson, 

Lewis Powell, Arthur Council, James Emmet, 

Martin Lennard, John Oliver, Aaron Yardej', 

George Fletcher, Charles Stevens, John Parker, 

Walter Murray, AVm. Ilerrin, Philip Ilerrin, 

David Evans, Robert Verner, James Gee, 

John Elwell, David Dunn, Wm. White, 

Benjamin Elwell, Simon Banday, Joshua lladley, 

Joseph Green, John Jones, William Blocker, 

Robert Green, Robert Council, Sam'l Hollingsworth, 

Robert Carver, Samuel Carver, Wm. Carver. 

This paper, considering the time (June, 1775), and the sentiments 
expressed, is but little behind the famed Mecklenburg Kesolves. 

This important paper is deposited in the Governor's office, at 
Raleigh, Avherc it can be examined; but I have given above a true 

With Cumberland County is connected the romantic history of 
Flora MacDonald, which has excited the imagination of Mr. Jones, 


Mrs. Ellet, and Mr. Foote, in their several productions.* In our 
labors we have studiously avoided any allurement to draw upon 
the fancy or imagination. We deal only in facts and figures. 

The hopes of Charles Edward, grandson of James 2d, to ascend the En- 
glish throne, were destroyed on the fatal field of CuUoden. (IGth April, 1746.) 

In 1747t Neal McNeal, from the west of Scotland, purchased lands near 
Cross Creek (now Fayetteville), which he settled in 1749, with five or sis 
hundred colonists. 

Embarrassed by pecuniary matters at home, and encouraged by the reports 
of the numbers of their countrymen who had flocked to the Cape Fear, in 
1775, Allan MacDonald and his wife Flora left Scotland, and landed in 
North Carolina. They took up their abode in Fayetteville. The history of 
Flora MacDonald had been connected with the escape of Charles Edward 
from the English. The Pretender had sought concealment in the highlands 
of Scotland. A price had been set upon his head, and he was hunted from 
mountain to dell, and fi-om crag to cavern. Escape seemed impossible. 
Flora was on a visit to this part of Scotland from Milll>ury, on her return 
from Edinburgh, and it was suggested that the Prince should be arrayed in 
female clothes, and return with Flora as a waiting-maid. But even this step 
was dangerous and diificult. Every place was watched, and every pass 
guarded by the troops of the Duke of Cumberland. Flora's own father-in- 
law, Captain Hugh MacDonald, was one of the officers in the search. She, 
however, obtained from him a passport for herself, her youthful companion, 
Neil MacDonald, and " for Betty Bourke, a stout Irish woman, and three 

On 28th June, 1746, they embark from Uist for the Isle of Skye. After 
much danger they land at Kilbride in the parish of Kilmuir, where they 
stopped at the house of Sir Alexander MacDonald, the Laird of Sleite ; the 
laird was from home, and the house was filled with officers who were in 
search of the royal fugitive. By advice of Lady MacDonald, to whom Flora 
confided her secret, she set out with lier suite forthwith for Kingsburg, where 
they rested safe after dangers and fatigues. The next morning Flora accom- 
panied che Prince to Portaree, and there they parted. The Prince's last words 
to Flora were, " Gentle, faithful maiden, I hope we will meet again in the 
Palace Royal." He finally escaped with Neal Mac Donald to France, a son 
of whom was distinguished in the French Rev(jlution. He was a Marshal 
under Napoleon, and for his gallantry was created Duke of Tarentum. 

The unfortunate Charles Edward never returned. He died in France, 17B8. 

The Government were highly incensed that their victim should escape. 
That escape could not have been accomplished by arms or intrigue, but 
by woman's tact and woman's tenderness alone. Flora was aiTested, with 
Malcolm McLeod, whose pack the prince had carried; McKinnon, of 
Straith, who had received him from McLeod, and MacDonald of Kingsburg. 

When arrested, J which was a few days after parting from the Prince, 
Flora was conveyed on board of the Furnace, Captain Fergussone, and taken 
to Leith. 

She was then removed on board of Commodore Smith's ship, and con- 
veyed to the Nore, whence, on 6th December, after being five months on ship- 
board, she was transferred to the custody of the messenger Dick, where sh^e 
remained until July, 1747. 

They were carried to London, and confined in prison to be tried for high 
treason. The youth of Flora and the chivalric daring of her adventure, 
created a strong feeling in her favor. She had never been an advocate of the 
Pietender's claims to the crown, nor was she even of the same religious faith. 

* Defence of North Carolina, bv J. Seawell Jones. Women of the Revolution, by 
Mrs. Ellet. Sk-etches of North Carolina, by Wm. H. Foote, 148. 
t Williamson's History of North Carolina, ii. 80. 
i Boswell's Life of Johnson, i. 387. 


That impulsive humanity of woman for distress was her only crime. When 
asked by the King (George the 2d), " How dare you succor the enemy of my 
crown and kingdom ?" She replied— _ 

"I only did what I would do for your Majesty m the same condition— re- 
lieved distress." No evidence was produced against her. She was set at 
liberty. She was, under the protection of Lady Primrose, sent home with 
Malcolm McLeod, 

In Boswell's Life of Johnson I find the following :— 

"Monday, 12,th Sept. 1773. 

" We safely arrived at Kingsburg, and was received by the hospitable 
MacDonald. The lady of the house is the celebrated Flora MacDonald 
She is a little woman, of a genteel appearance, and uncommonly mild and 

well bred. -^^ x i > v i ^x.^ 

" The room where we lay was a celebrated one. Dr. Johnson s bed was the 
very one in which the grandson of the unfortunate King James the Second 
lay on one of the nights after the failure of his rash attempt in 1'45-b 
while he was eluding the pursuit of the emissaries of the government, which 
had oflfered thirty thousand pounds reward for him." 

«' It is remarkable," savs Sir Walter Scott,* " that this distinguished lady 
signed her name Flory, instead of the more classical orthography. Her raar- 
riao-e contract, which is in my possession, bears the name spelled Flory. 

Four years after her return she married Allan McDonald, and, as already 
stated, emigrated in 1775 to America. They settled in Fayetteville. The 
ruins of the house are yet to be seen, as you pass from the market-house to 
the court-house on vour right hand just before you cross the creek, not tar 
from the law office o*f John D. Eccles, Esq. After a short stay they removed to 
Cameron Hill, about twenty miles from Fayetteville. The old persons about 
this place well recollect seeing her, "a dignified, handsome woman, to whom 
all paid great respect." • , -i. 

When Flora exchanged Scotland for America for peace and quiet, it was 
bad for worse. The troul)les of the Revolution had just commenced. 

The chief of the clan of MacDonald accepted a commission as general Irom 
the Royal Governor (Martin), in the service of his Majesty, George III. The 
wild notes of the Scottish pibroch united with the English bugles. On ist 
Feb. 1776, General MacDonald issued his proclamation, for all true and loyal 
Highlanders to join his standard at Cross Creek, to march and unite with 
Gen. Clinton, and Gov. Martin. He 

marshall'd his clan. 

Their swords were a thousand, their hearts were as one." 

On their way down they were met near the mouth of Moore's Creek, on 
'>7th Feb 1770, by the forces of Caswell and Lillington, and after a despe- 
rate encragement, to the misguided and ill-advised Highlanders, a secondCul- 
loden awarded them. Gen. MacDonald was taken prisoner, as also Kings- 
burg MacDonald, husband of Flora, who was a captain ; Captain McLeod 
and Captain John Campbell were killed, and the rest taken prisoners. 

Her husband was confined a prisoner in Halifax jail. After his release 
—broken down in hopes, their property plundered, lands confiscated, he and 
Flora returned to Scotland. On their passage home they encountered a 
French ship-of-war. An action ensued. This heroic woman remained on 
deck during the action, and encouraged the men. The enemy was beaten 
off, but in the bustle of battle Flora was thrown down, and her arm was 
broken. With the shrewdness of her country Flora is said to have remark- 
ed. " I have hazarded my life for the House of Stuart and for the House of 
Hanover, and I do not see that I am a great gainer by either." 

To the bravery of our sex she united the gentleness of her own, and cav- 
ing a family of five sons (all of whom became military officers), she died 4th 

March, 17'J0. i, i i t i. 

Her shroud was made of the sheets in which Charles Edward had slept at 

* Lockhart Papers. 


Kingsburg,* which, with woman's romantic temper, she had preserved in all 
her wanderings, for this express purpose. 

Foote remarks that " Massachusetts has had her Lady Arabella, Virginia 
her Pocahontas, and North Carolina her Flora MacDonald." 

The Field Officers appointed by the State in 1775 for Cumberland: — 
Alexander McAllister, Col. ; Ebenezer Folsome, Lieut.-Col. ; David Smith, 
First Major ; Philip Alston, Second Major. 

The character of Col. Folsome was that of a daring and chivalric man. 
He seized all persons suspected of enmity to the cause of liberty, and brought 
them to trial. 

On examining the journal of 1776,t I find that he was charged with pecu- 
lation and negligence of duty, and dismissed from the service. 

Among the first members from Cumberland in 1775, was Farquard Camp- ' 
BELL. He was suspicioned as being inimical to America, but, took all the 
test oaths and other ordeals which the vigilance of the day had exacted. 
But this suspicion was heightened when a letter of Biggleston, Gov. Martin's 
Secretary, requested the favor of the State Congress sitting at Hillsboro,' 
Aug. 21, 1775, " to give safe conduct to His Excellency's coach and horses 
to house of Farquard Campbell, in Cumberland." 

This suspicion was for a moment removed by Campbell's disclaimer from 
his seat that such a request was without his knowledge or consent, and 
implored the house to grant no such request. J 

He was suspected of a secret correspondence with Gov. Martin throughout 
the whole of his service in the State Congress. As the American causo 
advanced, this double dealing could no longer be carried on. While enter- 
taining a party of Highland Royalists in the fall of 1776, at his own house, he 
was seized by Colonel Ebenezer Folsome, and carried to Halifax to be tried. 

After the Revolution, he appears to have eschewed his former political 
opinions. He was elected Senator from Cumberland, in 1791, '92, and '93. 

In 1806 WiLiLAM Duffy was a member from Fayetteville to the House of 
Commons. He was an educated man and by profession a lawyer. 

He was a man of talents, of a quick and impetuous temper. This involved 
him in early life iu a difficulty with Hon. Duncan Cameron, which terminated 
in a hostile meeting. Both were wounded ; Judge Cameron slightly, Dcffy 

I present from one who knew him personally, the following 
extract from Judge Murphy's oration at Chapel Hill, June 27, 

"William Dcffv was the child of misfortune. Thrown upon the world 
without friends and without fortune, accident introduced him in his early 
youth to the acquaintance of John Haywood, Esq., the venerable Treasurer 
of this State ; who, in the exercise of that benevolence for which his whole 
life has been conspicuous, gave him employment, and enabled him to prose- 
cute his studies and prepare himself for the bar. Duffy had an opportunity 
of witnessing the splendid displays of Davie and Moore ; and he profited by 
their example. He devoted a large portion of his time to polite literature, 
and acquired a more elegant style in composition than any of his con- 
temporaries in North CaroUna. He had a slight impediment in his speech, 
but, by laborious perseverance he succeeded in regulating the tones and 
modulations of his voice in such a way, that this impediment often seemed 
to be an ornament to his delivery. He was one of the few men of our 
country who could read well. He studied the art of reading, and his friends 
will long remember the pleasure they have received from hearing him read. 
In his addresses at the bar, he was always impressive, particularly upon 

* Boswell's Life of Johnson, i. 559. 

t Journal of the General Assembly, 1776, 38, 

I Letter of Judge Willianis to Win. Johnston, 10th Jan. 1777. 


topics connected with virtuous and benevolent feeling. He had a vigorous 
mind, and feelings attuned to the finest emotions. I remember^ him with 
fond aifection. lie was my friend, my preceptor, my patron. lie instructed 
me in the science of the law, in the art of managing causes at the bar, and 
in the still more difficult art of reading books to advantage. I wish it were 
in my power to render to his memory a more permanent honor than this 
passing tribute of respect and gratitude I" 

John Louis Taylor, late Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North 
Carolina, in 1T92, '93, and '94, represented Fayetteville in the House of 

He was a native of Ireland, a man of genius, acquirements, and varied 
learning ; possessing great amability of character, pure philanthropy, and 
unbounded benevolence. 

In 1798, he was elected a Judge of the Superior Court, and in 1818, one 
of the Judges of the Supreme Court; holding this elevated office with great 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the country, until his death, January, 

Hon. Henry Potter resides in this county. He is a native of Granville. 
He is now (Aug. 1851), in the eighty-sixth year of his age. He is now the 
United States Circuit Judge, appointed to succeed Judge Sitgreaves, in 
1801. He has been a Trustee of the University since 1799 ; Author of a 
work on the Duty of a Justice of the Peace, and with Bartlett Yancey and 
John L. Taylor, revised the statute laws in 1820. 

John D. Toomer represented Cumberland in the Senate in 1831 and '32. 

He is a native of Wilmington, and was educated at Chapel Ilill, Avhere he 
stood high for his intellectual qualities and rapid acquisition of knowledge. 

In 1818 he was elected a Judge of our Superior Court, which in the next 
year he resigned. 

In June, 1829, he was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court, by the Gover - 
nor and Council, but this not being confirmed by the Legislature, he resigned 
in December, 1829. 

In 1831-2 he was Senator in the General Assembly, from Cumberland, 
as above stated. 

In 183G he was again elected a Judge of the Superior Court, which, from 
ill health, he resigned in 1840. 

He is considered a most eloquent speaker, an agreeable and interesting 
writer, of profound literary attainments, and an amiable and urbane gentle- 

He now resides in Pittsboro.' 

Louis D. Henry was long a resident of this county. He was born in New 
Jersey in 1788. He was educated at Princeton College, and graduated at 
that renowned institution in 1809. He read law in Newborn under his uncle, 
the late Edward Graham, Esq., and practiced this profession with great suc- 
cess, until his death. Ho was distinguished for his accurate memory, diver- 
sified learning, and powers of elocution. 

He represented the County of Cumberland in 1821 and 1822. 

He represented the town of Fayetteville in 1830, '31, and '32, in the House 
of Commons, of which once he was chosen Speaker. 

Possessed of a quick sense of injury, and great firmness, in early life he 
was involved in a difficulty arising from a very trivial cause, with Thomas J. 
Stanly, wiiich terminated in a hostile meeting on the Virginia line, in which 
Mr. Stanly fell dead the first fire. 

He was appointed in 1837 by the President (Van Buren) as Commissioner 
to settle the Claims arising under the Treaty with Spain, the duties of which 
he discharged with unequalled ability, and with satisfaction to all concerned. 

In 1842 he was chosen by the democratic party as their candidate for Go- 
vernor, and was defeated by the Hon. John M. Morehead. 


He died very suddenly at his residence in Raleigh in June, 184G, much 
lamented by his numerous friends throughout the State. 

Mr. Henry was twice married ; by the second wife (who survives him) he 
left many children — one son, and several daughters, one of whom married 
Duncan McRae, Esq., now of Wilmington; another. Colonel John H. Manly, 
of Raleigh ; and another, R. P. Waring, Esq., of Charlotte. 

Hon. Robert Strange represented the town of Fayetteville in the House of 
Commons for many years. 

He is a native of Virginia, and was born 20th September^ 1796. He was 
educated at Hampden Sidney College, in Virginia, elected to the House of 
Commons in 1821, and served, with some intermission, until 1826, when he 
was elected a Judge of our Superior Court, which elevated position he held, 
with great credit to himself, and so much to the satisfaction of his country- 
men, that the Legislature, in 1836, elected him a Senator in the Congress of 
the United States. 

In this illustrious body {Patres conscripiiof our nation) the efforts of Judge 
Strange were of a highly intellectual character, and ranked him among the 
statesmen of the age. In private circles, his good humor and wit rendered 
him a welcome guest to all. His inflexible firmness, and unwavering support 
of whatever his conscience assured him was right, commanded the respect of 
his compeers in the Senate. He resigned in 1840, under instructions of the 
General Assembly, glad to escape from " the peltings of the pitiless storms" 
of political life for the more germane and lucrative pursuits of his profession, 
of which he is now the pride and ornament. He is now Solicitor of the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit; the Criminal Code of the State could not be in safer hands. 
AVhile from his philanthropic disposition the innocent have nothing to fear, 
he is "a terror unto evil doers." 

Not only in the profession of the law and in the Senate has Judge Strange 
been conspicuous. As a writer he has often appeared before the public. His 
style is highly imaginative; his taste, chastened by an intimate acquaintance 
with the most approved authors of the language in every age, is classic and 
beautiful. His eulogy upon Judge Gaston cannot but affect the heart, im- 
prove the feelings, and delight the mind of all who may have the pleasure to 
read it. 

Hon. Lauchlin Bethune is a resident of Cumberland, and his public ser- 
vices deserve the thanks of his country. Unobtrusive in his character, retiring 
in his disposition, he has for years been withdrawn from the public eye. 

He was a member of the State Senate from Cumberland in 1817, 1818, and 
from 1821 to 1827. In 1831 elected a member of Congress from this District. 

Hon. Dillon Jordan represented Cumberland County in the Commons in 
1836, and was appointed United States Judge in Florida in 1838, where he 
now resides. 

Hon. John A. Cameron in 1810, 1811 and 1812 represented Fayetteville in 
the House of Commons; he was brother of Dr. Thomas N. Cameron, of Fayette- 
ville, who was the Senator in 1844, 1846 and 1850, and who died recently 
(June, 1851), loved and respected by all who knew him. 

He was appointed United States Consul to Vera Cruz, and afterwards 
United States Judge in Florida. He pei-ished in the unfortunate Steamer 
Pulaski, on 14th June, 1838, on his passage from Savannah to Charleston. 
He was a fine writer, accomplished gentleman, and sincere friend. He left 
several children. 

Hon. James C. Dobbin is a resident of Cumberland County. He was edu- 
cated at the University of the State, and graduated in 1832. Studied law, in 
the practice of which he has been very successful. 

His first appearance in public life was as a member of Congress in 1845. 
After serving through the term of one Congress he declined a re-election. 



In 1848, he was elected a member of the House of Commons, and again 
re-elected in 1850, of which he was Speaker. 

His career, brilliant as it opens, has just commenced, as he is yet young, 
laborious, and highly gifted. His eloquence is of the most winning character, 
and his efforts at the bar and in the legislative halls have been distinguished 
for their clearness, research, and ability. His urbane manners and kind dis- 
position make him a favorite with all parties and in all circles. 

Many others in connection with this distinguished County might be named, 
which another edition and subsequent inquiries may bring to public notice. 


Years. House of Commons. 

1791. James Porterfield. 

1792. John L. Taylor. 

1793. John L. Tavlor. 

1794. John L. Taylor. 

1796. Robert Cochran, 

1797. James Dick. 

1801. Wm. W. Jones. 

1802. Robert Cochran. 

1803. Thomas Davis. 

1804. Robert Cochran. 

1805. John Hay. 

1806. William Duffy._ 

1807. Samuel Goodwin. 

1808. Samuel Goodwin. 

1809. Thomas Davis. 

1810. John A. Cameron. 

1811. John A. Cameron. 
1M2. John A. Cameron. 

1813. Larkin Newley. 

1814. Thomas Davis. 

1815. John Winslow. 



House of Commons. 
John Winslow. 
John Winslow. 
John Winslow. 
John Winslow. 
John A. Cameron. 
Robert Strange. 
Robert Strange. 
Robert Strange. 
John ]\J.9,tthews. 
John Matthews. 
Robert Strange. 
John D. Eccles. 
John D. Eccles. 
John D. Eccles. 
Louis D. Henry. 
Louis D. Henry. 
Louis D. Henry. 
James Seawell. 
James Seawell. 
Thomas L. Hybart. 

























List of members of General Assembly from Cumberland County, 
from 1777 to 1851. 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Robert Rowan, Peter Mallet. 
Robert Cochran, Robert Rowan. 
Robert Cochran, Edward Winslow, 
David Smith, Thomas Anthony. 
Edward Winslow, Patrick Travis. 
Patrick Travis, Edward Winslow. 
Patrick Travis, Edward Winslow. 
Robert Rowan, David Smith. 
John Hay, Edward Winslow. 
Wm. B. Grove, James Ilackston. 
John McKay, Wm. B. Grove. 
John McKay, Wm. B. Grove. 
John McKay, Joseph Kearnes. 
Joseph Kearnes, Neill Smith. 
Neill Smith, Hector McAllister. 
Hector McAllister, Neill Smith. 
Hector McAllister, Neill Smith. 
Neill Smith, Samuel Northington. 
Daniel INIcLean, Neill Smith. 
Samuel Northington, Sam'l D. Purviance. 
Neill Smith, Samuel D. Purviance. 
John Dickson, Wm. Lord. 

Thomas Armstrong, 
Thomas Armstrong, 
Thomas Armstrong, 
Alexander McAllister, 
Alexander McAllister, 
Alexander IMcAUister, 
Farquard Campbell, 
Farquard Campbell, 
Farquard Campbell, 
John McXeill, 
John McNeill, 
John McNeill, 
Hector McAllister, 
Alexander ^McAllister, 
Daniel McLean, 
Hector McAllister, 



Years. Senators. 

1801. Samuel D. Purviance, 

1802. William Lord, 

1803. John Dickson, 

1804. Hector McAllister, 

1805. John McKay, 

1806. John McKay, 

1807. John McKay, 

1808. John Dickson, 

1809. William Lord, 

1810. Colin Shaw, 

1811. John Dickson, 

1812. John Smith, 

1813. John Smith, 

1814. John Smith, 

1815. John Dickson, 

1816. Richard Iluckabee, 

1817. Lauch. Bathune, 

1818. Lauch. Bethune, 

1819. Richard Iluckabee, 

1820. John Black, 

1821. Richard Huckabee, 

1822. Lauch. Bethune, 

1823. Lauch. Jethune, 

1824. Lauch. Bethune, 

1825. Lauch. Bethune, 

1826. Alexander Elliott, 

1827. Lauch. Bethune, 

1828. Arch'd McDearmid, 

1829. Arch'd McDearmid, 

1830. Wm. Murchison, 

1831. John D. Toomer, 

1832. John D. Toomer, 

1833. Duncan McCormick, 

1834. Duncan McCormick, 

1835. Duncan McCormick, 

1836. Duncan McCormick, 
1838. Arch'd McDearmid, 
1840. Arch'd McDearmid, 
1842. David Reid, 

1844. Thomas N. Cameron, 

1846. Thomas N. Cameron, 

1848. Alexander Murchison, 

1850. Thomas N. Cameron, 

Members of the House of Commons. 

John Dickson, AYm. Lord. 
John Dickson, Daniel Smith. 
Daniel Smith, Samuel Northington. 
Archibald McNeill. 
Stephen Gilmore, John Kearnes. 
Colin Shaw, John Kearnes. 
John Kearnes, Colin Shaw. 
James Campbell. 
JohnMc Kay, James Campbell. 
Isaac Folsome, John S. Nelson. 
Thomas Gilmore, Farq. McKay. 
Robert Campbell, Richard Iluckabee. 
Richard Huckabee, Robert Campbell. 
Richard Huckabee, Mark Christian. 
Richard Iluckabee, Neill McNeill. 
Neill McNeill, John C. Williams. 
John C. Williams, Neill McNeill. 
Jona. Evans, Neill McNeill. 
Jona. Evans, Neill McNeill. 
Neill McNeill, Alexander McAllister. 
Neill McNeill, Louis D. Henry. 
Neill McNeill, Louis D. Henry. 
Neill McNeill, Samuel P. Ashe. 
Neill McNeill, Alexander Elliott. 
Alexander Elliott, Samuel P. Ashe. 
Joseph Hodges, A. McDearmid. 
Joseph Hodges, A. McDearmid. 
Alexander McNeill, Joseph Hodges. 
Alexander McNeill, Alexander Buie. 
Alexander McNeill, Alexander Buie. 
David McNeill, John Barclay. 
David McNeill, John D. Eccles. 
David McNeill, Dillon Jordan. 
Dillon Jordan, David McNeill. 
Dillon Jordan, David McNeill. 
Stephen HoUingsworth, Dillon Jordan. 
Stephen HoUingsworth, David Reid. 
David Reid, John Monroe. 
John Monroe, Duncan K. McRae. 
Duncan Shaw, B. F. Atkins. 
Geo. W. Pegram, Duncan Shaw. 
James C. Dobbin, Geo. W. Pegram. 
James C. Dobbin, Geo. W. Pegram. 



Currituck County was one of the early precincts of the State 
in 1729, when the Lords Proprietors surrendered their rights to the 
Eno-lish Crown. It derives its name from a tribe of Indians who 
once inhabited and owned the country. 


Its location is the extreme north-eastern portion of North Caro- 
lina ; bounded on the north by the Virginia Line ; east by the Atlan- 
tic Ocean ; south by the Albemarle Sound ; and Tvest by Camden 

Its court house, on Currituck Sound, is beautifully located, and 
is distant from Raleigh 242 miles. 

Population of Currituck, 4,600 whites; 2,447 slaves; 189 free negroes; 
6,257 representative population. 

Products, 213,595 bushels corn; 7,685 bushels wheat; 7,084 bushels oats; 
400 bushels salt; 400 barrels fish; 11,465 pounds wool. 

In this County is situated Roanoake Island. On the 4th day of July, 
1584, two English ships approached the coast of North Carolina, sent out 
under the auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh, under command of Arthur Bar- 
lowe and Philip Amidas.* 

" These were the first that ever burst 
Into that silent sea." 

On the 13th of July they landed on this Island,! and Captain Amidas, 
after they returned thanks to Almighty God for their safe deliverance, took 
possession in these memorable words : — 

" We take possession of this land in right of the Queen's Most Excellent Ma- 
jestie, as rightful Queene and Princesse of the same, to be delivered over to the 
use of Sir Walter Raleigh, according to her Majestic' s letters patent under her 
Highnesse's great scale." 

Here then is the birth-place, and here is the birth of this great 
Anglo-Saxon Empire. 

They found, at this season (July), an island clad with grapes, for 
■which it is still celebrated, the far-famed Scuppernong. 

Here, too, " they found a people, most gentle, loving, and faithful, and such 
as live after the manner of the golden age. "J 

How eloquent, and how truthful ! 

The Colony of Virginia claims antiquity, and the earliest settle- 
ment in 1608. 

The Pilgrim Rock, in Massachusetts, claims the next, in 1620 ; 
but the faithful page of history points to Roanoake Island, and 
says 1584. 

This proves that North Carolina was the first State upon which 
the English landed. We have already shown that she was the first 
State in whose borders the blood of the colonists was spilled by the 
English troops, in 1771, at Alamance ; and we have seen that she 
was the State that threw off the English yoke, at Charlotte, May, 

If justice to her merits is tardy, it is sure. "Render unto Caesar 
the things which are Cscsar's." 

Currituck County has always been distinguished for the indepen- 
dence of its inhabitants. 

The first meeting of Deputies of the people of the Province, independent of 
the English crown, and adverse to the royal authority, was at Newbern, 25th 

* Report of Sir Walter Raleij^h, by Amidas and Barlow. Ilakhiyt's Voyagus, 3. 
t This is illuslrated opposite the title-pag:e of the tirst volume, a lac simile from Har- 
riot's Accoimt of Virginia, 1584. Queen Elizabe'.h had styled the whole region Virginia. 
I See Keport of Amidas and Barlovve. Ilakluyt's Voyages. 


August, 1774; there appeared from Currituck, Solomon Perkins, Xathav 
PoYNER, and Samuel Jarvis. 

At the second meeting, held at Newbern, 3d April, 1775, Thomas Mac- 
Knight, Francis Williamson, Samuel Jarvis, Solomon Perkins, and Na- 
than POVNER. 

At the third meeting, held at Ilillsboro', 21st August, 1775, from Currituck 
appeared Thomas Jarvis, Gideon Lamb, James Ryan, James White, and 
Solomon Perkins. 

At the Congress, held at Ilalifax, which met 12th November, 1776, and 
formed our State Constitution, there appeared as delegates from Currituck, 
Samuel Jarvis, James White, Kedar Marchant, Hallowell Williams, and 
Thomas Williams. 

The field officers for Currituck in 1776, were Hollowell Williams, Colonel; 
Solomon Perkins, Lieut.-Colonel ; Asahel Simmonds, Major. 

Thomas MacKnight appears to have been inimical to the cause of liberty. 

The journals of the Congress at Newbern, 1775, show that Thomas Mac- 
Knight was called upon to sign, with the other members of this Convention, 
the Association approving the Continental Congress at Philadelphia, refused, 
and withdrew himself. The House then resolved that his intentions were 
inimical to the cause of liberty, and recommended all persons to withdraw 
from all connection with him as an object of contempt! 

Bv a resolve of the Congress, 19th December, 177b, his estate was ordered 
to be rented out by Isaac Gregory, Mr. Ferebee, and Abner Harrison ; as 
also the estate of James Parker, of Pasquotank, and make return to the next 
General Assembly. 

Samuel Ferebee, of this County, was the last survivor of the members of 
the Convention assembled at Fayetteville, in November, 1789, which body 
accepted and ratified the Constitution of the United States, for our State. 

Members of the General Assembly from Cui'rituck County, from 
1776 to 1850-51. 

Years. Senators. Members of the House of Commons. 

1'''77. Samuel Jarvis, James White, James Ryan. 

1778. Col. Perkins, William Ferebee, Howell Williams. 

1779. Col. Perkins, Thomas Youughusband, John Humphries. 

1780. Samuel Jarvis, James Phillips, John Humphries. 

1781. Samuel Jarvis, James Phillips, John Humphries. 

1782. William Ferebee, Thomas Jarvis, Joseph Ferebee. 

1783. William Ferebee, James Phillips, Joseph Ferebee. 

1784. James Phillips, James White, Joseph Ferebee. 

1785. Willis Etheridgo, Joseph Ferebee, James White. 

1786. Willis Etheridge, Joseph Ferebee, John Humphries. 

1787. Howell Williams, Joseph Ferebee, John Humphries. 

1788. Howell Williams, Thos. P. Williams, Griffith Dauge. 

1789. Howell Williams, Thos. P. Williams, Andrew Duke. 

1790. John Humphries, Joseph Ferebee, Andrew Duke. 

1791. John Humphries, Spence Hall, Joseph Ferebee. 

1792. John Humphries, Spence Hall, Alex. L. Whitehall. 

1793. Spence Hall, Alex. L. AVhitehall, Andrew Duke. 

1794. Spence Hall, Andrew Duke, Saml. Ferebee. 

1795. Joseph Ferebee, Thomas Williams, Jesse Simmons. 

1796. Joseph Ferebee, Thomas Williams, Jesse Simmons. 

1797. James Phillips, Thomas Martin, Malachi Jones. 

1798. Saml. Salyear, Malachi Jones, T. Williams. 

1799. Saml. Salyear, Malachi Jones, T. Williams. 

1800. Saml. Salyear, Thomas Williams, Thos. C. Ferebee. 

1801. Jonathan Lindsay, Thomas Garrett, Thos. C. Ferebee. 

1802. Jonathan Lindsay, Thos. C. Ferebee, Thomas Garrett. 

1803. Samuel Ferebee, Jacob Perkins, Thos. Anderson. 



Years. Senators. 

1804. Samuel Ferebee, 

1805. Samuel Ferebee, 

1806. Samuel Ferebee, 

1807. Thomas Williams, 

1808. Thomas Williams, 

1809. Jonathan Lindsay, 

1810. Thomas Williams, 

1811. Jonathan Lindsay, 

1812. Jonathan Lindsay, 

1813. Thomas Sanderson, 

1814. Thomas Sanderson, 

1815. Thomas Williams, 

1816. Thomas Williams, 

1817. Spence Hall, 

1818. Spence Hall, 

1819. Edmund S. Lindsav, 

1820. Edmund S. Lindsay, 

1821. Edmund S. Lindsay, 

1822. Edmund S. Lindsay, 

1823. Thos. C. Ferebee, 

1824. Saml. Salyear, 

1825. Saml. Salyear, 

1826. Saml. Salyear, 

1827. Saml. Salyear, 

1828. Saml. Salyear, 

1829. Caleb Etheridge, 

1830. Jona. J. Lindsay, 

1831. Jona. J. Lindsay, 

1832. Jona. J. Lindsay, 

1833. Daniel Lindsay, 

1834. Dan. Lindsay, jun., 

1835. Daniel Lindsay, 

1836. Daniel Lindsay, 
1838. Caleb Etheridge, 
1840. Caleb Etheridge, 
1842. Caleb Etheridge, 
1844, Caleb Etheridge, 
1846. John Barnard, 
1848. John Barnard, 
1850. John Barnard, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Aaron Bright, William Simmons. 
Willoughby Dozier, Willis Simmons. 
Willoughby Dozier, Danl. Lindsay. 
Willis Simmons, Jonathan Lindsay. 
Willis Simmons, WilloughViy Dozier. 
Brickhouse Bell, Jesse Barnard. 
Jesse Barnard, Brickhouse Bell. 
Brickhouse Bell, Thomas Garrett. 
Brickhouse Bell, Thomas Garrett. 
Simeon Sawyer, Willis Simmons. 
Brickhouse Bell, Saml. Salyear. 
Brickhouse Bell, -John T. Hampton. 
Brickhouse Bell, John T. Hampton. 
John T. Hampton, C. Etheridge. 
J. T. Hampton, C. Etheridge. 
J. T. Hampton, Enoch Ball. 
Enoch Ball, John T. Hampton. 
John Forbes, John Shipp. 
Cartwright Bell, Jesse Barnard. 
W. D. Barnard, John Forbes. 
Enoch Ball, Willoughby D. Barnard. 
W. D. Barnard, Enoch Ball. 
W. D. Barnard, Enoch Ball. 
W. D. Barnard, Enoch Ball. 
Enoch Ball, Benj. T. Simmons. 
W. D. Barnard, Benj. T. Simmons. 
W. D. Barnard, Benj. T. Simmons. 
John B. Jones, Benj. T. Simmons. 
John B. Jones, Benj. T. Simmons. 
John B. Jones, James M. Sanderson. 
Joshua Harrison, Wallace Gray. 
Joshua Harrison, Alfred Perkins. 
Alfred Perkins. 
Alfred Perkins. 
John B. Jones. 
John B. Jones. 
John B. Jones. 
John B. Jones. 
Thomas Grigg. 
Saml. P. Jarvis. 





Davidson County was formed in 1822, from Rowan, named in 
compliment of Gen. William Davidson, -who fell at tlie passage of 
the Catawba at Cowan's Ford, during the Revolutionary War, 1st 
February, 1781, (for whose biography see Mecklenburg County.) 

It is in the western part of the State; the mail stage from 
Raleigh to Salisbury,. passes through this county. It is bounded 
on the north by Forsythe, east by Guilford and Randolph, south 
by the Yadkin River, which separates it from Stanly and Rowan, 
and on the west by the same river, which separates it from Rowan. 

Lexington is its capital, a most flourishing and beautiful village, 
and distant one hundred and seventeen miles from Raleigh. 

Its population is 12,139 whites ; 2,992 slaves ; 189 free negroes ; 14,123 
representative population. 

Its products are 1,368,100 pounds of cotton; 465,828 bushels of corn; 
114,359 bushels of wheat; 102,703 bushels of oats ; 80,502 pounds of tobacco; 
17,305 pounds of wool ; 10,000 dollars of lead. 

Its Colonial and Revolutionary history is connected with that of 
Rowan, to which the reader is referred. 

List of members from Davidson County to the General Assem- 
bly of North Carolina, from the erection of the county to the las: 

Years. Senators. House of Commons. 

1823. Alex. R. Cladcleugh, J. Hargrave, W. Bodenhamer. 

1824. Jesse Hargrave, W. Bodenhamer, J. Clemons. 

1825. Jesse Hargrave, John M. Smith, Joseph Spurgen. 

1826. John M. Smith, Thomas Hampton, John Ward. 

1827. John M. Smith, Thomas Hampton, Absalom Williams. 

1828. John M. Smith, Thos. Hampton, Absalom Williams. 

1829. Ransom Harris, W. W. Wiseman, Lewis Snyder. 

1830. Ransom Harris, Joseph Spurgen, Wm. W. Wiseman. 

1831. Charles Hoover, John A. Hogan, John W. Thomas. 

1832. John A. Hogan, W. AV. Wiseman, Henry Bedford. 

1833. John A. Hogan, W. W. Wiseman, Henry Ledford. 

1834. John A. Hogan, George Smith, Charles Brummell. 

1835. John A. Hogan, George Smith, Charles Brummell. 

1836. John L. Hargrove, Charles Brummell, Meshack Pinckston. 
1838. Wm. R. Holt, Burgess S. Beale, Charles Brummell. 
1840. Alfred Hargrave, Charles Brummell, Burgess S. Beale. 
1842. John W. Thomas, Charles Brummell, Henry Walser. 
1844. Alfred Hargrave, B. C. Douthett, C. L. Payne. 
1846. Saml. Hargrave, Hoover and H. Walser. 
1848. John W. Thomas, J. M. Leach, H. Walser. 
1850. Saml. Hargrave, J. M. Leach, Alfred Forster. 




Davie County was formed in 1836 from Rowan, and named in 
honor of General William R. Davie, who was a resident of Halifax 
County, a sketch of whose life, character and services is therein 
recorded, to which the reader is referred. Chapter XXXVI. 

It is located in the north-west part of North Carolina, and 
hounded on the north by Yadkin County, east by the Yadkin River, 
which separates it from Davidson County, south by Rowan County, 
and west by Alexander and Iredell Counties. 

Its capital is Mocksville, and distant one hundred and twenty 
miles west of Raleigh. 

Its population is 5613 whites; 2171 slaves; 82 free negroes; 6997 repre- 
sentative population. 

Its products are 313,538 bushels corn; 307,040 lbs. cotton; 54,145 bushels 
oats; 44,481 bushels wheat; 8232 bushels rye; 66,771 lbs. tobacco; 5300 
lbs. wool. 

Its early history (being so recently formed) is connected with 
Rowan County, to which the reader is referred. 

Hon. Richmond M. Pearson, one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, 
is a native of this section. For his biography see Chapter on Rowan County. 

It voted with Rowan until 1842, when with Rowan it formed the Forty-first 
Senatorial District, and its members from that period to the present are — 

Years. Senate. House of Commons. 

1842. Samuel Rebelin, G. A. Miller. 

1844. Nathaniel Boyden, G. A. Miller. 

1846. Dr. Samuel E. Kerr, G. A. Miller. 

1848. John A, Lillington, M. Clement. 

1850. John A. Lillington, Stephen Douthet. 




Duplin County was formed as early as 1749,* from upper part 
of New Hanover County. Its early settlers were Irish, and the 
name reminded them of Dublin, their ancient capital. 

It is located in the south-eastern part of North Carolina, and is 
bounded on the north by Wayne County, on the east by Lenoir, 
Jones, and Onslow, on the south by New Hanover, and west by 
Sampson County. 

Its capital is Kenansville, distant eighty-nine miles east of Raleigh. 

Its population is 7165 whites; 6007 slaves; 342 free negroes; 11,111 repre- 
sentative population. 

Its products are 1,346,229 lbs. cotton ; 244,584 bushels corn ; 3525 bushels 
oats; 2683 bushels wheat; 8603 lbs. wool; 47,062 barrels turpentine. 

The early history of Duplin proves that, "in the days that tried 
men's souls" she was true to the principles of liberty. 

Her delegates to the first general meeting of the Deputies of the inhabit- 
ants of this colony at Newbern, 25th August, 1774, were Thomas Gray, 
Thom>s Hicks, James Kenan and William Dickson. 

The delegates at Newbern, 3d April, 1775, were Thomas Grat and Thomas 

Delegates at Ilillsboro', 2l8t August, 1775, James Kenan, "William Dick- 
son, Thomas Gray, Richard Clinton and Thomas Hicks. 

The delegates to Halifax, 12th November, 1776, which formed our Consti- 
tution, -James Kenan, Thomas Gray, "William Dickson, "William Taylor and 
James Gillaspie. 

The field officers for Duplin, appointed by the Provincial Congress, 4th 
April, 1776, at Halifax, for Duplin County, were Thomas Rutledge, Colonel, 
James Moore, First Major, Robert Dickson, Second Major. 

The Oath of Allegiance and Abjuration, adopted with sign- 
ers' names in Duplin, from the original, on file in the Clerk's ofiice 
of Duplin. 

I am indebted to the politeness of Thomas J. Morisey, Esq. (sent 
to me in 1844), for this ancient document, thus preserving the name 
of those in whose breasts glowed the true spirit of liberty. 

"By Act of Assembly passed at Newbern, the 15th of November, 1777." 
I, A. B., do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, that I will be faith- 
ful and bear true allegiance to the State of North Carolina, to the powers 
and authorities which are or may be established for the government thereof, 
not inconsistent with the Constitution. And I do solemnly and sincerely dc- 

* Martin's History of North Carolina, ii. 55. 



clare, that I do believe in my conscience, that neither the King of Great 
Britain, nor the Parliament thereof, jointly with the said king or separately, 
or any foreign prince, person, state, or potentate, have or ought to have any 
right or title to the dominion or sovereignty of this State, or to any part of 
the government thereof And I do renounce, refuse, and abjure any alle- 
giance or obedience to them, or any of them, or to any person or persons put 
in authority by or under them, or any of them. And I will do my utmost 
endeavors to disclose and make known to the legislative or executive powers 
of the said State, all treasons and traitorous conspiracies and attempts what- 
soever, which I shall know to be made or intended against the said State. 
And I do faithfully promise that I will endeavor to support, maintain, and 
defend the independence of the said State, against him the said king and all 
other persons whatsoever. And all these things I do plainly and sincerely 
acknowledge and swear, according to these express wordsby me spoken, 
and according to the plain common sense and understanding of the same 
words, without any equivocation, mental evasion, or secret reservation what- 
soever. And I do make this acknowledgment, abjuration, renunciation and 
promise, heartily, willingly, and truly, so help me God. 

Ilenry Cannon, 
Michael Kenan, 
Kobert Dickson, 
George Smith, 
Alexander Gray, 
Darcy Fowler, 
Richard Clinton, 
J. Spiller, 
John Molton, 

Samuel Houston, 
James Sampson, 
Thomas Routledge, 
Richard Herring, 
Joseph Dicks, 
Thomas R., 
Edward Toole, 
Fleet Cooper, 

William Dickson, 
J. Rand, 
John Wright, 
James Kenan, 
William Tavlor, 
William Ball, 
J. P. Ballard, 
James Lockart. 

Hon. Thomas Kenan was a native of this County, from whose family the 
County Town takes its name. He represented Duplin in ISO-t in the Senate, 
and from 1805 to 1811 he was a member of Congress. He removed to Ala- 
bama, and was a member of Assembly in that State for many years. 

He died near Selma, Alabama, 22d October, 1843, in the seventy-third year 
of his age. 

Felix Kenan, who was Sheriff of Duplin In 1776, was brought before the 
bar of the Congress for his Tory principles.* 

Hon. Charles Hooks, from this County, was a member of the House of 
Commons in 1802, 1803 and 1804, and in the Senate in 1810-11, and in Con- 
gress in 1816 to 1817 and 1819 to 1825. He removed to Alabama, where he 
recently died. 

Members of the General Assembly from Duplin County, from 
1777 to 1850-51 :— 

Years. Senate. 

1777. James Kenan, 

1778. James Kenan, 

1779. James Kenan, 

1780. James Kenan, 

1782. James Kenan, 

1783. James Kenan, 

1784. James Gillaspie, 

1785. James Gillaspie, 

1786. James Gillaspie, 

1787. James Kenan, 

1788. James Kenan, 
1791. James Kenan, 

House of Commons. 
Richard Clinton, Robert Dickson. 
Richard Clinton, Thos. Hicks. 
Richard Clinton, James Gillaspie. 
Joseph Dickson, James Gillaspie. 
Richard Clinton, James Gillaspie. 
James Gillaspie, Richard Clinton. 
Robert Dickson, Richard Clinton. 
Robert Dickson, Jos. T. Rhodes. 
Jos. T. Rhodes, Ro])ert Dickson. 
Robert Dickson, Charles Ward. 
Robert Dickson, Charles Ward. 
Jos. T. Rhodes, James PearsaU. 

* See Journal, p. 37. 



i'ears. Senate. 

1792. James Gillaspie, 

1793. James Kenan, 

1794. Levin Watkins, 

1795. Levin Watkins, 

1796. Jos. T. Rhodes, 

1797. Jos. T. Rhodes, 

1798. Levin Watkins, 

1799. Levin Watkins, 

1800. Levin Watkins, 

1801. Levin Watkins, 

1802. Levin Watkins, 

1803. Levin Watkins, ' 

1804. Thomas Kenan, 

1805. Joseph T. Rhodes, 

1806. Joseph T. Rhodes, 

1807. Joseph T. Rhodes, 

1808. Joseph T. Rhodes, 

1809. Joseph T. Rhodes, 

1810. Charles Hooks, 

1811. Charles Hooks, 

1812. Stephen Miller, 

1813. Joseph Gillaspie, 

1814. Joseph Gillaspie, 

1815. Joseph Gillaspie, 

1816. Daniel Glisson, 

1817. Daniel Glisson, 

1818. Daniel Glisson, 

1819. Daniel Glisson, 

1820. Daniel Glisson, 

1821. Daniel L. Kenan, 

1822. Daniel Glisson, 

1823. Jeremiah Pearsall, 

1824. Jeremiah Pearsall, 

1825. John E. Hussej, 

1826. Stephen Miller, 

1827. Andrew Hurst, 

1828. Stephen Miller, 

1829. Stephen Miller, 

1830. Stephen Miller, 

1831. Stephen Miller, 

1832. John E. Hussey, 

1833. John E. Hussey, 

1834. John E. Hussey, 

1835. John E. Hussey, 

1836. John E. Hussey, 
1838. Jas. K. Hill, 
1840. Jas. K. Hill, 
1842. Austin Levinson, 
1844. James K. Hill, 
1846. James K. Hill, 
1848. James K. Hill, 
1850. Amos Uening, 

House of Commons. 

Shadrach Stallings, William Beck. 
•Jos. T. Rhodes, Jas. Pearsall. 
Daniel Glisson, .Jos. T. Rhodes. 
AVm. Dickson, James Middletoh. 
Daniel Glisson, James Middleton. 
Joseph Dixon, Daniel Glisson. 
Shadrach Stallings, Thos. Kenan. 
Thomas Kenan, Daniel Glisson. 
Charles Hooks, Thos. Kenan. 
Shadrach Stallings, Charles Hooks. 
Charles Hooks, Daniel Glisson. 
Charles Hooks, Daniel Glisson. 
Charles Hooks, Hugh McCane. 
Daniel Glisson, Hugh McCane. 
Daniel Glisson, Andrew Mclntire. 
Daniel Glisson, Andrew Mclntire. 
Daniel Glisson, Andrew Mclntire. 
Daniel Glisson, David Wright. 
Daniel Glisson, David AVright. 
David Wright, Daniel Glisson. 
David Wright, John Beck. 
David Wright, John Beck. 

David Wright, Kornegay. 

David Wright, John E. Hussey. 
John Pearsall, John E. Hussey. 
John Pearsall, John E. Hussey. 
John Pearsall, John E. Hussey. 
John Pearsall, Stephen Graham. 
Stephen Graham, James Nixon. 
John Watkins, Andrew Ilurst. 
Jas. M. Nixon, Archd. Maxwell. 
Stephen Miller, Wm. H. Frederick. 
James M. Nixon, Stephen Miller. 
Benjamin Best, Stephen Miller. 
Benjamin Best, Wm. K. Frederick. 
Daniel Glisson, Jos. Gillaspie. 
Wm. Wright, Jos. Gillaspie. 
Wm. Wright, John Farrier. 
Wm. AVright, Wm. K. Frederick. 
Wm. Wright, Jos. Gillaspie. 
Jos. Gillaspie, Alex. 0. Grady. 
Alex. 0. Grady, Jos. Gillaspie. 
Jas. K. Hill, Owen R. Kenan. 
Jas. K. Hill, Owen R. Kenan. 
Owen R. Kenan, Jas. H. Jarman. 
Jas. H. Jarman, Hampton Sullivan. 
Jas. G. Dickson, Hampton Sullivan. 
Isaac B. Kelly, Jas. G. Dickson. 
I. B. Kelly, J. G. Dickson. 
I. B. Kelly, I. P. Davis. 
I. B. Kelly, J. G. Dickson. 
I. B. Kelley, H. Matthis. 




Edgecombe County was formed, from Craven County in 1733, 
by the Governor (Burrington) and Council,* and confirmed by the 
Legislature, which met at Edenton in 1741. 

( Its name is Saxon, and signifies " a valley environed with hills, "f 
and is derived from the Earl of Mount Edgecomhe, who, as Capt. 
Edgecombe, of the navy, had served with reputation under Admiral 
Byng, in 1756, in Minorca, Its true orthography is Edgecumbe, 
as laid down in the old maps, and in the History of England. J 

It is located in the eastern part of North Carolina, and is bounded 
on the north by Halifax County, east by Martin County, south by 
Pitt, Greene, and Wayne Counties, and west by Nash County. 

Tarborough is the capital, on the Tar River, distant from Ra- 
leigh seventy-six miles. The original name of Tar River was Tau, 
which, in the native Indian tongue, means "River of Health. "§ 

Its population is 8365 whites; 8547 slaves; 277 free negroes ; 13,770 re- 
presentative population. 

Its products are 2,445,000 lbs. cotton ; 715, GG6 bushels corn ; 27,280 
bushels oats ; 14,295 bushels wheat; 7260 lbs. wool ; 21,926 bbls. turpentine : 
114 bbls. fish. 

The fossil remains of a mammoth skeleton, the back bone of 

which is visible, near the Railroad Bridge, in this county, will 

doubtless attract the notice of the State Geologist. 

Edgecombe's early history is full of interest. She sent to that assembly 
of patriots, who met at Newbern, 21st Aug., 1775, in the very presence of 
the Eoyal Governor, as delegates : Egbert Bignal, Henry" Irwist, Duncan 
Lamon, Thomas Hunter, and Thomas H. Hall. 

She sent to the Congress that met at Halifax, 12th Nov., 1776, and which 
formed our Constitution : William Haywood, Elisha Battle, Jonas John- 
son, Isaac Sessums, and William Horn. 

By the resolve of the Congress, Hillsboro', 9th Sept., 1775, for the Halifax 
District: Nicholas Long, was appointed Colonel; Henry Irwin, Lieutenant- 
Colonel; Jethro Sumner, Major. 

By the same, as field ofiicers for Edgecombe: William Haywood, Colonel; 
Sherwood Haywood, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Joseph Moore, 1st Major; IIenrv 
HoRNE, Jr., 2d Major. 

The officers appointed for Edgecombe County by Congress, at Halifax, 4th 
April, 1776: Exum Lewis, Colonel; Simon Gray, Lieutenant-Colonel; Jonas 
Johnson, First Major ; Thomas Hunter, Second Major. 

Although, from her inland position, Edgecombe was not exposed 

* Martin, ii. 36. f Baily's Dictionary. % Smollet, i. 186. 

§ Lawson's History of North Carolina, 1714. 


to danger or attack, yet her brave sons were alive to the interests 
and honor of our common country, and sent them forth to do 
battle for the cause of liberty. 

Among those stands conspicuous the name of Hexrt Irwix. He Tvas for 
a long time a merchant in Tarboro' before the Revolution. His patriotic 
soul -was fired with the deep wrongs that England constantly inflicted on the 
Colonies, He was a member from Edgecombe of the first Assembly that ever 
met, without the sanction of the royal authority, and in open opposition to 
it; and they met, too, to show that no covert or underhand measures were 
to be used, in the very presence of the Royal Governor (Martin), at the seat 
of Royal Rule, Newborn, 21st Aug., 1775. 

The moral courage of such an act, the ultimate effects, and the personal con- 
sequences to the actors, have never been considered in their proper view. 
Wrongs had been inflicted, the feeling, " though deep, was not loud," and no 
large assembly in any State from every portion, had as yet raised openly the 
voice of resistance. Yet North Carolina did this. It is an epoch in our his- 
tory. This Meeting was not a call to arms, but it was the first act in a great 
drama, in which men and arms, and blood and battle, form subordinate parts. 
It was the awful tread of the patriot buckling on his armor for contest; it was 
the stern resolve of freemen " to do or die." 

The resolutions they adopted (unsurpassed either for clearness of meaning, 
or eloquence of expression, will vie with any State papers of any period of 
our history), declare their firm inviolable fidelity to their Sovereign, but at the 
same time declare their unalienable rights not to be taxed, but by their own 
consent freely given ; that the right of trial by jury of the vicinity, is the only 
lawful inquest that can pass upon the life of a British subject ; a right handed 
down from earliest ages, confirmed aud sanctioned by the Magna Chai'ta 
itself; and that the act empowering the Governor to send persons to England 
for trial, was "fraught with injustice, and would be opposed even to blood- 

These were men, 

■who knew their rights, 

And knowing-, dared maintain.' 


Of this illustrious body was Henry Irwix. These were the principles he 
believed in, and when it became necessary he was willing to spend his for- 
tune and lay down his life for them. 

lie was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, on Sept. 9th, 1775, in the same regi- 
ment in which -Jethro Sumner, afterwards so distinguished in the Revolu- 
tionary war, was Major. 

He fell at the battle of Germantown, in Sept., 1777, at the same time that 
North Carolina lost a son, whose name is dear to her memory. General Francis 
Nash, brother of Governor Abner Nash, and uncle to Hon. Frederick Nash, 
now one of our Judges of the Supreme Court, and Captain Jacob Turner, of 

Though his body now lies in the soil of another State, his name belongs to 
Edgecombe, and his fame and character are hers. His noble career will en- 
courage others to emulate its example, and his heroic death cheer and inspire 
her sons. 

-And bv his litrht. 

Shall every gallant youth with ardor move, 
To do brave deeds." 

Over his remains at Germantown, by the patriotic liberality of J. F. Watson, 
Esq.,* a marble has been erected bearing this inscription : — 

* The thanks of the State and the gratitude of every individual of North Carolina are 
due to Mr. Watson, author of "Annals of Philadelphia," for his generous and patriotic 
liberality to the heroic dead. 

He stiil lives at Germantown, enjoying life, and the regard and respect of all who know 
him. He has a son at Wilson, in this County, to whom the good hand of fellowship should 
be extended by our citizens for the noble conduct of his excellent sire. 



Hie jacet in pace. 

Colonel Henry Ir^vin, of North Carolina, 

Captain Turner, 

Adjutant Lucas and six soldiers, 

Killed in the Battle of Germantowu. 


Colonel Irwin left three sons, and several daughters. 

Two of his sons died without issue, the third died leaving a son and two 

One of his daughters married in Halifax, and whose son, Thomas Burgess, 
died without being married. . 

Another daughter married Governor Stokes, whose daughter married the 
late Wm. B. Lewis, of Tennessee, Auditor of the Treasury of the United 
States. Her daughter married Mons. Alphonse Pageot, late Envoy from 
France to United States. 

The sister of Colonel Irwin married LaAvrence Toole, whose son, grandson, 
and great-grandson, bore the name of Henry Irwin Toole, all distinguished 
for ability, influence, and popularity in Edgecombe. 

Hon. James W. Clarke married a daughter of H. I. Toole, the first. 

The name of Wif. Haywood, of this county, appears among her men of 

We regret that so little has been collected of his birth, services, and death. 
The records prove that in various offices, both civil and military, he was a true 
patriot and useful citizen. He was a member of the Committee of Safety for 
the Halifax district, 1775, a member of our State Congress at Halifax (April, 
177G), and also of the State Congress which met at the same place, in Aov., 
1776, which formed the Constitution. He Avas one of the Committee which 
framed that Instrument. He was elected one of the Counsellors of State ; 
the first ever elected in our State (Dec, 1776). , 

He was the uncle of the late John Haywood, so distinguished both in this 
State and Tennessee, as a writer and a jurist. He was the father of the late 
John Haywood, Treasurer of the State from 1787 to 1827, after whom Hay- 
wood County is called ; and of the late Sherwood, and Stephen, and Wil- 
liam II. Haywood, Sen'r, of Raleigh, who is the father of the Hon. 'W m. II. 
Haywood, Jr., Senator in Congress, from 1843 to 1846. 

Jonas Johnson, of this county, is a name which deserves our remembrance 
and respect. He was a member of the House of Commons, in 1777-78. He 
was appointed in 1776, an officer (Major), by the State Congress. ^ He left 
all the comforts of home, and the enjoyments of his family, and joined the 
standard of his country. He was severely wounded at the battle of Stono, 
fought in 1779, and died on his way home, leaving several children; one ot 
whom was the maternal grandfather of Hon. llichard Ilines, now of Raleigh. 

Hon. Thomas Blount, of this county, is distinguished in the civil history 

of the State. .^ , 

He was a member of Congress from this district, from 180o to i8UJ, ana 
from 1811 to 1812, 1821 to 1823. 

He married Jacky, daughter of General Jethro Sumner, of revolutionary 
renown (see AVarren, Chapter LXXVL), and died at Washington City, with- 
out issue. He was the brother of the late John Gray Blount, of A} aslnngton. 
and of Governor Wm. Blount, of Tennessee, who was Senator in Congress 
from that State, and who was expelled from the Senate on July 8th, 1 ( J( , tor 
exciting the Indians and others to make hostile incursions in the Spanish 

Territorv. , _ i t,„j 

His widow, Mrs. Marv S. Blount (daughter of General Sumner, who had 
changed her name from' Jacky), died about thirty years ago, bequeathing a 
portion of her large estate to the Episcopal Church at Raleigh. 


Hon. Thomas H. Hall is a resident and native of Edgecombe, and now 
enjoys " a green old age" in retirement, possessing the regard of his country 
and esteem of his friends. He possesses a liberal education, and is a physician 
by profession. He springs from a good stock. 

In 1817, he was elected a member of Congress, and served until 1825, when 
he was again a candidate, but defeated by Hon. Richard Hines. He was again 
elected in 1827, and served until 1835. 

He was elected to the Senate of the General Assembly in 1836, and voted 
against the reception by the State of North Carolina, of any part or portion 
of the surplus revenue from the United States Treasury. His public career 
was marked with a devotion to popular interests, a rigid adherence to the Con- 
stitution, and a stringent economy. 

Late John Randolph, of Roanoke, was a devoted friend and constant ad- 
mirer of Dr. Hall. 

Hon. Richard Hines represented this county in 1824, and this district in 
Congress, in 1825. He now resides in Raleigh, and is distinguished as a 
gentleman of great personal worth and liberal feelings. 

Hon. Jajies W. Clark was a native of Bertie County, and educated at 
Princeton College, where he graduated in 1796. He was a member of the 
House of Commons, from Bertie County, in 1802 and 1803, and from Edge- 
combe, in 1811. He was Presidential Elector in 1812, and a member of the 
Senate in 1812, '13 and '14, and in 1815, was elected to Congress. He served 
out his terra, and declined a re-election. He was Chief Clerk of the Navy De- 
partment in 1828, when General Branch held the post of Secretary of the Navy, 
under Genei-al Jackson, which post he soon resigned, and died in the sixty-fifth 
year of his age, esteemed and loved by all who knew him. 

He married the daughter of Colonel Henry Irwin Toole, by whom he had 
several children. 

His son, Colonel Henry T. Clark, is the present Senator from this county. 

With the County of Edgecombe, in the councils of the State, for more than 
thirty years, is associated the name of Louis D. Wilsox. 

Perhaps no son was ever loved by a fond mother with more idolatry than 
was this distinguished man by the people of this country, and with all the fer- 
vor of a devoted son was this feeling reciprocated. " They loved him because 
he first loved them." His youth and the meridian of his days was spent in 
her service, and he laid down his life in the cause of his country. 

General Locis Dicken AVilsox was born in this county, on the 12th of 
May, 1789. His education was as good as the state of the country afibrded, 
but he was taught in the great school of human nature, to which books are 
mere accessories and aids. He was placed at the age of eighteen in a 
counting-house, in Washington, and there he acquired that practical know- 
ledge of men, habits of industry, and financial ability, that tended to render 
him, if not a brilliant, a useful representative of the people. 

In 1815, he was first elected a member of the House of Commons ; and from 
that period to 1846, he was, with but little intermission, a member of one or 
the other branches of the Legislature. 

In 1835, he was a delegate to the Convention to amend the Constitution. 
In 1842, he was chosen Speaker of the Senate. His name was frequently on 
the Electoral ticket as Elector of the State, for President and Vice-President. 
In 1836, as one of the Electors, he voted for M. Van Buren as President, and 
R. M. Johnson as Vice-President. 

The venerable Nathaniel Macon was President of this college. This was 
Mr. Macon's last public act. 

His whole career, embracing a long period of more tlian thirty years, ex- 
hibits a uniform and consistent course. In early youth he had taken his po- 
sition with prudence and examination. The experience of age only tended 
to strengthen the predilections of his youth. He was a firm, consistent, and 
unwavering Democrat. Without any pretensions to brilliancy of eloquence, 
he sustained his positions with a clearness of argument and strength of rea- 
soning that elicited the respect, if he failed to convince his opponents. 


But, if his career as a public man was consistent, successful, and brilliant, 
this was exceeded by the cause and manner in which he retired from the 
halls of legislation, never to return. 

At this period, our Republic, through its constitutional organs, had de- 
clared that "war existed with Mexico." American blood had been shed, 
and American rights invaded by an arrogant and cruel nation. This called 
for reparation. The President makes a call on the Governor, and the Gover- 
nor on the people, for men. Parties were divided, and some delay existed 
in responding to this call. 

Who is that delicate man, with his head frosted with the snows of nearly 
sixty winters, raising his voice and calling upon the people of Edgecombe 
to show themselves worthy of their country ? It is Louis D. "Wilson. His 
voice sounds no longer feeble, but is as the sound of a trumpet. The sons 
of Edgecombe rally around him, and at the head of a company he is the 
first to oifer his sei-vices to the Governor. His example is electrical ; the Regi- 
ment is raised, and the honor of the State preserved. His noble and patriotic 
conduct touched every heart. He had fought in the civil fields of 1815 for the 
liberty of his country ; he is now to fight in actual battle for her cause. 

On the 31st December, 1846, the journals inform us, that Mr. Wilson asked 
leave of absence from the Senate. It is granted. Those who witnessed this 
scene never can forget it. The aged Senator rises, and, with that ease of 
manner so peculiar and natural to him, bids them farewell. The Senators in 
a body rise, and he is gone — never to return ! 

The following resolution, reported by the Committee raised upon the sub- 
ject, speak the record of this interesting occasion.* 

Mr. Francis (Senator from Haywood, Macon, and Cherokee), from the com- 
mittee raised on the subject, reported the following preamble and resolution : — 

"Whereas, the Senate has been informed that one of its members is about 
to leave the halls of legislation, in North Carolina, to assume the more ardu- 
ous and perilous duties of the camp and the battle-field, as commander of the 
volunteer companies from the County of Edgecombe ; and whereas, no differ- 
ence of opinion as to the commencement of the existing war between the 
United States and the Republic of Mexico should induce members of this body 
to withhold an expression of the opinion they entertain as to the self-sacrificing 
' and patriotic conduct of the Senator referred to. 

"Be it therefore unanimously resolved by the Senate of North Carolina, now 
in session, that, in separating from their fellow-member, the Honoral)le Louis 
D.Wilson, Senator from Edgecombe, with whom many members of this body 
have been associated for years in the Senate Chamber, they cannot withhold 
the expression of their high sense of his ahle, dignified, and patriotic services 
as a laember of the Senate, and further, to express the conviction that in the 
more arduous and hazardous duties of the battle-field he will be no less distin- 
guished for patriotism, courage, and never-failing devotion to the cause of his 

On which Mr. Gilmer, of Guilford, called for the yeas and nays, and the 
resolution passed uaaniinouslij. 

He marches to Mexico with the North Carolina Regiment, in the humble 
rank of a subaltern. The President of the United States, without his know- 
ledge or consent, but by recommendation of the Senators of the State, who 
difi'ered with General AVilson in politics, appointed him to the command of the 
12th Regiment of Infantry in the Army of the United States. 

While anxiously and constantly superintending a forward movement of 
this regiment from Vera Cruz to the Capital, he is seized with the fever of 
the country, and on the 12th of August, 1847, his generous spirit took its 
flight to another world. 

His munificent legacy "to the poor of Edgecombe" will remain to all timo 
as an evidence of his atfection for her people. Nature had made him child- 
less, that the people of Edgecombe might call him father ! 

His remains have been brought from Mexico to Tarborough, where a monu- 
ment marks the hallowed spot. His remains most appropriately rest in 

* Journal of 1846, (page 132.) 


Edgecomhe ; but h^ memory and his name will find a cenotaph in the heart 
of every North Carolinian. 

Eltsha Battle -was born in Nansemond County, Va., 9th January, 1723. 
In the year 1743 he moved to Tar River, in this county. In 1771 he was 
elected a member of the Assembly, and served many years. 

He was a member of the State Congress that met at Halifax in November, 
1776, which body formed our State Constitution ; a firm and decided patriot. 

He was distinguished for his patriotism and piety, and was an exemplary 
and consistent member of the Baptist church. He died on the 6th of March, 
1799, in the 76th year of his age, leaving several children.* 

Hon. William H. Battle, one of the Judges of our Superior Court, is a 
native of Edgecombe County. 

Judge Battle was born in 1802. He was graduated at Chapel Hill in 
1820. He read law with Judge Henderson, and was licensed in 1824. 

He entered public life in 1833, and was re-elected in 1834, as a member of 
the House of Commons from Franklin County. 

He was appointed one of the Commissioners under act of 1834, to revise 
the statute law of the State, with Frederick Nash and James Iredell. 

He was appointed Judge of the Superior Court in 1840, and in 1848 he 
was appointed by the Governor and Council, Judge of the Supreme Court, 
which, not being confirmed by the Legislature, he resigned in 1848. In 
1849 he was elected a Judge of the Superior Court, which appointment 
he now holds. 

He married in June, 1825, Lucy, daughter of Kemp Plummer, Esq., by 
whom he has an interesting family. Patient, polite, and laborious, his labors 
are alike creditable to himself and acceptable to the State. Judge Battle 
now resides at Chapel Hill, at the university of which he is one of the Pro- 
fessors (of law). 

List of Members of the General Assembly for Edgecombe County 
from 1777 to 1851. 

Years. Senators. House of Commons. 

1777. Elisha Battle, Jonas Johnston, Nathan Boddie. 

1778. Elisha Battle, Jonas Johnston, Isaac Sessums. 

1779. Elisha Battle, William Haywood, Etheldred Esum. 

1780. Elisha Battle, Etheldred Gray, Henry Horn, Jr. 

1781. Elisha Battle, Robert Diggs, James Wilson. 

1782. Isaac Sessums, Robert Diggs, James Wilson. 

1783. Elisha Battle, Robert Diggs, James Wilson. 

1784. Isaac Sessums, Robert Diggs, John Dobien. 

1785. Elisha Battle, Etheldred Phillips, Robert Diggs. 

1786. Elisha Battle, Etheldred Phillips, Robert Diggs. 

1787. Elisha Battle, Robert Diggs, John Dobien. 

1788. Etheldred Gray, Wm. Fort, Joshua Killibrew. 

1789. Etheldred Gray, John Leigh, Bythel Bell. 

1790. Etheldred Phillips, John Leigh, Bythel Bell. 

1791. Etheldred Phillips, John Leigh, Bythel Bell. 

1792. Etheldred Phillips, John Leigh, Thomas Blount. 

1793. Etheldred Phillips, John Leigh, Jeremiah Hilliard. 

1794. William Gray, John Leigh, Jeremiah Hilliard. 

1795. William Gray, John Leigh, David Coffield. 

1796. Nathan Mayo, Bythell Bell, John Leigh. 

1797. Nathan Mayo, Nathan Gilbert, Frederic Phillips. 

1798. Thomas Blount, Adam John Haywood, Jeremiah Haywood. 

1799. Thomas Blount, Lawrence O'Bryan, Jeremiah Hilliard. 

1800. Bythell Bell, Jeremiah Hilliard, Wm. Ilyman. 

1801. Richard Harrison, Jeremiah Hilliard, George Brownrigg. 

1802. Richard Harrison, George Brownrigg, Jeremiah Hilliai'd. 

1803. Richard Harrison, Jeremiah Hilliard, Geo. Brownrigg. 

* History of the Kehukee Association. 











































Richard Harrison, 
Richard Harrison, 
Richard Harrison, 
Richard Harrison, 
Henry I. Toole, 
Henry I. Toole, 
Henry I. Toole, 
Henry I. Toole, 
James W, Clark, 
James W. Clark, 
James W. Clark, 
Joseph Bell, 
Joseph Bell, 
James Benton, 
James Benton, 
James Benton, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Hardy Flowers, 
Hardy Flowers, 
Hardy Flowers, 
Louis D. Wilson, 

Louis D 
Louis D 
Louis D 
Louis D 
Louis D 


Louis D. Wilson, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Hardy Flowers, 
Hardy Flowers, 
Benjamin Sharpe, 
Thomas H. Hall, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Louis D. Wilson, 
Wyatt Moye, 
Henry T. Clarke, 

House of Commons. 
Geo. Brownrigg, Henry Haywood. 
Jos. Farmer, Luke W. Sumner. 
Luke W. Sumner, Henry I. Toole. 
Henry I. Toole, John Cotton. 
JS'athan Stancil, Hardy Flowers. 
Hardy Flowers, Wm. Balfour. 
Jas. W. Clarke, Hardy Flowers. 
AVm. Balfour, Jas. W. Clark. 
Joseph Farmer, James Benton. 
Joseph Farmer, James Benton. 
Joseph Farmer, James Benton. 
James Benton, Louis D. Wilson. 
James Benton, Louis D. Wilson. 
Louis D. Wilson, John Horn. 
Louis D. Wilson, John Horn. 
L. D. Wilson, Moses Baker. 
William Wilkins, Moses Baker. 
Jos. R. Lloyd, William Wilkins. 
Wm. Wilkins, Moses Baker. 
Wm. Wilkins, Moses Baker. 
Henry Bryan, Richard Hines. 
Henry Bryan, Moses Baker. 

Benjamin Sharpe, Hardy Flowers.^ 
Benjamin Sharpe, Benjamin Wilkinson. 

Benjamin Sharpe, Benjamin Wilkinson. 

Moses Baker, Gray Little. 

Hardy Flowers, Gray Little. 

Redding Pittraan, Hardy Flowers. 

Gray Little, John W. Potts. 

John W. Potts, Turner Bynum. 

John W. Potts, Turner Bynum. 

S. Deberry, Jos. J. Pipkin. 

Jos. J. Daniel, James George. 

Robert Bryan, Wm. S. Baker. 

Wm. S. Baker, Joshua Barnes. 

Joshua Barnes, Ralph E. McNair. 

Joshua Barnes, R. R. Bridgers. 

Wyatt Moye, AVm. F. Daucy. 

Wm. F. Dancy, Wm. Thigpen. 
Joshua Barnes, Kenneth Thigpen. 



FoRSYTHE County was formed in 1848, from Stokes County. 

Forsvthe County derives its name from Col. Benjamin FoRSVTnE, of Stokes 
County^ who resided in Germantown. In 1807, he represented Stokes County 

in the House of Commons. n .- f o p;flo rmnninv and 

In the war of 1812 he was appointed a Captain of a I^^^^^.^f^^'^P^'^A^i^^ 
marched to Canada, whore, in a skirmish in 1814, he was killed, ioi 
biography, see chapter Ixxi., Stokes County. 


It is. located in the north-western part of the State, and is 
hounded on the north hy Stokes County, east hy Guilford County, 
south by Davidson County, and west by Yadkin County. 

Its capital is Winston, and is distant from Raleigh one hundred 
and ten miles. This village preserves the name of Joseph Winston, 
who rendered important military services in the Revolution, and 
civil services since. 

Its population is 9,663 whites ; 1,353 slaves ; 152 free negroes ; 10,666 re- 
resentative population. 

If the history of North Carolina, as has been stated by an 
eminent writer, is yet to be written, the Legislature, in later days, by 
recording the names of her sons on her new counties and towns, has 
endeavored to perpetuate the memory of those who have done her 
service in the field and Senate, and whose history, when examined 
and written, is the best record of the State. 

The name of Benjamin Forsythe is worthy of being preserved by 
the State, for his life was offered up on the altar of his country. 

The name of Joseph Winston is one worthy of notice. He was a native 
of Stokes. He was the early and devoted friend of liberty. In 1775 and 
1776, he represented Stokes in the meetings of the patriots of that day. 

He was, in 1777, appointed by Governor Caswell, Commissioner to treat 
with the Cherokee Indians, and associated with Col. Waightstill Avery, Wil- 
liam Sharpe, and Robert Lanier, made the treaty of the Long Island of 
Ilolston, by which the Indians ceded all their lands lying in the States of 
Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. 

He was one of those gallant spirits who led the brave mountaineers on the 
heights of King's Mountain on the 7th of October, 1780, and drove the British 
and Tories from their position, a position which their officer, Colonel Fergu- 
son, impiously had declared, "that God Almighty could not drive them 
from." He was a Major in this battle, and with Colonel McDowell and Se- 
vier, commanded the right wing in that fierce and bloody affair. 

For the particulars of which the reader is referred to Chapter X. (Burke 
County), biography of General Charles McDowell, and (Chapter XX. Cleave- 
land County) biography of Governor Isaac Shelby. 

In 1791, he was the first Senator elected from the (then) recently erected 
county of Stokes, which he occasionally served in the Legislature as late as 
1812. He was a member of Congress in 1793 to 1795, and in 1803 to 1807. 

He lived near Germantown, and died in 1814, leaving a large family. He 
was remarkable for his devoted patriotism, and regard for popular rights, and 
more for these qualities, than for either literary acquirements or intellectual 

The County of Forsythe has no separate member from Stokes until after 
the next session of the General Assembly. 





Franklin County was founded in 1779. The General Assembly 
in that year obliterated the name of Bute, and divided its territory 
into the counties of Franklin and Warren. It derives its name 
from Benjamin Franklin, the Philosopher and Sage, who rendered 
such signal services to his country in the Revolution in a civil capa- 
city. He was born Jan. 1706, in Boston, and died in Philadelphia, 
April, 1790, where he lies buried. 

It is located near the centre of the State, joining Wake County, 
in which is the seat of Government. Bounded on the north by 
Warren, east by Nash, south by Johnson, and west by Wake 

Its capital is Lewisburg, and is distant 36 miles east of Raleigh. 

Its early history is connected with Warren, from which old Bute 
was formed (see Warren, Chapter LXXVI). 

" There were no Tories in Bute," was regarded as a fixed fact; 
the whole country as one man, was for Independence and liberty. 

Population of Franklin, 5,685 whites; 5,507 slaves; 521 free negroes; 
9,510 representative population. 

Products, 451,909 lbs. tobacco ; 437,277 bushels corn ; 577,993 bushels oats ; 
14,456 bushels wheat; 538,320 lbs. cotton; 8,968 lbs. wool. 

Members of the General Assembly from Franklin County, from 
the date of its erection to the last Session, 1850-51. 

Years. Senators. 

1780. Henry Hill, 

1781. Henry Hill, 

1782. Henry Hill, 

1783. A. M. Foster, 

1784. Henry Hill, 

1785. Henry Hill, 

1786. Henry Hill, 

1787. Henry Hill, 

1788. Thomas Brickell, 

1789. Henry Hill, 

1790. Henry Hill, 

1791. Henry Hill, 

1792. William Christmas, 

1793. William Christmas, 

1794. Henry Hill, 

1795. Henry Hill, 

1796. James Gray, 

1797. Henry Hill, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Joseph Bryant, William Brickell. 
William Brickell, William Green. 
William Brickell, William Green. 
Simon Jeffreys, Harrison Macon. 
Durham Hall, Thomas Sherrod. 
Durham Hall, Thomas Sherrod. 
Durham Hall, Richard Ranjoin. 
Thomas Sherrod, Jordan Hill. 
Jordan Hill, Brittain Harris. 
Thomas Sherrod, Durham Hall. 
Thomas Sherrod, Jordan Hill. 
Archibald Davis, John Foster. 
John Foster, Thomas K. Wynn. 
John Foster, Brittain Harris. 
John Foster, Brittain Harris. 
Brittain Harris, Archibald Davis. 
Brittain Harris, Archibald Davis. 
John Foster, Brittain Harris. 



Years. Senators. 

179». Henry Hill, 

1799. Jordan Hill, 

1800. Jordan Hill, 

1801. Jordan lini, 

1802. Jordan Hill, 

1803. Jordan Hill, 

1804. John Foster, 

1805. John Foster, 

1806. John Foster, 

1807. John Foster, 

1808. John Foster, 

1809. Benjamin Brickell, 

1810. Benjamin Brickell, 

1811. Benjamin Brickell, 

1812. James J. Hill, 

1813. James J. Hill, 

1814. Benjamin F. Hawkins, 

1815. Thomas Lanier, 

1816. Benjamin F. Hawkins, 

1817. James J. Hill, 

1818. James J. Hill, 

1819. Benjamin F. Hawkins, 

1820. James Houze, 

1821. James Houze, 

1822. James Houze, 

1823. Charles A. Hill. 

1824. Charles A. Hill, 

1825. Charles A. Hill, 

1826. Charles A. Hill, 

1827. James Houze, 

1828. Henry J. G. Ruffin, 

1829. William P. Williams, 

1830. William P. Williams, 

1831. William P. Williams, 

1832. William P. Williams, 

1833. Thomas G. Stone, 

1834. John D. Hawkins, 

1835. Henry G. Williams, 

1836. John D. Hawkins, 
1838. John D. Hawkins, 
1840. John D. Hawkins, 
1842. William P. Williams, 
1844. William A. Jeffreys, 
1846. John E. Thomas, 
1848. James Collins, 
1850. James Collins, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
John Foster, Archibald Davis. _ 
Brittain Harris, Archibald Davis. 
Brittain Harris, Thomas Lanier. 
Eppes Moody, James Seawell. 
Eppes Moody, James Seawell. 
Brittain Harris, James Seawell. 
Eppes Moody, Brittain Harris. 
Eppes Moody, -James J. Hill. 
Eppes Moody Thomas Lanier. 
Eppes Moody, Thomas Lanier. 
James J. Hill, Thomas J. Alston. 
James J. Hill, Thomas Lanier. 
Eppes Moody, Thomas Lanier. 
Benjamin F." Hawkins, Eppes Moody. 
Thomas Lanier, Benjamin F. Hawkins. 
Benjamin F. Hawkins, Thomas Lanier. 
Thomas Lanier, Nathaniel Hunt. 
Nathaniel Hunt,Marma. D. Jeffreys. 
Nathaniel Hunt, Marma. D. Jeffreys. 
James Houze, William Harrison. 
William Harrison, James Houze. 
M. N. Jeffreys, T. Terrell. 
William Moore. 
John D. Hawkins. 
Lark Fox, Guilford Lewis. 
Lark Fox, Guilford Lewis. 
Lark Fox, Guilford Lewis. 
William J. Williams, James Houze. 
James Houze, Joel King. 
Joel Kin^, Henry J. G. RufBn. 
Richard Ward, William J. Branch. 
William J. Branch, Thomas J. Russell. 
William J. Branch, Gideon Glenn. 
Gideon Glenn, James Davis. 
Alfred A. Lancaster, Nath. R. Tunstall. 
AVilliam H. Battle, Jos. J. Maclin. 
William H. Battle, Jos. J. Maclin. 
Thomas Howerton, Simon G. Jeffreys. 
Thomas Howerton, Jos. J. Maclin. 
Thomas Howerton, William P. Williams. 
Young Patterson, Thomas Howerton. 
Young Patterson, John E. Thomas. 
William K. Martin, James Collins. 
William K. Martin, James Collins. 
William K. JMartin, D. W. Spivey. 
William K. Martin, Josiah Bridges. 




Date of formation — Origin of name — Situation and boundaries — Spencer's 
mountain — Life of Rev. Humphrey Hunter, who was present at Charlotte, 
20th May, 1775, and an eye-witness of the death of Baron de Kalb at Cam- 
den (Aug. 1780) — Fight with pine-knots— Life of Major Wm. Chronicle, 
John Mattocks, John Moore, and Wm. Rankin, all of the Revolution. 

Gaston County -was formed in 1846, from Lincoln County, 
and derives its name from William Gaston, late one of the Judges 
of the Supreme Court, for whose character, life, and services, the 
reader is referred to Craven County, Chapter XXII. 

It is situated in the south-western part of the State, and is 
bounded on the north by Lincoln County, east by the Catawba 
River, which separates it from Mecklenburg County, south by the 
South Carolina line, and West by Cleaveland County. 

Its capital is Dallas, named in compliment to the Hon. George 
M. Dallas, of Philadelphia, who was Vice-President of the United 
States in 1844. 

Its population, according to the census of 1850, is 5,928 whites; 2,112 
slaves ; 33 free negroes ; 7,228 representative population. 

Its early history is connected with Lincoln County, to wdiich the 
reader is referred, as well as for its members of Assembly, with 
which it votes until after the next session of 1852. 

Spencer's Mountain, in this County, derives its name from Zack Spencer, 
who was a Tory in the Revolution, lie was taken (caught asleep) by John 
IMoore and six others. They held a court, and had a mock trial, and Spencer 
was condemned to die. He begged hard for his life, and promised fidelity to 
the cause of liberty. On condition of his swearing to adhere to the State, 
and oppose the English, he was released. For want of a Bible, he took the 
oath of allegiance on an old almanac. 

The character of the Rev. Humphrey Hunter, who resided in this 

county when Lincoln, deserves a place in our sketches. We here 

insert it. As a Christian, as a patriot, and as a citizen, his career 

is worthy of our regard and esteem. 

Rev. Humphrey Hunter, the subject of this sketch, was a distinguished 
soldier of the Revolution, and afterwards an eminent minister of the Gospel. 
From his own manuscript narrative of his early history and revolutionary ser- 
vices, now on file in the Governor's office at Raleigh, we learn, that he was 
born on the 14th of May, 1755, in the vicinity of Londonderry, Ireland. 

His father was well known in his day, as a respectable drapei-y merchant 
on the " Bleach-green Farm." His paternal grandfather was from Glasgow, 
Scotland. His maternal grandfather was from Brest, in France. His descent 
is thus traced to the Scotch, Irish, and French Huguenots — that stock of per- 
secuted people, whose self-expatriation so greatly contributed to the spread 



cf civil and religious liberty in different portions of the world. In America, 
tlie asylum of the oppressed of all nations, and especially on the soil of the 
Carolinas, many of their descendants occupy a proud position on the page of 
history, and acted a magnanimous part in the cause of freedom. At four 
years of age he was deprived by death of his father. His widowed mother 
resided on the same farm several years after this bereavement. About this 
time the cheap and fertile lands of the New World, and unrestricted enjoy- 
ment of religious worship, were powerful inducements in alluring to the 
American shores a numerous foreign emigration. Influenced by the flatter- 
ing prospect of future comfort, and providing more easily for a rising family, 
his mother embarked on the 3d of May, 1759, in the ship Helena, bound for 
Charleston, S. C. On the 27th of August following, the vessel safely reached 
its destination. A few days after her arrival she procured a conveyance, 
proceeded to the eastern part of Mecklenburg County (now Cabarrus), pur- 
chased a small tract of land not far from Poplar Tent Church, and remained 
during life. In this neighborhood Humphrey Hunter grew up, emancipated 
from a state of bondage, inhaling the salubrious breeze of a free clime, and 
imbibing the principles of genuine liberty. But this state of happiness was 
soon to be interrupted. The repeated aggressions of Great Britain, deroga- 
tory to the honor and subversion of the just rights of the American people, 
aroused a spirit of resistance which terminated in the Revolution. The 
crisis rapidly approached. On the 19th of April, 1775, the battle of Lexington 
was fought. To use his own forcible language, " that was a wound of a 
deepening gangrenous nature, not to be healed without amputation." Intel- 
ligence of the affair speedily spread abroad. Xo sooner had it reached 
Mecklenburg, than patriotic fire glowed in every breast. It burst into a 
flame, and blazed through every corner of the county. Communications 
from one to another were made with great facility. Committees were held in 
various neighborhoods. Every man was a politician ; every man was a soldier. 

"Fire in each breast, and freedom on each brow." 

In this connection, what a beautiful tribute does he pay to the nursing 
mothers of the Revolution. " Neither were our mothers silent on that all- 
important subject. 'Go, men,' said they, 'go league yourselves together — 
take up arms — go to the field of battle — go, fight for the freedom of your- 
selves, of your wives, and your children. Let us never be slaves.' Well do 
I remember the advice of my mother — ' Go, son — go join yourself to the men 
of our country, for this is our country. We ventured our lives on the waves 
of the ocean in quest of the freedom promised us here. Go fight for it ; and 
rather let me hear of your death than of your cowardice.' " 

In a short time this patriotic advice of his mother was called into action. 
" Orders were presently issued," continues his narrative, " by Col. Thomas 
Polk to the several militia companies, two men, selected from each beat, 
to meet at the Court House at Charlotte, on the 19th of May, 1775, in 
order to consult with each other upon such measures as might be thought 
best to be pursued. Accordingly, on said day, a far larger number than two 
out of each company were present." Drawn by the excitement of the occa- 
sion, he attended the convention in Charlotte on the appointed day. lie was 
then a few days upwards of twenty years old, and mingled with the nume- 
rous crowd of spectators who witnessed the proceedings of that memorable 
body. He then enjoyed the privilege of listening to the reading of the first 
public Declaration of Independence in the United States, and joined in the 
shuut of approval which burst forth from a large and deepljwnterested audi- 
ence. The bloody massacre at Lexington increased the patriotic ardor of the 
day, and a detei-mined spirit of resistance animated every breast. Actuated 
by'such feelings, they were fully prepared to " pledge their lives, their for- 
tunes, and their most sacred honor," to the adoption and maintenance of the 
most independent measures. 

The Mecklenburg Resolves, of May 20th, 1775, have been several times 
published. They breathe throughout the high-toned and patriotic sentiments 
of freemen, and will compare favorably with the compositions of any period of 
our history, and were far in advance of the spirit of the day. 


Copies of these Resolves were then drawn off, and given to the charge of 
Captain James Jack, then of Charlotte, to present to Congress during its 
session in Phihidelphia. On the return of Captain Jack, he reported " that 
Congress individually manifested their entire approbation of the conduct of 
the Mecklenburg citizens, but deemed it premature to lay them officially be- 
fore the House." 

In a short time after the meeting of the Convention in Charlotte, intelli- 
gence reached Mecklenburg that a considerable number of Tories had em- 
bodied themselves in the vicinity of Cross Creek, now Fayetteville,_ in hos- 
tility to the American cause. AVith commendable promptitude a regiment of 
infantry and cavalry, commanded by Colonel Thomas Polk, was raised in the 
county, and marched in the direction of Fayetteville. The corps of cavalry 
was commanded by Captain Charles Polk, a brother of the Colonel. In this 
corps, Hunter entered as a private soldier. The campaign, however, was 
of short duration. The Tories were dispersed before the arrival of the regi- 
ment, and it immediately returned. 

Soon after this expedition, he commenced his classical education at "Clio's 
Nursery," in the western part of Kowan County (now Iredell), under the 
instruction of the Rev. James Hall. Here he remained for a short time, dili- 
gently prosecuting his studies. 

But an emergency soon arose in which his services were again required. 
The Cherokee Indians were committing numerous murders and depredations 
on the inhabitants near thesources of the Catawba. Upon this information. 
General Rutherford promptly called out a brigade from the counties of Guil- 
ford, Rowan, Mecklenburg, &c., composed of infantry and three corps of caval- 
ry. One of these was commanded by Captain, afterwards Colonel Robert 
Mebane,* in which he acted as lieutenant. The campaign proved successful. 
Two skirmishes took place, in which several Indians were killed, and a consi- 
derable number made prisoners, including Hicks and Scott, two white traders 
who had formed family connections with the Indians, and espoused their cause. 

After his return from the Cherokee nation, he resumed his classical educa- 
tion at Queen's Museum, in Charlotte, under the control of Dr. McWhorter, 
from New Jersey. In the summer of 1780, this institution, having assumed 
in the meantime the more patriotic name of "Liberty Hall Academy," was 
broken up by the approach of the British army under Lord Cornwallis, after 
the surrender of Charleston, and massacre of Buford's regiment at the Wax- 
haws. The school was dismissed; the minors were commended by Dr. 
McWhorter to the care of their parents and guardians ; the young men were 
urged to take up arms in defence of their country, and for all he invoked the 
blessings of Heaven. At this time General Gates was on his way to the 
Southern States. Orders having been issued by General Rutherford to the 
battalions of the western counties, a brigade was promptly raised to rendez- 
vous at Salisbury. In this brigade Hunter acted for a short time as Com- 
missary, and afterwards as Lieutenant in the company of Captain Givens. 
Deeply impressed at all times with the justice of the vVmerican cause, his ser- 
vices were freely offered to assist in meeting and averting impending dangers. 
He again laid aside for a time his battle with books to join in the battle with men. 
This force first marched from Salisbury down the north-east side of the Yad- 
kin, scouring the Tory settlements of the Uwharryand Deep Rivers, previous 
to the junction with General Gates, at Cheraw. From this place General Gates 
moved forward with as much expedition as possible to Claremont, where he 
arrived on the I2th of August. On the 15th he marched towards Camden, 
progressing as far as the Gum Swamp, where sharp skirmishing took place in 
the night, between advanced parties of the Americans and British. 

On the IGth of August, 1780, the unfortunate battle of Camden was fought. 
A contagious panic seized most of the militia early in the action, and a pre- 
cipitate °and disgraceful retreat was the consequence. The regulars of 

* We regret that more is not preserved of this brave man. He was a native of Orange, 
brother of Hon. Alexander Mebane, and was disliniruishcd for his bravery and services. 
He was engaged in several aliairs, de>perate and sanguinary, and was always ready and 
active in the cause of Lilx'rly. He finally fell in an unguarded moment by the hand ol a 
Tory, whom he had taken prisoner. 


ISIaryland and Delaware, with a small portion of the North Carolina militia, 
firmly stood their ground until surrounded by overwhelming numbers. The 
subject of this sketch was there made prisoner, and stripped of most of his 
clothes. Soon after his surrender as a prisoner of war, he witnessed the 
painful incidents of battle resulting in the death of Barox De Kale. lie 
informs us he saw the Baron without suite or aid, and without manifesting 
the design of his movements, galloping down the line. He was soon descried 
by the enemy, who, clapping their hands on their shoulders, in reference to 
his epaulettes, exclaimed "a General, a rebel General!" ^ Immediately, a man 
on horseback (not Tarleton) met him, and demanded his sword. The Baron 
reluctantly presented the handle towards him, saying in French, Etes voiis 
an offider. Monsieur? ("Are you an officer. Sir?") His antagonist^ not un- 
derstanding the language, with an oath, more sternly demanded his sword. 
The Baron then, not understanding him perfectly, with all possible speed rode 
on, disdaining to surrender to any but to an ofiicer. 

The cry, " a rebel General," sounded along the line. The musketeers imme- 
diately, by platoons, fired upon him. He proceeded about twenty-five rods 
when he fell from his horse, mortally wounded. Soon afterwards he was 
raised to his feet, and stripped of his hat, coat, and neckcloth, and placed 
with his hands resting on a wagon. His body was found, upon examination, to 
have been pierced with seven musket balls. Whilst standing in this posi- 
tion, and the blood streaming through his shirt, Cornwallis, with his suite, 
rode up. Being informed that the wounded man was De Kalb, he addressed 
him by saying, "I am sorry, Sir, to see you; not sorry that you are vanquish- 
ed, but sorry to see you so badly wounded." Having given orders to an 
ofiicer to administer to the wants of the Baron, the British General rode on 
to secure the results of his victory. In a short time the brave and generous 
De Kalb, who had served in the armies of France, and embarked in the Ame- 
rican cause, breathed his last. He lies buried in Camden, S. C, where a 
monument is erected over his remains. 

After being confined seven days in a prison-yard in Camden, Hunter was 
taken, with many other prisoners, including about fifty ofiicers, to Orange- 
burg, S. C, there to remain until exchanged, where he continued uuul the 
loth of November following, without hat or coat. On that day, without any 
design of transgressing, he set out to visit a friendly lady in the suburbs, who 
had promised to give him a homespun coat. On his way he was stopped by 
a horseman, armed with sword and pistols, who styled himself a Lieutenant 
of the station at the court house, under Colonel Fisher. The horseman blus- 
tered and threatened, and sternly commanded him to march before him to the 
station, to be confined and tried for having broken his parole. No excuse, 
apology, or confession would be received in extenuation of his ofi"ence. " To 
the station," said he, " you shall go — take the road." He was a Tory loyalist, 
and was treating, in hard terms, a real Whig. Up the road he had to go, 
sour and sulky, with much reluctance. He was frequently hurried in his 
march by the point of the Tory's sword. Hunter pursued his course, but 
constantly on the look-out for some means of self defence. Fortunately for 
the oppressed, when a forlorn condition seems to surround them, unexpected 
means of succor are frequently thrown providentially in their way. In a 
short time they approached a large fallen j^ine tree, around which lay a 
quantity of pine-knots, hardened and Idackened by the recent action of tire. 
Hunter, in an instant, jumped to the further side of said tree, as to " a city of 
refuge," and, armed with a good pine-knot, prepared for combat. The Tory 
instantly fired one of his pistols at him, but without efi"ect. The Tory then leap- 
ed his horse over the tree. Hunter, with equal promptness, exchanged sides. 
Much skillful manceuvering took place, whilst the Tory was thus kept at 
bay. The Tory then discharged his other pistol, but again without etfect. 
Hunter then commenced a vigorous warfare with the pine-knots, so oppor- 
tunely placed at his command, and dealt them out with profuse liberality. 
The precisive aim with the pine-knots, soon brought the horseman to the 
o-round. He was then disarmed of his sword, and capitulated in the follow- 
ing terms: Hunter agreed never to publish the conquest he had gained, and 
to '^ive up the sword he had taken from him. The Tory agreed never to 


make it known that any of the prisoners had ever crossed the boundary line, 
or ever offended in any other manner. 

But secrecy could not be preserved, for during the affray the horse with- 
out his rider galloped off to the station, and created, of course, considerable 
anxiety respecting the rider's fate. But all serious apprehensions were soon 
removed as the dismounted horseman presently made his appearance, not, 
however, without several visible bruises, bearing striking proof of the effect- 
ive precision of the pine-knots. As usual on the occurrence of any myste- 
rious affair, a close examination was instituted, and numerous searching 
questions propounded. All concealment was ended. The rencontre took 
place on Friday evening. On the Sabbath following orders were issued by 
Col. Fisher to all of the prisoners to appear at the court house on Monday, 
by twelve o'clock M. On the evening of that Sabbath, Hunter, expecting 
close confinement, or other harsh and vindictive treatment, made his escape 
with several others, and commenced their way to North Carolina. They 
concealed themselves during the day to avoid the numerous British scouts, 
and traveled only in the night, supporting themselves on raio corn. On the 
ninth night after they set out from Orangeburg they crossed the Catawba, 
and arrived safely in Mecklenburg. 

After remaining at his mother's residence only a few days, he again en- 
tered the public service, and joined the cavalry, acting as Lieutenant under 
Col. Henry Lee. In a short time, the battle at the Eutaw Springs, the last 
important one in the South, took place. In this engagement, where so much 
personal bravery was displayed, he performed a gallant part, and was slightly 

With this campaign his military services ended. Among the variety of in- 
cidents which occurred in this year, and during this campaign, he was gratified 
in revisiting his old prison-bounds, and in witnessing the reduction of the 
station at Orangeburg. But greater still was the gratification he derived in 
again beholding the identical sword he had taken from his Tory antagonist. 
lie then returned home, with bravery established, his patriotism unquestioned, 
and integrity unsullied. 

Soon after his return he resumed his classical studies under the instruction 
of the Rev. Robert Archibald, near Poplar Tent Church, where he remained 
fur a considerable length of time, assiduously engaged. During the summer 
of 1785 he entered the Junior Class at Mount Zion College, in Winnsbo- 
rough, S. C, and graduated in July, 1787. In a short time he commenced 
the studj' of Theology under the care of the Presbytery of South Carolina, 
and obtained license to preach in Oct. 1789. The first four or five years of 
his ministerial labors were performed in South Carolina. 

There on 31st Dec. 1789, he united himself in marriage with Jane, daughter 
of Dr. George Ross, of Laurens District. 

In 1796 he removed to the south-eastern part of Lincoln County (now 
Gaston), having vrsited this section of country in the preceding year. Here 
he purchased a home for his rising family, and here he ended his days. 
Shortly after his arrival he received calls from the churches of Goshen and 
Unity to become their pastor. To the people of these two charges he de- 
voted about eight years of continuous ministerial labors. In 1805 he ac- 
cepted a call from Steele Creek Church, in Mecklenburg County. To this 
charge he devoted the greater portion of his unremitting labors for twenty- 
three years, and was rejoiced to see, during this protracted period, a large 
accession of new members to the church, as seals to his ministry. The remain- 
ing portion of his ministerial services were principally given to Goshen, in 
connection with Steele Creek, until the time of his death. 

Being connected by marriage with the family of Dr. George Ross, a wor- 
thy and distinguished physician of Laurens District, S. C, he availed him- 
self of the favorable opportunity thus afforded of acquiring a practical 
knowledge of medicine, sufficiently extensive for family purposes. He was 
induced to make this acquisition, not only to gratify a peculiar propensity, 
but more particularly on the account of the scarcity of good physicians at 
that early period. At the time of his removal to Lincoln County there were 
but few physicians ; these were widely separated. Ilis medical knowledge, 


■which he continued to improve by occasional reading, soon became known, 
and he was frequently called upon by his neighbors to administer to their 
wants. His excellent judgment, so important to the physician in the dis- 
crimination and treatment of diseases, and his remarkable success, soon gave 
him extensive practice, and threatened, for a time, to interfere with his minis- 
terial duties. But this successful practice was never the source of any great 
pecuniary profit; his charges in all cases being moderate, and frequently 

gratuitous. . t r. ^ i. 

In his preaching Mr. Hunter was earnest, unassuming, and oiten eloquent. 
Possessing naturally a strong mind, with powers of originality, and aided 
bv the advantages of a good education, he was useful in the high mission to 
which he was called, and to it he devoted his best talents and acquirements. 
He possessed, in a remarkable degree, a talent for refined sarcasm, and knew 
how to use most effectively its piercing shafts against the idle objections, or 
disingenuous cavils of alftriflers with the great truths of religion. But his 
benevolent feelings forbade its use in private intercourse. The great sim- 
plicity of his manners and freedom from afi"ectation readily gained the con- 
fidence and friendship of all who knew him. And if the faithful discharge 
of ministerial duty might cause the evil to fear him, yet to the good he was 
doubly esteemed. In his advanced years the infirmities of age greatly con- 
tracted his useful labors, without impairing the vigor of his mental powers, 
or fervency and faithfulness of his preaching. But a sudden illness, on a Sa]> 
bath evening, after preaching one of his most animated, forcible, and inte- 
resting sermons to the people of Steele Creek, rapidly prostrated his already 
enfeebled constitution, and admonished him that his earthly pilgrimage was 
soon to terminate. He met his approaching end with unshaken firmness and 
Christian resignation, and peacefully breathed his last, Aug. 21st, 1827, in 

the 73d year of his age. , •, , ^ „ • 

On his head-stone in Steele Creek grave-yard, is recorded the iollowmg 
appropriate inscription : — 


to the Memory of the 

Reverend Humphrey Hcxter, 

who departed this life August 21st, 

1827, in the 73d year of his age. 

He was a native of Ireland, and ^ 

» emigrated to America at an early 

period of his life. He was one of those 

who early promoted the cause of 

freedom in Mecklenburg County, 

May 20th, 1775, and subsequently 

bore an active part in securing 

the independence of his country. 

For nearly thirty-eight years he labored 

as a faithful and assiduous 

ambassador of Christ, strenuously 

enforcing the necessity of repentance, 

and pointing out the terms of salvation. 

As a parent he was kind and affectionate ; 

as a friend warm and sincere ; and as a 

minister, persuasive and convincing. 

Mr. H. had ten children, of which number, at the present time, only three 
are alive : Mrs. Nancy Bynum, widow of the late Col. J. W. Bynum, of Chat- 
ham County : Col. George R. Hunter, of Fairfield District, S. C, and Dr. C. L, 
Hunter, of Lincoln County. 

Major William Chroxicle, the brave soldier and martyr to the cause of 
liberty, whose name is here introduced, was raised about two miles north-east 
of Armstrong's Ford, on the South Fork. His mother was first married to a 
Mr. McKee, in Pennsylvania, who afterwards removed to North Carolina, and 
settled in Mecklenburg County. By this marriage she had one son, the 


late James McKee, a soldier of the Eevolntion, and ancestor of the several 
families of that name still residing in the neighborhood of Armstrong's 
Ford. After McKee's death, his widow married Mr. Chronicle, by whom 
she had an only son, the noble-hearted and gallant soldier of King's 
Mountain. The site of the old family mansion is still pointed out by the 
older inhabitants, to the inquiring stranger with feelings of veneration. 
" There, they will tell you, is the spot where old Mr. Chronicle lived, and 
there his brave son, William, was brought up." At this hallowed spot he 
was nurtured in the principles of liberty. So abiding is the veneration still 
clinging around the memory of the illustrious dead, that revolutionary infor- 
mation is always imparted by the veteran soldier with emotions of delight and 
soul-stirring eloquence. The universal testimony of all who knew Major 
Chronicle is, that he was the constant, the never-tiring advocate of liberty, 
and exerted a powerful influence in spreading the principles of freedom through- 
out the whole lower portion of old Tryon County.* AVherever he went he 
encouraged the young men of the surrounding country to arm for the approach- 
ing contest, and support the cause of freedom, llis jovial turn of mind, 
and winning manners, by gaining the good-will of all, greatly assisted in 
making successful his appeals to their patriotism, and promoting the cause 
of liberty in which he had so zealously embarked. 

Major Chronicle's first services were performed in South Carolina, in 1779, 
soon after the capture of Savannah. It was principally in discharge of the 
arduous duties connected with this service of nine months, that young Chro- 
nicle acquired his military training, for making, at a later period of his 
life, a brave and meritorious officer. In this service he furnished two or 
three wagons with the necessary teams, thus displaying a remarkable 
promptitude in time of need, and a willingness to spend and be spent in a just 
cause when darkness and danger hung over our cause in consequence of pre- 
vious misfortunes. Early in the fall of 1780, it became necessary to call out 
a regiment from Lincoln (then Tryon), to assist in repelling the enemy march- 
ing fi-om the south flushed with victory. Over this regiment William Gra- 
ham was appointed Colonel; Frederick Ilambrite, Lieutenant-Colonel; and 
William Chronicle, Major. Major Chronicle possessed the proper qualifica- 
tions for a good ofiicer. He was brave, perhaps to a fault, energetic in his 
movements, self-possessed in danger, deeply imbued with the spirit of liber- 
ty, and possessed withal of agreeable manners, and cheerful countenance. 
It is well known that Colonel Graham, on account of sickness in his family, 
was not present at the battle of King's Mountain. The command, of course, 
then devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Ilambrite and Major Chronicle. The 
latter, on account of his commanding abilities and his own ardent feelings, 
took an active and prominent part in leading his men to danger and glory. 
This he efi'ected mainly by appealing to their patriotism and bravery, llis 
last words of encouragement, heard by nearly the whole regiment, were, 
'■'Come on, my boys, never let it he said a Fork hoy run," alluding to the South 
Fork, near which most of them resided. This patriotic appeal was not given in 
vain. It nerved every man for the contest. Onward his " brave boys" steadily 
marched. Major Chronicle in the advance, and approached within gunshot 
of the enemy. Just at this time, a few select sharpshooters from the Tories 
discharged their pieces and retreated. The brave Chronicle fell mortally 
wounded, receiving a fatal ball in the breast. Almost at the same time, 
Captain Mattocks, John Boyd, and William Rabb, all " Fork boys," also fell. 
But heavy and mournful as this loss was to the regiment, other brave men 
soon took their places. The noble cause in which they were engaged admitted 
of no faltering in duty, but urged them on to the performance of deeds of 
heroic valor, which terminated in glorious victory. Such should ever be the 
conduct and the feelings of patriots fighting in defence of the rights of man ! 

The loss to our arms of Major Chronicle was the more to be regretted, as 
he fell in the very prime of life, being only about twenty-five years old. At 
the time of his death his father was still alive, but unfortunately was drowned 

* Since divided into Lincoln, Gaston, Catawba, Cleaveland and Rutherford. 


a few years afterward?, in the Catawba River, at the Tuckasege Ford. The 
late Abram Forney, who fought bravely in this battle, frequently said the last 
portion of food Major Chronicle received, was partaken with him on the morn- 
ing of that memorable day. lie had just finished cooking a savonj cow-bag, 
which had fallen to his share, when Major Chronicle came up, and in his 
usual vein of good humor, remarked, "icell, Abram, you always have some- 
thing good to eat, I believe I must join you," and accordingly participated of 
his homely mess. The late Captain Samuel Caldwell, father of Hon. Green 
W. Caldwell, of Charlotte, and his brother William, were both in this battle. 
William Caldwell brought home Major Chronicle's horse ; but he was so 
greatly affected that he turned him into the stable without informing the 
family of his death. He was near the gallant Major when he fell, and che- 
rished for him, in common with the whole regiment, the attachment of a 
brother. Major Chronicle's sword and spurs passed into the hands of his half- 
brother, the late James McKee ; the venerated memorials are still in pos- 
session of one of his sons, who removed, some years since, to Tennessee. 

John- Mattocks. — It may be interesting to the reader to know something 
more of Captain Mattocks, who fell at the same time with Major Chronicle. 
The Mattocks family resided a few miles below Armstrong's Ford, at the 
" Alison old place." There were three brothers, John, Charles, and Edward, 
and two daughters, Sally and Barbara. The whole family, men and women, 
had the reputation of being uncommonly stout. Of Charles Mattocks, in par- 
ticular, it was said he had no equal in point of strength ; but, being of a 
peaceable disposition, he was never known to have but one fight. On that 
occasion, being insulted, he went coolly to work, without indulging in wicked 
oaths, and dealt out one blow against the taunting bully which prostrated him 
to the ground. His antagonist, after a time, arose from his recumbent posi- 
tion perfectly satisfied of the superior manhood of Charles Mattocks. 

John and Charles were staunch Whigs ; but Edward, commonly called " Ned 
Mattocks," was a Tory. All of the brothers were at the battle of King's Moun- 
tain. John Mattocks, the Captain, was killed. Ned Mattocks was badly 
wounded on the back of his neck. After the battle, Charles Mattocks fearing 
his brother might be hung with some others who suffered this penalty, kindly 
interfered in his behalf took him home, and nursed him until he recovered of 
his wounds. It is said that this strong dose so effectually administered, com- 
pletely cured him of Toryism. The whole surviving family, some years after the 
war, moved to Georgia. Major Chronicle, Captain Mattocks, William Rabb, a 
cousin of Major Chronicle, and John Boyd, who fell almost at the same time, 
are buried in a common grave, near the foot of the Mountain. A plain head- 
stone commemorates the hallowed spot with the following inscription : — 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Majok William Chronicle, 

Captain John Mattocks, 

William Rabb, and 

John Boyd, 

Who were killed here fighting in defence of America, 

On the tth Oct., 1780. 

For a full detail of the battle of King's Mountain, with the ofiicial report 
of the same, the reader is referred to the chapter on Cleaveland County. 

Gen. -John Moore was a revolutionary officer of much merit. He was born 
about 1759, of Irish descent. He early engaged in the cause of liberty, and 
was in several battles of the Revolution. He acted as Commissary to the 

He married a sister of Governor John Adair, of Kentucky, by whom he had 
many children. After her death, he married Mary, the daughter of Robert 
Alexander, by whom he had two children. He was a member of the House 
of Commons as early as 1788, from Lincoln, and served for many years. He 
died in 1836, and was buried at Goshen, where a plain tombstone marks the 


last resting-place of this faithful patriot. His descendants still live among 
us, whose patriotism may be enlivened by his heroic and useful career. 

His sister Mary married William Rankin, who did a soldier's dutyin 
days of trial. William Rankin Avas in the Revolutionary War as a soldier 
at Camden, in 1780, and at the Eutaw Springs, the hardest fought battle of 
the Revolution. 

lie is still living in this county, and is the father of Colonel Richard Ran- 
kin, one of the members from this county in the House of Commons in the 
last Legislature, and of many others. 

For members of Assembly from Gaston, see Lincoln County. 



Gates Couxty was formed, in 1779, from Hertford, Chowan and 
Perquimans Counties. It derives its name from General Horatio 
Gates, who at this time was in the zenith of his popuLarity, having 
acquired a brilliant victory in 1777 at Saratoga, over General Bur- 
goyne and the English army, but whose laurels were destined to 
fade on the unfortunate field of Camden. 

General Gates was a native of England. He was early trained to arms. 
He came to America as an officer, and served with Washington under Gen. 
Braddock in the ill-fated campaign against FortDuQuesne in 1755. On the 
breaking out of the Revolution in 1776, from his attachment to his adopted 
country, and high military reputation, he was by the_Continental Congress 
appointed Adjutant-General of the army, and in 1777 succeeded General 
Schuyler in the command of the northern army, to which, after two sangui- 
nary battles, General Burgoyne surrendered with his whole force as prisoners 
of war at Saratoga on 7th October, 1777. For this brilliant service General 
Gates received a gold medal and the thanks of Congress. 

In June, 1780, General Gates was invested with the chief command of the 
southern army. At Camden, 15th August, 1780, he was defeated with great 
slaugliter by Lord Cornwallis. He retreated to Hillsboro', and Congress ap- 
pointed General Greene to succeed him. He was tried by order of Congress 
for his conduct at Camden by a special court, and was acquitted. "His 
northern laurels were exchanged for southern willows." In 1782 he was re- 
stored to his command, but the war was over, and Gates retired to his farm 
in Virginia. Afterwards he removed to New York, where he died 10th April, 
180G, without issue. 

From this man, who held the chief command in two campaigns in our 
Revolution, the one the most brilliant and the other the most disastrous to 
American liberty, does this County derive its name. 

It is situated in the north-eastern part of the State, and is 
bounded on the north by the Virginia line, east by Pasquotank, 
south by Perquimans and Chowan, and west by Hertford County. 

Its capital is Gatcsville, and is distant from Raleigh one hundred 
and sixty-seven miles. 

Its population is 4158 whites ; 3871 slaves ; 301 free negroes ; G877 repre- 
sentative population. 



Products, 192,815 bushels of corn, 
10,329 " oats, 

2951 " -wheat, 

1270 " rye, 

86,591 lbs. cotton. 

3905 lbs. wool, 
841 barrels fish, 
6G3 " turpentine, 
19,143 dollars annual value of 
lumber sold. 

General Kedar Ballard was a native and representative of this County. 
He served as an officer in the Revolutionary army, and died 16th .January, 

General -JosEpn Reddick, of this County, was for twenty-eight years her 
Senator, and for many years Speaker of the Senate. Numerous descendants 
in this County still preserve the names of Ballard and Reddick. 

List of members of the General Assembly from Gates County, 
from its erection, to tlie last Session, 1850-51. 

Years. Senators. 

1780. James Gregory, 

1781. James Gregory, 

1782. William Baker, 

1783. Jacob Hunter, 

1784. William Baker, 

1785. Joseph Reddick, 

1786. Joseph Reddick, 

1787. Joseph Reddick, 

1788. Joseph Reddick, 

1789. Joseph Reddick, 

1790. Joseph Reddick, 

1791. Joseph Reddick. 

1792. Joseph Reddick, 

1793. Joseph Reddick, 

1794. Joseph Reddick, 

1795. Joseph Reddick, 

1796. Joseph Reddick, 

1797. Joseph Reddick, 

1798. Joseph Reddick, 

1799. Joseph Reddick, 

1800. Joseph Reddick, 

1801. Joseph Reddick, 

1802. Joseph Reddick, 

1803. Joseph Reddick, 

1804. .Joseph Reddick, 

1805. Joseph Reddick, 

1806. Joseph Reddick, 

1807. Joseph Reddick, 

1808. Joseph Reddick, 

1809. Joseph Reddick, 

1810. Joseph Reddick, 

1811. Joseph Reddick, 

1812. Kedar Ballard, 

1813. Kedar Ballard, 

1814. Kedar Ballard, 

1815. Joseph Pieddick, 

1816. Kedar Ballard, 

1817. Joseph Reddick, 

1818. John B. Baker, 

1819. Humphrey Iludgins 

1820. John B. Baker, 

1821. John C. Gordon, 

1822. John B. Baker, 

Members of House of Commons. 

Jethro Sumner, James Garrett. 
Jethro Sumner, Joseph Reddick. 
Jethro Sumner, -Joseph Reddick. 
Joseph Reddick, David Rice. 
Seth Reddick, Joseph Reddick. 
Seth Reddick, David Rice. 
Seth Eason, .Seth Reddick. 
Wm. Baker, .John Baker. 
Seth Eason, David Rice. 
David Rice, Jas. B. Sumner. 
David Rice, Jas. B. Sumner. 
Thomas Cranberry, .Jas. B. Sumner. 
James Baker, Isaac Miller. 
Henry Goodman, Miles Benton. 
Wm. Lewis, Miles Benton. 
Wm. Lewis, Humphrey Iludgins. 
James Catling, -John J. AYalton. 
Humphrey Hudgins, James Catling. 
Humphrey Hudgins, James Catling. 
Humphrey Hudgins, James Catling. 
James Catling, Humphrey Hudgins. 
Humphrey Hudgins, .James Catling. 
Humphrey Hudgins, Elisha Hunter. 
Humphrey Hudgins, James Catling. 
Humphrey Iludgins, AVillis Hoodley. 
Humphrey Iludgins, Jethro D. Goodman. 
Humphrey Hudgins, J. D. Goodman. 
Humphrc}' Iludgins, Kedar Ballard. 
Humphrey Iludgins, Kedar Ballard. 
llumphre}^ Iludgins, Kedar Ballard. 
Humphrey Iludgins, Kedar Ballai'd. 
John B. Baker, Humphrey Iludgins. 
Robert Reddick, Humphrey Hudgins. 
Robert Reddick, Richard Barnes. 
Robert Reddick, Richard Barnes. 
Robert Reddick, Humphrey Iludgins. 
Humphrey Hudgins, Joseph Gordon. 
Humphrey Iludgins, Isaac R. Hunter. 
Isaac R. Hunter, John Mitchell. 
, David E. Sumner, Abraham Harrell. 
AVm. W. Reddick, AVilliam Barnes. 
Wm. W. Reddick, A. Harrell. 
John Walton, A. Harrell. 



Years. Senators. 

1823. Abraham Harrell, 

1824. Abraham Harrell, 

1825. Abraham Harrell, 
182G. Edward R. Hunter, 

1827. Abraham Harrell, 

1828. Abraham Harrell, 

1829. AVm. W. Cowper, 

1830. Wra. W. Cowper, 

1831. Wm. W. Cowper, 

1832. Wm. W. Cowper, 

1833. John Walton, 

1834. Wm. W. Cowper, 

1835. Wm. W. Cowper, 

1836. Wm. W. Cowper, 
1838. Rufus K. Speed, 
1840. Rufns K. Speed, 
1842. Whitmell Stallings, 
1844. Whitmell Stallings, 
1846. Whitmell Stallings, 
1848. Henry Wiley, 
1850. Henry Wiley, 

Members of House of Commons. 
Wm. W. Stedman, J. Walton. 
John Walton, W. W. Stedman. 
John Walton, Wm, W. Stedman, 
•John Walton, Wm. W. Stedman. 
Wm. W. Stedman, Lemuel Reddick. 
Wm. W. Stedman, Lemuel Reddick. 
Wm. W. Stedman, Riseup Rawls. 
Wm. W. Stedman, John Willey. 
Whitmell Stallings, Lemuel Reddick. 
Whitmell Stallings, John Willey. 
Lemuel Reddick, John Willey. 
Lemuel Reddick, John Willey. 
Whitmell Stallings, Lemuel Reddick. 
Whitmell Stallings. *=. ; . 

Whitmell Stallings. 
Whitmell Stallings. 
John Willey. 
Reddick Gatlin. 
Reddick Gatlin. 
Dr. Ballard. 
Miles II. Eure. 



Date of its formation — Origin of its name, situation and boundaries — Popu- 
lation and products — Its Colonial and Revolutionary History — Sketches of 
its distinguished men, General Thomas Person, John Williams, Leonard 
Henderson, Robert Potter, Abraham AVatkins Tenable, Robert B. Gilliam, 
and others — List of its members to the General Assembly. 

Granville County was formed in 1746, from Edgecombe 
County, and was so called in honor of the owner of the soil.* 

The King of England (Charles the II.) granted to Sir George 
Carteret, and seven other English Noblemen, in 1663, a char- 
ter for this region, with much more, and it was called Carolina 
from him. In 1729 these proprietors surrendered to the En- 
glish crown all their franchises, except John (son of Sir George 
Carteret, who died in 1696). He was afterwards created Earl 
of Granville. He retained his eighth part of the soil. The 
line was run in 1743. Lord Granville's territory was from 35° 34' 
south, to the Virginia line on the north, and from the Atlantic 
Ocean, on the east, to the Pacific Ocean on the west.f A most 
princely domain! This imperium in imperioX gave much dis- 
quietude even to the Colonial Government, and was entirely lost to 

* Martin, ii. 48. 

I Government in a government. 

t Martin's Sketches, i. 34. 


the proprietor in the Revolutionary struggles of our country ; and 
for which loss he Avas indemnified by the English Government. 

Its situation is in the northern part of the State ; and is bounded 
on the north by the Virginia line, east by Warren and Franklin 
Counties, south by Wake, and west by Person and Orange Coun- 

Its capital is Oxford, 36 miles north of Raleigh. 

Population, 10,290 whites ; 9,865 slaves ; 1,088 free negroes ; 17,303 repre- 
sentative population. 

Products, 3,918,822 lbs. tobacco ; 550,530 bushels corn ; 140,905 bushels 
oats; 51,938 bushels wheat : 1,174 bushels rye ; 14,000 lbs. wool. 

Granville early togk a decided stand for liberty. 

Her delegates to the general meeting of Deputies at Newbern, on 25th 
August, 1774, were Thomas Person', Memccax IIlnt. 

Iler delegates to the next meeting at the same place, on the 3d April, 1775, 
were the same, Tvith .Jonx Penn, Egbert Mum ford, and Robert Williams. 

Her delegates to Ilillsboro', 21st August, 1775, were Thomas Persox, Jonx 
Persox, Joiix Williams, .Joux Taylor, and Mkmucan IIuxt. 

Her delegates to Halifax, 4th April, 1770, that placed the State in military 
organization, were Thomas Persox, Joux Pexx, Memlcax Hunt, .Joux 
Taylor, and Charles Eatox. 

Her delegates to Halifax, 12th November, 1770, that formed the Constitu- 
tion, were Thomas Persox, IIobert Lewis, Memucax Huxt, Thorxtox Yax- 
CEY, and .John Oliver. 

Thomas Person is a name remarkable in our history for his indomitable 
resistance to tyranny and his devoted love of liberty.* He was opposed to 
the Stamp Act, a violent Regulator, and, for his advocacy of the rights of the 
colony, his estate was ravaged by the emissaries of royalty. He was ap- 
pointed one of the first brigadier-generals by the State Congress (April 1770), 
and, for his patriotic services, he was complimented by the naming (in 1791) 
a county after him. His liberality towards the University, in bestowing a 
munificent donation, caused a hall to be erected at Chapel Hill, which still 
bears his name. He continued to represent this county, as late as 1814, in 
the Senate. It is a matter of regret that more of his life, services, character, 
and death, have not been obtained. It is to be hoped that some future pen 
may record his services and virtues. 

John Pexn, one of the signers of the immortal Declaration of Independ- 
ence of the 4th July, 1776, was from Granville. He was born in Caroline 
County, Va., 17th May, 1741, The only son of Moses Penn, and Catharine, 
his wife, who was a daughter of the celebrated John Taylor, of Caroline 
County. His education, by the death of his father when he was only 
eighteen, was defective. He read law with Edmund Pendleton, his relative. 
He possessed genius and eloquence of a high order. His effurts at the bar 
were distinguished for their force and pathos. In 1774, he removed to Gran- 
ville, and, on 8th Sept., 1775, succeeded Richard Caswell as delegate to the 
Continental Congress at Philadelphia, and took his seat in that body on 12th 
Oct. following. He was re-elected in 1777-78, and '79. 

Watson, in his Annuls of Philadelphia^ states that " a singular case 
of duel occurred in Philadelphia in 1778 or '79, between Henry Laurens, 
President of Congress, and Mr. Penn. They were fellow-boarders, and 
Vjreakfasted together the same morrjing. They were to fight on a vacant lot 
vis-d-vi<s the Masonic Hall, on Chestnut Street. In crossing at Fifth Street, 
where was then a deep slough, Mr. Penn kindly offered his hand to aid Mr. 
Laurens, then much the oldest, who accepted it. He suggested to Mr. Lau- 

* Jones' Defence, 136. t Vol. i. 325, 


rens, who had challenged him, that it was a foolish ajBfair, and it was made 
up on the spot. 

In 178-1, he was appointed Receiver of Taxes for the State of Xorth Caro- 
lina, bv Robt. Morris, which he soon resigned. lie married, on 28th July, 
1703, Susan Lyme, by whom he had three children, two of whom died un- 
married. He died Sept. 1788. 

John- Williams was a native of Hanover County, Virginia. In April, 
1770, for some real or imaginary cause, while attending court at Hillsboro', 
he was seized by the Reguhitors and beaten by them.* He was one of 
the first judges under the State Constitution, in 1777, with Samuel Spencer 
and Samuel Ashe. He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1778. 
His early education was defective, as he was raised to the trade of a house- 
carpenter. But he was eminently distinguished for his sound judgment and 
plain common sense. He died in Oct., 1799. 

Colonel Robert Bl"rtox was a native of Mecklenburg County, Virginia, 
born in 1747. Planter by profession. He removed to Granville about 1775, 
and was appointed an officer in the army. He was a member of the Con- 
tinental Congress in 1787 and 1788. In 1801, he was appointed one of the 
commissioners to run the line between Xorth Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Georgia. He married the only child of Judge Williams in 1775. He died in 
1825, leaving nine children surviving, among whom was Hon. Robert H. 
Burton, of Lincoln. 

Leoxard Hexdersox, one of the judges of the Superior and Supreme Court, 
was born in Granville in 1772. Ilis education was as good as the country 
aiforded. His father (late Judge Richard Henderson, whose life has been 
already presented)! was distinguished for his learning, sagacity, and intellect. 
His life and services were spent in the highest duties of our land — the ad- 
ministration of the law — whose decision is the perfection of reason, " whose 
voice is the harmony of the world, and whose seat is the bosom of God." 
Such duties are among the most elevated functions that can exercise the 
mind of man. In this the comprehensive mind of Judge Henderson delighted, 
and no one who knew him, or who may read his opinions, will doubt for a 
moment his intellectual greatness. He was more remarkable for his genius 
than for labor. His mind, with instinctive rapidity, seemed to arrive at a 
sound conclusion ; but the modes and method by which he arrived at that 
opinion was to him laborious to explain. He was distinguished for his kind- 
ness of heart and generous sentiments. 

He was never in the Legislature. Public honor and popular applause 
never was an object of his idolatry. He felt that the law was a jealous mis- 
tress, and allowed no rival in his attentions or aflections. 

He was first elected a Judge of the Superior Court in 1808, and resigned 
iu 1816. 

On the formation of the present Supreme Court he was elected one of the 
Judges, with -Judges Taylor and Hall ; and on Judge Taylor's death, in 1829, 
he was apptointed Chief Justice. 

Full of years, and full of honors, he died at his residence in Granville in 
August, 1833, in the Gist year of his age. 

Judge Heudersun married Frances Farrer, and left two sons and two 
daughters, one of whom married Dr. Richard R. Sneed ; the other Dr. Wm. 
C. Tavlor. 

Colonel William Robards was a resident of Granville, a man distinguish- 
ed for his integrity, business habits, and talents. He represented Granville 
in 180(3 and 1808, and in L^27 was Treasurer of the State, at a period of 
unexampled difficulty arising from the disorder occasioned by the defalca- 
tion of John Haywood. 

* See deposition of Ralph ^leXair (chapter "Alamance," page 14). 
t See vol i., 103. 


lie conducted the financial affairs of the State with great ability and 

He died on the 17th of June, 1842. 

Robert Potter was a resident and representative from GranviUe County. 

I once thought, after I had prepared a sketch of Robert Potter, that I would 
omit it, and pass in silence the name of one who had been the member of 
this County in the Assembly, and the Representative of this district in Con- 
gress. But truth demands that not only the good should be noticed, but 
ithose who have been notorious for other qualities. This, too, may have a 
moral effect. It was the custom of the Lacedemonians to intoxicate their 
servants on certain occasions, before their young children, that their young 
minds, seeing vice in so frightful a mien, might avoid its seductions. 

Robert Potter was a man of no ordinary powers of intellect. With an ad- 
dress which would have graced the most polished court in Europe, with powers 
of eloquence that could command the listening auditors, and sway them to his 
will, and an energy that shrunk from no obstacle or opposition, had his early 
education been elevated by the piety of the mother of a Gaston, his fierce 
and ferocious temper tamed by parental persuasion, his name might have 

" Higli on the dusty rolls which ages keep." 

He was a native of Granville. He entered the navy as a midshipman, and 
after a few years resigned, and studied law. lie entered into public life as 
a member of the House of Commons from Halifax in 1826. At Halifax his 
turbulent temper embroiled him in many difiiculties. On one occasion at an 
election, in which Potter was opposed by Jesse A. Bynum, a fracas occurred 
at which one man was killed, and the election broken up. He removed to 
Granville, from which he was elected to the House of Commons, in 1828. 
This was an extraordinary period. The financial condition of North Caro- 
lina was deplorable. The Banks had become neglectful of their duty, and 
disregarded their charters. Mr. Potter opened the session by a resolution of 
inquiry. That inquiry produced a committee, of which he was chairman ; 
the affairs of the banks were investigated ; much evil and malfeasance was 
proved. The Committee reported a bill to prosecute the banks. This bill, 
after a long, heated, and angry discussion, passed by one vote ; but the 
speaker (Hon. Thomas Settle) voting with the minority, defeated its becom- 
ing a law. 

This gave Mr. Potter great popularity, and the next year he was elected to 
Congress, in triumph over all opposition. 

His course in Congress was brilliant and imposing. He was re-elected 
without opposition, but his career was to end soon in darkness and disgrace. 
On Sunday, 28th, August, 1831, moved by 

"Jealousy, that green-eyed monster 
That doth mock the meat it leeds upon," 

lie committed a brutal maim on two relations of his wife. 

For these outrages he was brought before the legal tribunals of the county 
and fined one thousand dollars, and imprisoned six months. 

The enormity of this before unheard of crime in North Carolina, caused 
the General Assembly at the next session to pass an Act making it a capital 

These violent acts caused his ruin. He was elected in 1834 to the House 
of Commons. But this was an expiring effort of Potter's popularity. 

" So the struck Eagle, wounded on the plain, 
No more through rolling clouds shall soar again ; 
Views his own leather in the fatal dart. 
That sped the shaft now quivering in his heart. 
Keen were his pangs — but keener far to feel — 
lie nursed the pinion that impelled the sleel ; 
The self same plumage that had warmed his nest, 
Now drinks the life blood of his bleedhig breast." 


The troubled elements and revolutionary scenes of Texas at this time, to 
him, as storms to Zanga — 

bore a just resemblance to his fortunes, 

And suited the gloomy aspect ol' his soul.' 

Thither he went. He was killed a few years afterwards in a private brawl. 
Such was the end of a morning of life so full of glorious promises, of a me- 
ridian so bright with honor, an evening so gloomy, dark, and desolate. If 
he had the genius and power of Achilles, an unbridled will, a despotic tem- 
per, and fiei'ce revenge were the unguarded points by which he fell. The 
Superior Court, by petition divorced his wife, and she assumed her former 
name, thus forgetting, if not forgiving, the cause of her sufferings. 

Abraham Watkins Venable, now in Congress from this District, is a 
resident of this County. His father was Colonel Samuel Amenable, of the 
Revolution, and his mother a daughter of Hon. Paul Carrington, Judge of 
the Court of Appeals of Virginia. His ancestry of both sides were of the 
Revolutionary stock. His father and six uncles were in the Revolutionary 
army and served faithfully their country. They were all in the battle of 
Guilford Court House, fought by General Greene and Lord Cornwallis (15th 
March, 1781). His uncle and namesake, Abraham B. Venable, was a senator 
in Congress from Virginia in 1803. 

Mr. Venable was born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, 17th October, 
1799. He was educated at Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated in 
1816. He studied medicine for two years, and then went to Princeton, where 
he graduated in 1819. He then studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 

He was elector in 1832, and voted for Andrew Jackson as President in the 
Electoral College, and for Martin Van Buren as Vice-President. 

He was again elector in 183G, when he voted for Martin Van Buren as Pre- 
sident, and R. M. Johnson as Vice-President. Of this College the venerable 
IS'athaniel Macon was President, and this was Mr. Macon's last public act. 

Mr. Venable was elected a member of Congress in 1847 over John Kerr, 
Esq., re-elected in 1849 in the same district by a handsome majority over 
Henry K. Nash, Esq., and was again re-elected August, 1851, without 
■ opposition. of an open character. 

Robert B. Gilliam is also a resident and native of Granville. He is 
a lawyer by profession, and entered public life in 183G as a member of the 
House of Commons, in which he continued until 1840. In 1846 he was again 
a member, and in 1848, of which sessions he was Speaker of the House. 
Mr. Gilliam's course has been marked by an adherence to his views of right 
and a consistency of political conduct. 

Others might be named in connection with the County of Granville, and 
efforts are being used to procure material which another edition may bring 

List of members of the General Assembly from Granville County, 
from 1777 to the last Session, 1850-51. 

Years. Senators. Members of the House of Commons. 

1777. Robert Harris, Thomas Person, John Penn. 

1778. Robert Harris, Thornton Yancey, Thomas Person. 

1779. Robert Harris, Thomas Person, Philemon Hawkins. 

1780. Robert Harris, Thomas Person, Philemon Hawkins. 

1781. Joseph Taylor, Thomas Person, Richard Henderson. 

1782. William Gill, Thomas Person, Philemon Hawkins. 

1783. Robert Harris, Thomas Person, Philemon Hawkins. 

1784. John Taylor, Thomas Person, Thornton Yancey. 

1785. Howell Lewis, Thomas Person, Philemon Hawkins. 




Years. Senators. 

1786. Howell Lewis, 

1787. Thomas Person, 

1788. Memucan Hunt, 

1789. Samuel Clay, 

1790. Samuel Clay, 

1791. Samuel Clay, 

1792. William P. Little, 

1793. William P. Little, 

1794. AVilliam P. Little, 

1795. William P. Little, 

1796. William P. Little, 

1797. William P. Little, 

1798. William P. Little, 

1799. AVashington Salter, 

1800. Thomas Taylor, 

1801. Thomas Taylor, 

1802. Thomas Taylor, 

1803. Joseph Tay'lor, 

1804. Thomas Person, 

1805. Thomas Person, 

1806. Thomas Person, 

1807. Thomas Person, 

1808. Thomas Taylor, 

1809. Thomas Taylor, 

1810. Thomas Taylor, 

1811. Thomas Taylor, 

1812. Thomas Person, 

1813. Thomas Falconer, 

1814. Thomas Person, 

1815. James Young, 

1816. AVillis Lewis, 

1817. Willis Lewis, 

1818. Daniel .Jones, 

1819. Daniel Jones, 

1820. Thomas Person, 

1821. Jos. H. Bryan, 

1822. William M. Sneed, 

1823. William M. Sneed, 

1824. James Nuttall, 

1825. William M. Sneed, 

1826. William M. Sneed, 

1827. James Nuttall, 

1828. Thomas T. Hunt, 

1829. William M. Sneed, 

1830. AVilliam M. Sneed, 

1831. William M. Sneed, 

1832. Thomas W. Norman, 

1833. Thomas W. Norman, 

1834. James Wyche, 

1835. James Wyche, 

1836. John C. Taylor, 

1838. John C. Taylor, 

1840. AVilliam A. Johnson, 

1842. Elijah Hester, 

1844. George Eaton, 

1846. James A. Russell, 

1848. John Hargrove, 

1850. Nath. E. Cannady, 

Members of the House of Commons. 
Thornton Yancey, Philemon Hawkins. 
Thornton Yancey, Philemon Hawkins. 
Thomas Person,' Elijah Mitchell. 
Thornton Yancey, Philemon Hawkins. 
Thornton Yancey, Thomas Person. 
Elijah Mitchell, Thornton Yancey. 
Elijah Mitchell, Thornton Yancey. 
Thomas Person, Elijah Mitchell. 
James Yaughan, Thomas Person. 
Thomas Person, Thomas Taylor. 
Thomas Taylor, Elijah Mitchell. 
Thomas Taylor, Thomas Person. 
Thomas Taylor, Sterling Y'ancey. 
Thomas Taylor, Sterling Y'ancey. 
Sterling Y^ancey, Benjamin E. Person. 
John R. Eaton, Samuel Parker. 
John R. Eaton, Samuel Parker. 
John Washington, Samuel Parker. 
Barnett PuUiam, Henry Yancey. 
John Washington, Henry Y^incey. 
Henry Y^ancey, William Robards. 
Henry Yancey, John Washington. 
Samuel Parker, William Robards. 
W^illiam HaAvkins, Henry Yancey, 
Daniel Jones, William Hawkins. 
William Hawkins, Daniel .Jones. 
Woodson Daniel, John R. Eaton. 
John Hare, AVoodson Daniel. 
Benjamin Bullock, Daniel Jones. 
Daniel Jones, John J. .Judge. 
Daniel Jones, John J. Judge. 
AVilliam Hawkins. 

Nath. M. Taylor, Benjamin M. Hester. 
Richard Sneed, Samuel Hillman. 
Richard Sneed, Samuel Hillman. 
Richard Sneed, Samuel Hillman. 
Robert Jeter, Thomas Hunt. 

Robert Jeter, AVilliam G. Bowers. 
J, C. Taylor, AVilliam G. Bowers. 
John Glasgow, Nicholas Jones. 

Nicholas Jones, AVillis Lewis. 

John C. Taj-lor, John Glasgow. 

James AVyche, Robert Potter. 

James AA^'yche, Spencer O'Brien. 

James AA'yche, Spencer O'Brien. 

Spencer O'Brien, James AVyche. 

Spencer O'Brien, John C. Ridley. 

AVilliam R. Hargrove, James AVyche. 

Sandy Harris, Robert Potter. 

Chas. R. Eaton, Elijah Hester. 

Robert B. Gilliam, Chas R. Eaton, AVilliam 

Robt. B. Gilliam, Chas. R. Eaton, E. Hester. 

Robt. B. Gilliam, H. L. Robards, James A. 

Jona. M. Stone, Wm. Russell, Kemp P. Hill. 

Jona. M. Stone, J. M. Bullock, J. T. Little- 

R. B. Gilliam, J. M. Bullock, Jona. M. Stone. 

R. B. Gilliam, Geo. Green, N. E. Cannady. 

Jas. S. Amis, AVm. R. AViggins, L. Parham. 




Until 1791, there was in North Carolina a county called Dobbs, 
in compliment to Arthur Dobbs, Royal Governor of the State in 
1754. In 1791, Dobbs was divided into Lenoir and Glasgow, and 
in 1799, the name of Greene was substituted for that of Glasgow. 

It was named in compliment to General Nathaniel Greene, who was 
one of the bravest, most sagacious, and most successful officers of tlie Revo- 
lution, and the saviour of the south from the invasions of the British. He 
was a native of Rhode Island, where he was born in 1741. He was of Quaker 
parentage. He was a Major General in the revolutionary army. He was 
at the battle of Trenton, 1776, and Princeton, and commanded the left wing 
at Germantown, 1777, under the eye of Washington, whose confidence and 
regard he possessed in an eminent degree. After the disastrous defeat of 
General Gates, at Camden, by Lord Cornwallis, in August, 1780, General 
Washington sent General Greene to take command of the south. He arrived 
at Charlotte on the 2d December, 1780. 

On the 15th March, 1781, he fought the battle of Guilford Court House, 
at which, although he ordered a retreat, he was not defeated ; for he so 
crippled Lord Cornwallis, that he avoided battle and was forced to retrograde 
to Wilmington, leaving his wounded under care of Greene. 

Greene then marched to South Carolina, then overran by the British. 
In September, 1781, he fought the bloody battle of Eutaw Springs, in which 
he routed the enemy. 

After suffering incredible hardships from want of food and clothing for 
his troops, his patience and firmness triumphed over all obstacles. He drove 
the Invaders from the country and they sailed from Charleston, on 17th Decem- 
ber. He died in Georgia, on 19th June, 1786, leaving a wife and five children, 
and a fame that will remain as long as patriotism is admired. Worthy is his 
name to be preserved in a State that witnessed his patriotism and valor ! 

Greene County is situated in the south-eastern part of the State. 
Bounded on the north, by Edgecombe ; east, by Pitt ; south, by 
Lenoir ; and west by Wayne. 

Its capital is Snow Hill, eighty-nine miles east of Raleigh. 

Population, 3,259 whites ; 3,244 slaves ; 166 free negroes ; 5,321 represent- 
ative population. 

Products, 1,344,990 pounds of cotton; 3,627 pounds of wool; 2/9,730 
bushels of corn ; 8,824 bushels of wheat ; ,6,975 bushels of rye. 

Its early history is collected under Chapter XLV. (Lenoir), to 
which the reader is referred. 

In 1711 the Cothechney Indians* who dwelt in this county joined 
with other tribes, and made a descent upon the inhabitants of the 
Neuse and Trent, and massacred 130 persons. f 

* Martin, i. 244. t Vol. i. 37. 




"With the name of Greene County is connected the memory of General 
Jesse Speight, -n-ho ■was for many years her representative in the Legislature, 
a member of Congress, and afterwards a Senator in Congress from the State 
of Mississippi, which elevated position he held at the time of his death. 

General Speight was born in Greene County, 22d September, 1795. His 
father. Rev. Seth Speight, was a minister of the Methodist Church. His 
education vras not extensive, but his extraordinary success was owing to his 
own natural shrewdness of character, his tall and commanding person, and 
untiring perseverance. 

In 1822, he was first a member of the House of Commons. In 1823, he was 
a member of the Senate, of which he was several times the Speaker, and 
continued until 1827, when he was elected a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, until 1837, when he declined a re-election, and removed to the 
State of Mississippi. He was soon returned a member of the Mississippi 
Legislature, and Speaker of the Senate, and in 1844, was elected to the Senate 
of the United States, which post he held at the time of his death, on 1st May, 

Without any extraordinary powers of mind, superior education, or bril- 
liant parts of character, such unexampled success in political life can only be 
attributed to native energy of character, devotion to principles, and simple- 
hearted honesty. 

Members of the General Assembly from Greene County from its 
erection to last session : — 


■ 1832. 


Robert White, 
Hymrick Hooker, 
Hymrick Hooker, 
Hymrick Hooker, 
Hymrick Hooker, 
Hymrick Hooker, 
Hymrick Hooker, 
Hymrick Hooker, 

Wm. V. Spe 
Wm. V. Spe 
Wm. V. Spe 
Wm. V. Spe 
Wm. V. Spe 


V. Spe 
V. Spe 


Wm. V. Spe 
Wm. V. Spe 
Jesse Speight, 
Jesse Speight, 
Jesse Speight, 
Jesse Speight, 
Jesse Speight, 
Jesse Speight, 
Wyatt Moye, 
Wyatt IMoye, 
Wyatt Moye, 
Wyatt Moye, 
Wyatt Moye, 
Wyatt Moye, 


Members of House of Commons. 
Jonas Williams, Wm. Taylor. 
William Taylor, Jonas Williams. 
William Taylor, Jonas Williams. 
Jonas Williams, Henry Best. 
Jonas Williams, Alex. Kilpatrick. 
Jonas Williams, Alex. Kilpatrick. 
Jonas Williams, Kenchen Garland. 
Jonas Williams, Henry J. G. Ruffin. 
Henry J. G. Ruffin, Jonas Williams. 
Henry J. G. RufSn, Jonas Williams. 
Jonas Williams, Benjamin Evans. 
Abraham Darden, Jonas Williams. 
Wm. Holliday, Abraham Darden. 
William Pope, Wm. Holliday. 
J. C. Shepard, William Pope. 
William Pope, James Eastwood. 
James Eastwood, William Pope. 
Richard G. Bright, William Pope. 
Reuben Wilcox, William Pope. 
A. Darden, William Pope. 
Abraham Darden, William Pope. 
Hymrick Hooker, A. Darden. 
Charles Edwards, Jesse Speight. 
R. G. Bright, Charles Edwards. 
Charles Edwards, R. H. F. Harper. 
Charles Edwards,. Richard H. F. Harper. 
Charles Edwards, Joseph Ellis. 
James Harper, Joseph Ellis. 
James Harper, Joseph Ellis. 
James Harper, Arthur Speight. 
James Harper, Elisha Uzzell. 
Arthur Speight, James Harper. 
James Harper, John Beemond. 
James Harper, Robert L. Allen. 
James Harper, James Williams. 


Years. Senators. Members of House of Commons. 

1835. Wyatt Move, James Harper, Thomas Hooker. 

1836. Wm. D. Moseley, Thomas Hooker. 
1838. Wm. D. Moseley, James Williams. 
1840. Jas. B. Whitfield, John W. Taylor. 
1842. E. G. Speight, John W. Taylor. 
1844. E. G. Speight, James Harper. 
1846. E. G. Speight, James G. Edwards, 
1848. E. G. Speight, James G. Edwards. 
1850. E. G. Speight, B. F. Williams. 



Date of formation— Origin of name— Situation and boundaries— Population 
and products— Revolutionary history— Battle at Guilford Court house, 
fought 15th March, 1781, between the main body of the British army under 
Lord Cornwallis, and the American army under General Nathaniel Greene ; 
the official reports of the same by Lord Cornwallis, copied from the ar- 
chives of the English government ; and General Greene's report from our 
own archives— The importance of this battle, and its effects upon the 
country— Life, character, and services of Lord Cornwallis— Colonel B. 
Tarleton— Its distinguished citizens, Rev. David Caldwell, Gov. Alexander 
Martin, Hon. John M. Morehead, Hon. John M. Dick, and others— Its 
members of Assembly. 

Guilford County was erected in the year 1770, from Rowan 
and Orange. It was called in compliment of Lord North, who in 
1770, succeeded the Duke of Grafton as First Lord of the Trea- 
sury, and Prime Minister. He was heir to the title of Guilford, 
and eventually succeeded to it as Earl of Guilford.* 

Its situation is west of Raleigh, and the county presents on the 
map a beautiful compact square ; bounded on the north by Rock- 
ingham, east by Alamance, south by Randolph, and west by For- 
sythe and Davidson Counties. 

Its capital is G-reensboro', a most flourishing town, named in 
compliment of General Nathaniel Greene, a Major-General in the 
Revolutionary Army, and whose biography is to be found in Chap- 
ter XXXIV., on Greene County. Most appropriately is his name 
preserved in the very region which witnessed his gallantry and 


Greensborough is distinguished for its industry, thrift, and en- 
terprise — for its manufactories and excellent schools. It is dis- 
tant eighty-two miles west of Raleigh. 

* MS. Letter 16th July, 1851, from Hon. George Bancroft. 


Population, 15,874 whites; 3,186 slaves; 694 free negroes; 18,479 repre- 
sentative population. 

Products, 1,344,990 pounds cotton; 3,627 pounds wool ; 279,730 bushels 
corn ; 8,824 bushels wheat ; 6,975 bushels rye ; 2,455 bushels oats. 

The County of Guilford, including the present counties of 
Randolph (formed in 1770) and Rockingham (formed in 1785), 
was settled about 1760, the south and west part by Quakers from 
Pennsylvania and Nantucket ; the north and east by the Presby- 
terians and Baptists. 

Among the Quakers Nathan Hunt in early days was eminent in propa- 
gating the peaceful doctrines of that exemplary class of Christians. George 
Pope was equally successful among the people, in establishing the Baptist's 
faith ; and David Caldwell was distinguished as a Presbyterian minister. 
There was a sect called Nicholites ; so called from their leader, William 
Nichols, from the State of Delaware. They had a meeting-house on Deep 
River, on the west line of Guilford. They diifered but little from the 
Quakers. They wore no dye in their clothes, only the simple coloring that 
Nature gave the wool or cotton. 

To the General Meeting of Delegates at Newbern, on 3d April, 1775, 
from Guilford as a delegate, was Alexander Martin. 

At the meeting at Hillsboro' on 21st August, 1775, Alexander Martin, 
Ransom Soctherland, Samuel Parke Farley, Thomas Henderson, William 
Dent, George Cortner and Nathaniel Williams, were delegates. 

At the meeting at Halifax, on April 4ih, 1776 (which placed the State in 
military organization), delegates from Guilford were, Ransom Southerland, 
William Dent, and Ralph Gorrell. 

The officers appointed for Guilford, were James Martin, Colonel ; John 
Paisly, Lieutenant-Colonel ; Thomas Owen, 1st Major; and Thomas Blair, 
2d Major. 

At the meeting at Halifax, Nov. 12th, 1776 (which formed the Constitution), 
the delegates from Guilford, were David Caldwell, Joseph Hinds, Ralph 
Gorrell, Charles Bruce, and Isham Browder. 

These names prove that Guilford County was early alive to the 
spirit of liberty. 

Indeed, before the Revolution broke out, many of her citizens 
were concerned in the contest with the Royal Governor (William 
Tryon), and were engaged in the battle at Alamance, in June, 1771, 
where the first blood of the colonists was spilled by English troops 
in America. This history has been so fully explained by a pre- 
vious chapter (Alamance), and the official documents therein pub- 
lished, that any further remarks here are unnecessary. 

We approach the great battle which distinguishes the county of 
Guilford as its scene of action ; the most important ever fought 
in the State, and most important to the cause of America in the 
whole south. 

Lord Cornwallis, after the battle of Camden (1780), had marched 
into North Carolina. 

A chosen detachment, under Colonel Tarleton, had been de- 
feated at the Cowpens, by General Morgan (in January, 1781), 
and by rapid movements Cornwallis had endeavored to inter- 


cept General Morgan, and prevent his junction with Greene. By 
the interposition of Providence, and the activity of :Morgan, this 
was baffled, and Morgan's detachment united with the main army, 
on Feb. 10th, 1781, near Guilford Court House, when Cornwallis 
was only twenty-five miles in the rear.* 

While Greene was at Guilford, Cornwallis was at Salem. 

Disappointed in this, CornwaUis advanced rapidly on the main 
body of Greene's Army (who was still too weak to risk a general 
battle), and hoped to prevent his crossing the Dan River into Vir- 
ginia. The whole retreat was conducted with all the skill of mili- 
tary science. Its records are full of glowing incidents, and is only 
equaled by the celebrated retreat of the Ten Thousand in Grecian 
history, as recorded by Herodotus. The rear guard of our army 
under Lee, and the advance of the British under General O'Hara, 
were by day often in sight, and at night the watch fires of each 
other were visible. 

" More than once," says Colonel Lee,t in his beautiful Memoirs 
of the War, " were his legion and the van of O'Hara within musket 
shot. This presented so tempting an invitation to the marksmen 
flanking his legion, that at first he with difficidty restrained their 
fire. But this at length became so usual that this disposition be- 
came checked, and the demeanor of the hostile troops became so 
pacific that a spectator would have been led to consider them mem- 
bers of the same army." 

To the British, with veteran troops flushed with victory, a battle 
was certain success over the undisciplined troops of Greene, harassed 
by defeats, undisciplined, and unprepared with the munitions of war. 

Cornwallis, with mistaken confldence from information derived 
from those not acquainted with the country, believed that Greene 
could not cross the Dan ; and therefore he deemed a general action 
unavoidable, and, like all prudent Generals, took his own timeand 
place for battle. 

"Never," says a historian, "had the feelings of the American 
People been so wrought up as upon this occasion. For a month 
they had been in breathless anxiety at the perilous position of Greene, 
upon whose skill, courage, and strategy, now hung the hopes of the 
country. One unguarded moment, one false step, would have lost 
the Army, and with it the hopes of the whole south. Never upon 
the firm heart and pure mind of one man, depended more important 


General Carrington had been dispatched to secure boats to cross 
the Dan River, and the gallant Kosciusko was advanced to raise a 
breast-work at the ferry, to cover the crossing of the army, should 
they be attacked. The passage of the Dan was efi"ected at Boyd's 
Ferry. The boats and flats were secured on the other side, to pre- 
vent the passage of the army of Cornwallis. 

So close were the English on their heels, that the American rear 

* 'Lee's Memoirs, p. 136. Life of Greene, by Johnson, vol. i. p. 429. 
■)■ Lee's JVlemoirs, p. 146. 


had scarcely landed on the north bank, when the British advance 
appeared on the opposite side. The British had marched forty 
miles in the last twenty-four hours.* 

Thus ended this retreat ; the joy of the Americans on the even- 
ing of the 14th of February, 1781, was great, when they found that 
by the prudence of their Commander, and their own unparalleled 
exertions, they were safe from the attack of the British. 

This retreat is one of the most celebrated in our history. It 
called for the admiration of the friends of America, and the unquali- 
fied praises of every British writer. 

Lord Cornwallis was thunderstruck at this movement, for he did 
not know that the Americans were at the river until he was informed 
of their safe passage over the Dan.f Despairing of all hopes to 
attack the Americans, he gave repose to his wearied troops, and 
returned in easy marches to Hillsboro', where, on the 20th of 
February, 1781, he erected the Royal Standard, and issued a pro- 
clamation inviting all loyal subjects to repair to it and assist him 
to restore the English rule. 

Cornwallis now reposed in quiet; he had found the promised 
land, and with no enemy to oppose him, he thought that like 
Georgia and South Carolina, North Carolina had been brought 
under the royal yoke of England. But he was soon to be unde- 

Greene, reinforced by troops from Virginia, under Stevens ; from 
Maryland, under Captain Oldham ; and a corps under Pickens from 
South Carolina, on the 21st of February, recrossed the Dan into 
North Carolina. After several skirmishes between the light corps 
and the enemy, Greene, being further reinforced by the levies from 
Virginia under Gen. LaAVSon; the North Carolina militia, under 
Colonel Cleaveland, one of the heroes of King's Mountain, and 
Generals Butler and Eaton, took position at Troublesome Iron 
Works. With a sagacity rarely excelled, and in courage never, he 
determined to risk the cause of the South, his army, and himself, 
by an appeal to the sword. This was what Lord Cornwallis ear- 
nestly desired. Both Commanders felt the deep responsibility that 
rested upon them. Never Avere the liberties of the country in more 
jeopardy, nor was ever the military genius of both these celebrated 
leaders more skillfully exercised. Greene advanced, repassed the 
Haw, and took ground at Guilford Court House, about ten miles 
from the present town of Greensboro', and awaited with calmness 
the conflict that was now inevitable. 

In his letters at this important crisis. General Greene announces 
to the President of Congress his fixed determination to risk the 
cause of the country on the trial by battle. If, said he, I am 
forced to retreat or vanquished, the country is in no worse condi- 
tion than it now is, overrun by the enemy. If I am victor, or crip- 
ple Lord Cornwallis, he and the royal cause are ruined in the State. 

* Stedman, vol. ii. p. 332. 

t Lord Cornwallis' Military Secretary, Stedman, History of American War, ii. 332. 


Lord Cornwallis accepted gladly the opportunity of battle. " On 
the 14th of March," says Stedman, "the baggage Avas sent off to 
Bell's Mill, on Deep River, and at dawn the next day the rest of 
the army was put in motion towards Guilford Court House." 

The battle ground, near the great State road, was on the brow 
of a hill, which descends gradually for half a mile, and ends in a 
small valley intersected by a rivulet. On the right of the road is 
open ground, on the left from the old Court House was a deep 
forest of lofty trees ; below this forest is a small piece of open 
ground, which the summer before had been worked in corn. In the 
road. Captain Singleton with two six pounders, was posted across 
the road. In the first line was placed the North Carolina militia, 
under Butler and Eaton, assisted by Colonel Davie, who was Com- 
missary-General of the troops, four yards in Singleton's rear ; 
behind this line, at some distance, were the Virginia troops, under 
Stevens and Lawson, posted. The Continental troops (four regi- 
ments) were posted to the rear of these some distance, the two 
regiments of Virginia, under Colonels Greene and Hawes, com- 
manded by General Huger; the two Maryland regiments under 
Colonels Ford and Gunby, commanded by Colonel Williams. On 
the right, Lieutenant-Colonel Washington and his cavalry, the 
Delaware company, under Captain Kirkwood, and Colonel Lynch, 
with a battalion of Virginia militia, was posted to hold safe that 
flank. For the same purpose Colonel Lee was posted on the left 
flank, with his legion and the Virginia riflemen under Colonel 

The British advance was led by Tarleton, consisting of cavalry, 
light-infantry, and Yagers. They commenced the attack. He was 
met and received with much firmness by Colonel Lee and the Vir- 
ginia militia. Lee maintained his ground with great firmness until 
the approach of the 23d regiment, when he retired, and took his 
position in the line. The British line then advanced in full force. 
The regiment of Bose, led by General Leslie, on the right, the 23d 
and 33d regiments on the left, led by Colonel Webster. With the 
firmness of veterans they received the scattered fire of the Ameri- 
cans at a distance of one hundred and forty yards. They con- 
tinued to advance on the line of North Carolina troops until within 
a short distance, when they fired, and with a shout which rent the 
air, they charged bayonets. To raw troops, never before in battle, 
this was not to be stood. They retreated behind the second line. 
This line behaved with more firmness ; but they, when charged, also 
retreated. The British line now became much extended. With a deter- 
mined resolution to conquer the English advance on the third line, the 
flower and hope of the American army, and on which the hopes for 
victory depended. Gen. Greene passed in person along the line, ex- 
horting his men. The enemy was firmly received and bravely 
resisted. Here the battle raged with great violence, each striving 
for victory, when Colonel Washington (as he did at the Cowpens) 
pressed forward with his cavalry. The English, under Stuart gave 


ground, when "Washington fell on him, sword in hand, followed bj 
Howard, with fixed bayonets. Stuart fell by the sword of Captain 
Smith, of the first regiment, and his battalion driven back with 
great slaughter ; and its remains were only saved by the English 
artillery, which opened at this moment, by order of Lord Cornwal- 
lis, on friends and foes. Howard and Washington retired. Webster 
having put Ford to flight, recrossed the ravine, and attacked Hawes' 
regiment. Here the action recommenced with great vigor. But 
the flight of the second regiment of Maryland, and the corps of 
Lee separated from the army, General Greene (with a fixed deter- 
mination not to risk a total discomfiture or annihilation of his force), 
ordered a retreat, which was efi"ected in good order. The enemy 
had been too crippled to pursue. Greene halted three miles from 
the field, to collect the stragglers and fugitives, and then fell back 
on his former position at the Iron Works. 

Thus ended the hard fought battle of Guilford Court House. 
Twice was the British line broken by American valor; the pos- 
session of the field by Cornwallis was no evidence of his victory. 
Great was the stake, and boldly was it contested. 

These two great Generals here had a fair passage at arms. Both 
brave, both skillful, they exposed their persons, unconscious, or dis- 
regardful of danger. On one occasion Greene was nearly taken a 
prisoner; the enemy was within thirty paces of him, when Major 
Pendleton discovered them, and warned him of his danger. Corn- 
wallis, when he discovered his guards flying before the pursuing 
troops of Washington and Howard, ordered his artillery to fire 
upon them ; General O'Hara remonstrating, that this fire would ne- 
cessarily destroy his own men, "True," said Cornwallis, "but we 
must endure this e^^l to escape certain destruction." 

The next day Lord Cornwallis put his army in motion for Bell's 
Mills, where his rear guard and baggage were, leaving the field and 
his wounded to the care of General Greene. 

The night of the day after the battle was remarkable for its 
darkness, and for the torrents of rain that fell. The cries of the 
wounded and dying exceeded all description. 

Greene prepared to renew the contest. He reported on the 
next day, "his men in good spirits, and in perfect readiness for 
another field." But Cornwallis now had enough of Greene, He 
avoided battle, which before he had so anxiously sought, and retired 
to Wilmington. He from thence marched to Virginia, where, at 
Yorktown, on the 19th October, 1781, he surrendered to AVashington. 

Greene marched to the south, and by hard fought battles at 
Eutaw Springs and elsewhere, redeemed the south from the En- 
glish possession. 

The ofiicial accounts, both English and American, are herewith 

The efi"ect of this desperate battle was to break down the English 
power in our State, subdue the Tories (of which, in this region, for 
the honor of our State, there were far too many), and was the main 


blow that broke the chain of tyranny which bound our country to 

General Greene, to the Hon. President of Congress: — 

Camp at the Iron Works, ten miles from Guilford Court House, 

March 16th, 1781. 

Sir— On the 10th, I wrote to his Excellency, General Washington, from the 
High Rock Ford, on the Haw River, a coyjy of which I enclosed your 
Excellency, that I had effected a junction with a Continental regiment of 
eighteen months' men, and two considerable bodies of militia, belonging to 
Virginia and North Carolina. After this junction, I took the resolution of 
attacking the enemy without loss of time, and made the necessary disposition 
accordingly, heing pe7^s^laded that if we were successful, it would prove ruinous 
to the enemy, and if otherwise, it ivould only j)rove apjartial evil to us. 

The enemy marched from the High Rock Ford, on the 12th, and on the 
14th, arrived at Guilford. The enemy lay at the Quaker Meeting-House, on 
Deep River, eight miles from our camp. On the morning of the 15th, our re- 
connoitering party reported the enemy advancing on the great Salisbury 
Road. The army was drawn up in three lines. The front line was com- 
posed of North Carolina militia, under command of Generals Eaton and But- 
ler ; the second line, of Virginia militia, commanded by Generals Stevens and 
Lawson, forming two brigades ; the third line, consisting of two brigades, one 
of the Virginia, and one of the Maryland Continental troops, commanded by 
General Huger and Colonel Williams, Lt.-Colonel Washington, with the dra- 
goons of the 1st and 3d regiments; adetatchment of light infantry, composed 
of Continental troops, and a regiment of riflemen, under Culonel Lynch, 
formed a corps of observation for the security of our right flank ; Lt.-Colonel 
Lee, with his legion ; a detachment of light infantry, and a corps of riflemen, 
under Colonel Campbell, formed a corps of observation for the security of our 
left flank. 

The greater part of this country is a wilderness, with a few cleared fields 
interspersed here and there. The army was drawn up on a large hill of 
ground, surrounded by other hills, the greater part of which was covered with 
timber and thick underbrush. The front line was posted with two field pieces 
just on the edge of the woods, and the back of a fence which ran parallel with 
the line, with an open field directly in their front. The second line was in the 
woods, about three hundred yards in rear of the first. The Continental 
troops about four hundred yards in rear of the second, with a double front, 
as the hill drew to a point where they were posted, and on the right and left 
were two old fields. In this position we waited the approach of the enemy, 
having previously sent off the baggage to this place, appointed to rendezvous 
at, in case of defeat. Lt.-Colonel Lee, with his legion, his infantry, and a 
part of his riflemen, met the enemy on their advance, and had a severe 
skirmish with Lt.-Colonel Tarleton, in which the enemy suffered greatly. 
Captain Armstrong charged the British legion, and cut down near thirty 
of their dragoons; l)ut as the enemy re-inforced their party, Lt.-Colonel 
Lee was obliged to retire, and take his position in the line. 

The action commenced by a cannonade, when the enemy advanced in 
three columns. The Hessians on the right, the Guards in the centre, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Webster on the west. The whole moved through the 
old fields to attack the North Carolina brigades, who waited the attack 
until the enemy got within 150 yards, when a part of them began to fire, but 
a considerable part left the ground without firing at all. The General and 
Field ofiicers did all they could to induce them to stay. General Stevens and 
General Lawson, and the field ofiicers of their brigades, were more success- 
ful in their exertions. The Virginia militia gave the enemy a warm reception, 


and kept up a heavy fire for a long time ; but being beaten back, the battle 
became general almost everywhere. The corps of observation, under Wash- 
ington and Lee, were warmly engaged, and did great execution. In a word, 
the engagement was long and severe, and the enemy only gained their point 
by superior discipline. 

They having broken the Maryland line, and turned our left flank, got into 
the rear of the Virginia brigade, and appearing to be gaining our right, 
■which would have encircled the whole continental troops, I thought it most 
advisable to order a retreat. 

About this time Lieutenant-Colonel Washington made a charge with the 
Horse upon a part of the brigade of Guards, and the first regiment of Mary- 
landers, commanded by Colonel Granby, and seconded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Howard, followed the Horse with their bayonets, and nearly the whole party 
fell a sacrifice. 

General Huger was the last that was engaged, and gave the enemy a check. 
We retreated in good order to the Keedy Fork River, and crossed at the ford, 
about three miles from the field of action, and there halted and drew up the 
troops, until we collected the most of the stragglers. 

We lost our artillery and two ammunition wagons, the greater part of the 
horses being killed before the retreat began, and it being impossible to move 
the pieces but along the great road. 

After collecting our stragglers, we retired to the camp, ten miles distant 
from Guilford. 

From the best information I can get, the enemy's loss is very great — not 
less in killed and wounded than six hundred men, besides some prisoners 
that we brought ofi". 

Inclosed I send your Excellency a return of our killed, wounded, and 
missing. Most of the latter have gone home, as is too customary with the 
militia after an action. I cannot learn that the enemy has got any considera- 
ble number of prisoners. 

Our men are all in good spirits, and in perfect readiness for another field 

I only lament the loss of several valuable officers who were killed and 
wounded in the action. Among the latter are General Stephens, shot through 
the thigh, and General Huger, in the hand. Among the former is Major 
Anderson, of the Maryland line. 

The firmness of the officers and soldiers during the whole campaign has 
been most unparalleled. Amidst innumerable difficulties, they have disco- 
vered a degree of magnanimity and fortitude that will forever add lustre to 
their military reputation. 

I have the honor to be, with very great respect and esteem, 

Your Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant, 


Return of the killed, wounded, and missing of the Continental troops, in 
the action of the 15th March, 1781, near Guilford Court House: — 

1 major, 9 captains, 7 subalterns, 14 sergeants, 8 drums and fifes, and 290 
rank and file. 

Same of Virginia militia : — 

8 captains, 18 subalterns, 15 sergeants, 361 rank and file. 

Same of Noi'th Carolina militia: — 

Killed, 6 rank and file ; wounded, 1 captain, 1 subaltern, 3 rank and file ; 
missing, 2 captains, 9 subalterns, 552 rank and file. 

The North Carolina Cavalry, commanded by the Marquis of Bretigny, lost 
one man killed, and one wounded. 

Earl Cornwallis [Ko. 8.), to Lord George Germain, dated Guilford, 17th 
March, 1781. 

My Lord — I have the satisfaction to inform your lordship that his Ma- 
jesty's troops, under my command, obtained a signal victory on the 15tli in- 
stant over the rebel army, commanded by General Greene. 


In pursuance of my intended plan communicated to your lordship in my 
dispatch, No. 7, I had encamped on the 13th instant at the Quakers' Meeting 
between the forks of Deep River. On tlie 14th I received information that 
General Butler, with a body of North Carolina militia, and the expected re- 
inforcements from Virginia, said to consist of a Virginia State regiment, a 
corps of Virginia eighteen months men, three thousand Virginia militia, and 
recruits from the Maryland line, had joined General Greene, and that the 
whole army, which was reported to amount to nine or ten thousand men, 
was marching to attack the British troops. During the afternoon intelligence 
was brought which was confirmed in the night, that he had advanced that 
day to Guilford, about twelve miles from our camp. Being now persuaded 
that he had resolved to hazard an engagement, after detaching Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hamilton with our wagons and baggage, escorted by his own regi- 
ment, a detachment of one hundred infantry and twenty cavalry towards 
Bell's Mill on Deep River, I marched with the rest of the corps at day-break 
on the morning of the 15th, to meet the enemy or attack them in their en- 
campment. About four miles from Guilford our advanced guard, com- 
manded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton, fell in with a corps of the enemy, 
consisting of Lee's legion, some back-mountain men, and Virginia militia, 
which he attacked with his usual good conduct and spirit and defeated ; and 
continuing our march we found the rebel army posted on rising grounds, 
about a mile and a half from the court house. The prisoners taken by Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Tarleton having been several days with the advanced corps, 
could give me no account of the enemy's order or position, and the country 
people were extremely inaccurate in their description of the ground. Im- 
mediately between the head of the column and the enemy's line was a con- 
siderable plantation, one large field of which was on our left of the road, 
and two others with a wood of about two hundred yards broad between 
them ; on our right of it beyond these fields the wood continued for several 
miles to our right. The wood beyond the plantation in our front, in the skirt 
of which the enemy's first line was formed, was about a mile in depth, the 
road then leading into an extensive space of cleared ground about Guilford 
court house. The woods on our right and left were reported to be imprac- 
ticable for cannon ; but as that on our right appeared the most open, I re- 
solved to attack the left wing of the enemy ; and whilst my disposition was 
making for that purpose, I ordered Lieutenant McLeod to bring forward 
the guns, and cannonade their centre. The attack was directed to be made 
in the following order: — 

On the right the regiment of Bose and the 71st regiment led by IMajor-Ge- 
neral Leslie, and supported by the 1st battalion of guards ; on the left the 
23d and 33d regiments led by Lieutenant-Colonel Webster, and supported 
by the grenadiers and 2d battalion of guards, commanded by Brigadier- 
General O'ilara, the yagers and light infantry of the guards remained in the 
wood on the left of the guns, and the cavalry in the road ready to act as cir- 
cumstances might require. Our preparations being made, the action began 
at about half an hour past one in the afternoon. Major-General Leslie, after 
being obliged by the great extent of the enemy's lines, to bring up the 1st 
battalion of guards to the right of the regiment of Bose, soon defeated every- 
thing before him. Lieutenant-Colonel Webster having joined the left of 
Major-General Leslie's division, was no less successful in his front, when on 
finding that the left of the 33d was exposed to a heavy fire from the right 
wing of the enemy, he changed his front to the left, and being supported by 
the yagers and light infantry of the guards attacked and routed it, the gre- 
nadiers and 2d battalion of the guards moving forward to occupy the ground 
left vacant by the movement of Lieutenant-Colonel Webster. 

All the infantry being now in the line, Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton had 
directions to keep his cavalry compact, and not to charge without positive 
orders, except to protect any of the corps from the most evident danger of 
being defeated. The excessiA-e thickness of the woods rendered our bayonets 
of little use, and enabled the broken enemy to make frequent stands with an 
irregular fire, which occasioned some loss, and to several of the corps great 


delay, particularly on our right, -where the 1st battalion of the guards and 
regiment of Bose were warmly engaged in front, flank and rear with some 
of the enemy that had been routed on the first attack, and with part of the 
extremity of their left wing, which by the closeness of the woods had been 
passed unbroken. The 71st regiment and grenadiers and 2d battalion of 
the guards not knowing what was passing on their right, and hearing the fire 
advance on their left, continued to move forward, the artillery keeping pace 
with them on the road followed by the cavalry. The 2d battalion of guards 
first gained the clear ground near Guilford Court house, and found a corps 
of continental infantry much superior in number, formed in the open field 
on the left of the road. Glowing with impatience to signalize themselves 
they instantly attacked them, and defeated them, taking two six pounders ; 
but pursuing into the wood with too much ardor, were thrown into confusion 
by a heavy tire, and immediately charged and driven back into the field by 
Colonel Washington's dragoons, with the loss of the six pounders they had 
taken. The enemy's cavalry was soon repulsed by a well directed fire from 
two three-pounders, just brought up by Lieutenant McLeod, and by the ap- 
pearance of the grenadiers of the guards and of the 71st regiment, which, 
having been impeded by some deep ravines, were now coming out of the wood 
on the right of the guards opposite to the court house. 

By the spirited exertions of Brigadier-General O'llara, though wounded, 
the 2d battalion of the guards was soon rallied, and supported by the grena- 
diers, returned to the charge with the greatest alacrity. The 23d regiment 
arriving at that instant from our left, and Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton having 
advanced with a part of the cavalry, the enemy were soon put to flight, and 
the two six pounders once more fell into our hands; two ammunition wagons, 
and two other six pounders, being all tlie artillery they had in the field, were 
likewise taken. About this time the 33d regiment and light infantry of the 
guards, after overcoming many difficulties, completely routed the corps which 
was opposed to them, and put an end to the action in this quarter. The 23d 
and 71st regiments, with part of the cavalry, were ordered to pursue; the 
remainder of the cavalry was detached with Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton to 
our right, where a heavy fire still continued, and where his appearance and 
spirited attack contributed much to a speedy termination of the action. The 
militia with which our right wing had been engaged, dispersed in the woods, 
the continentals went oS" by the Ready Fork, beyond which it was not in my 
power to follow them, as their cavalry sufi"ered but little. 

Our troops were excessively fatigued by an action which lasted an hour 
and a half, and our wounded, dispersed over an extensive space of country, 
required immediate attention. The care of our wounded, and the total want 
of provisions in an exhausted country, made it equally impossible for me to 
follow the blow the next day. The enemy did not stop until they got to the 
Iron Works on Troublesome Creek, eighteen miles from the field of battle. 

From our observation, and the best accounts we could procure, we did not 
doubt but the strength of the enemy exceeded seven thousand men ; their 
militia composed their line, with parties advanced to the rails of the field in 
their front ; the continentals were posted obliquely in the rear of their right 
wing. Their cannon fired on us whilst we were forming from the centre of 
the line of militia, but were withdrawn to the continentals before the attack. 

I have the honor to enclose to your Lordship, the list of our killed and 
wounded. Captain Schultz's wound is supposed to be mortal, but the surgeons 
assure me that none of the other officers are in danger, and that a great 
number of the men will soon recover. I cannot ascertain the loss of the 
enemy, but it must have been considerable ; between two and three hundred 
dead were left upon the field; many of them wounded that were able to move 
whilst we were employed in the care of our own, escaped and followed the 
routed enemy ; and our cattle drivers, and forage parties, have reported to 
me that the houses in a circle of six or eight miles round us, are full of 
others : those that remained we have taken the best care of in our power. 
We took few prisoners, owing to the excessive thickness of the wood facili- 
tating their escape, and every man of our army being repeatedly wanted for 


The conduct and actions of the officers and soldiers that composed this 
little army, will do more justice to their merit, than I can by words. Their 
persevei-ing intrepidity in action — their invincible patience in the hardships 
and fixtigues of a march of above six hundred miles, in which they have 
forded several large rivers, and numberless creeks, many of which would be 
reckoned large rivers in any other country in the world — without tents or 
covering against the climate, and often without provisions, will sufficiently 
manifest their ardent zeal for the honor and interest of their Sovereign and 
their country. 

I have been particularly indebted to Major-General Leslie for his gallantry 
and exertion in the action, as well as his assistance in every other part of the 
service; the zeal and spirit of Brigadier-General O'Hara merit my highest 
commendations, for after receiving two dangerous wounds, he continued in 
the field whilst the action lasted, by his earnest attention on all other occa- 
sions seconded by the officers and soldiers of his brigade. His Majesty's 
Guards were no less distinguished by their order and discipline, than by their 
spirit and valor. The Hessian regiment of Bose deserves my warmest praise 
for its discipline, alacrity and courage, and does honor to Major Dubuy, who 
commands it, and who is an officer of superior merit. I am much obliged 
to Brigadier-General Howard, who served as a volunteer, for his spirited 
example on all occasions. Lieutenant-Colonel Webster conducted his brigade 
like an officer of experience and gallantry. Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton's 
good conduct and spirit in management of his cavalry was conspicuous during 
the whole action, and Lieutenant McLeod, who commanded the artillery, 
proved himself upon this, as well as all former occasions, a most capable 
and deserving officer. The attention and exertions of my aides-de-camp and 
of all the other public officers of the army contributed very much to the suc- 
cess of the day. 

I have constantly received the most zealous assistance from Governor 
Martin, during my command in the southern district. Hoping that his pre- 
sence would tend to entice the loyal subjects of this province to take an active 
part with us, he has cheerfully submitted to the fatigues and dangers of our 
campaign, but his delicate constitution has suffered by his public spirit, for 
by the advice of physicians he is now obliged to return to England for the 
recovery of his health. 

This part of the country is so totally destitute of subsistence, that forage 
is not nearer than nine miles, and the soldiers have been two days without 
bread. I shall therefore leave aVjout seventy of the worst wounded cases at 
the New Garden Quaker meeting-house, with proper assistance, and move 
the remainder with the army to-morrow morning to Bell's Mill. I hope our 
friends will heartily take an active part with us, to which I shall continue to 
encourage them ; still approaching our shipping by easy marches, that we 
may procure the necessary supplies for further operations, and lodge our sick 
and wounded where proper attention can be paid to them. 

This dispatch will be delivered to your lordship by my aide-de-camp Captain 
Brodrick, who is a vei'y promising officer, and whom I beg leave to recom- 
mend to your lordship's countenance and favor, 

I have the honor to be, &c., CORNWALLIS. 

Total — one lieutenant-colonel, two lieutenants, two ensigns, thirteen ser- 
geants, seventy-five rank and file, killed. Two brigadier-generals, two lieu- 
tenant-colonels, nine captains, four lieutenants, five ensigns, two stafi"-officers, 
fifteen sergeants, five drummers, three hundred and sixty-nine rank and file, 
"wounded. One sergeant, fifty-two rank and file, missing. 

Officers^ names killed and wounded. 
Royal artillery. Lieutenant O'Hara, killed. Brigade of guards, Hon. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Stewart, killed; Brigadier-Generals O'Hara and Howardand 
Captain Swanton, wounded; Captain Schutz, Maynard and Goodricke, 
wounded, and since dead; Captains Lord, Douglass, and Maitland; Ensign 
Stuart and Adjutant Colquhoun, wounded. The twenty-third foot, Second 
Lieutenant Robinson, killed; Captain Peter, wounded. The thirty-third foot, 


Ensign Talbot, killed ; Lieutenant-Colonel Webster, since dead ; Lieutenant 
Salvin Wynyard, Ensigns Kelly, Gore, and Hughes, and Adjutant Fox, 
wounded. Of seventy-iirst foot. Ensign Grant, killed. Of the regiment of 
Bose, Captains Wilmous Pry, since dead, Eichenduft ; Lieutenants Schioner 
and Graise, Ensign Detroll (since dead). Of the British legion, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Tarleton, wounded. J. BESPARD, 

Beputy Adjutant-General. 

It will doubtless interest the reader to know the life, services and 
future career of Lord Cornwallis, and Colonel Tarleton, who were 
so conspicuous in this State during the Revolution. They are here 
given as appropriate to this work. 

Charles, Earl of Cornwallis, was born 31st Bee, 1738.* He commenced 
his education at Eton, and completed it at St. John's College, Cambridge. 
He entered the army, and served as aide-de-camp to the Marquis of Granby 
in the German campaign in 1761. On the death of his father, in the following 
year, he took his seat in the House of Lords. He had served in the House of 
'Commons, as a member for Eye, in two successive parliaments. 

In 1770 he, with three other young peers, protested with Lord Camden 
against the taxation of America. Mansfield, the Chief Justice, is said to 
have sneeringly observed : " Poor Camden could get only four boys to join 

Although opposed to the course of the Ministry, yet, when hostilities com- 
menced, he did not, as an officer, scruple to accept active employment against 

In 1777, he displayed great gallantry at the battle of Brandywme. He 
defeated General Gates at Camden, in Aug., 1780. His general orders on 
his march from the Catawba to the Ban River, in 1781, do honor to his 
head as well as his heart.f The battle (of which the above is an official 
record) of Guilford was his last general engagement in America, for, at 
Yorktown, on 19th Oct., 1781, he and his whole forces, amounting to more than 
four thousand troops, surrendered to the American and French forces com- 
bined, under Washington and Count Rochambeau. 

Lord Cornwallis returned to England. His failure in America did not 
impair his reputation, for he was appointed Governor of the Tower, and, in 
1786, honored with the Order of the Garter, and sent to the East Indies in 
the double capacity of Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief. He was 
distinguished in this elevated position for his gallantry in war against the 
Sultan of Mysore, and the humanity with which he exercised his power. 
He returned to England, and, in consideration of his eminent services, was 
made a Privy-Councillor, created a Marquis and Master-General of Ordnance. 
In 1798 he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, where, by his vigor, 
he subdued an insurrection, defeated the French who landed to support the 
rebels, and by his policy restored tranquillity. 

Soon after he was sent Plenipotentiary to the Court of France, and as such 
signed the Treaty of Amiens. 

In 1804 he succeeded the Marquis of Wellesley as Governor-General of 
India. On his arrival at Calcutta, his health failed, and he died at Ghaze- 
poore 5th Oct., 1805. He left one son, who succeeded to his title and estate. 
A statue at Bombay preserves with accuracy his commanding person and 
the benevolent character of his countenance. His mind was not of superior 
brilliancy, but his honor was unimpeached, and his private character amiable. 

Lord Cornwallis in his person was short and thick set, his hair somewhat 
gray ; his face was well formed and agreeable. In his manners he was re- 
markably easy and affable — much beloved by his men. J 

Banastre Tarleton was born in Liverpool on 21st August, 1754. He 
commenced the study of the law, but, on the breaking out of the war with 

* Georgian Era (London), 470. 

t See Chapter V. (Lincoln), xlvi. 

t Watson's Annals ol" Philadelphia, ii. 29L 


America, exchanged the gown for the sword. He was with Lord Cornwallis 
in his whole campaigns in the South, and his daring intrepidity, indomitahle 
energy, and military ambition, greatly aided if they did not secure victory to 
the English arms at Camden. The ardor of his temper and daring received 
a severe check at the Cowpens, on 17th Jan., 1781, from General Morgan. 

The capitulation at Yorktown (Oct. 1781) terminated his military career. 

On his return to England, he entered public life as a member of the House 
of Commons from Liverpool. In 1818, he was promoted to the rank of 
General, and, on the coronation of George IV., was created a Baronet and 
Knight of Bath. He was a daring officer, sanguinary and resentful in his 

He married, in 1798, the daughter of the Duke of Ancaster and Kestevan ; 
he died January 25th, 1833, without issue. 

Colonel Tarleton* was in person below the middle size, stout, strong, heavily 
made, large muscular legs, and uncommonly active in his movements ; his 
complexion dark, his eyes small, black, and piercing.f 

I am indebted for this sketch, as also for that of Lord Cornwallis, to that 
valuable work, Georgian Era, Loudon, 1833, page 470. 

The character of Rev. David Caldwell is one of much interest. No one, 
perhaps, of the whole country, suffered for his devotion to liberty as did this 
pure, pious, and patriotic man. The British, in the campaign (1781) en- 
camped on his plantation, ravaged it, and burned his library, not sparing 
even his family Bible. 

He was born in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 22d March, 1725. In 
early life he was an apprentice to a house-carpenter, and served until he was 
of age. He was of a studious disposition and pious habits. He early joined 
the Presbyterian Church. After being of age, he studied with Mr. Smith, 
the necessary preparation for college, entered Princeton, and graduated at 
that renowned institution in 1761. He was admitted to the ministry, and, 
in 1765, was sent to North Carolina as a missionary, which was destined to 
become the scene of his labors, the field of his usefulness, the home of his 
wife and children, and place of his death. He married, in 1766, Rachel, the 
daughter of Rev. Alexander Craighead, of IVIecklenburg. He opened a 
classical and theological school in Guilford. Some of the first divines, 
statesmen, lawyers, and physicians, received their early education from this 
excellent man. He studied medicine, and combined the two characters of 
divine and physician, which so harmoniously unite. In the troubles of the 
country in 1771 (the Regulators), Dr. Caldwell exercised his divine office 
in endeavoring to be a peacemaker. At the very time that the battle of 
Alamance commenced, he was using his earnest endeavors to allay the 
tumults of his countrymen. 

His life and services have been recorded in a work of much minuteness 
and ability by Rev. E. W. Caruthers. He was a firm patriot, sincere Christian, 
and devoted friend. He was a member of the Convention at Halifax in 
November, 1776, which formed our State Constitution, and also a member 
of the Convention at Hillsboro,' 21st July, 1778, that met to consider the 
Constitution of the United States, and which rejected that instrument. These 
were the only representative offices he ever held. After a long life of useful- 
ness and honor he died, August 25th, 1824. 

Alexander Martin was a resident of this county. His father was a 
native of Tyrone County, Ireland, and emigrated to this country in the year 
1721, and settled in the State of New Jersey, where Alexander was born. 
He received a liberal education. His brother, Col. James Martin, was a resi- 

* I have in my collection a perfect gem of art. A full length portrait of this celebrated 
officer, after an original picture painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds, copied by Thomas Sully, 
of Philadelphia, when in London. 

■f Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, ii. 280. 


dent of Stokes County, and a man of distinguished ability ; a Colonel of 
the Revolution and father of the late Judge James Martin, of Salisbury, who 
died a few years since in Mobile, Alabama. Another brother, Thomas, 
was a graduate of Princeton, taught school in Virginia, and became a 
minister of the Episcopal Church. Another brother, Samuel, was in the 
Revolutionary army, a Captain at the battle of Eutaw ; married in Mecklen- 
burg a widow Campbell, and died in Charlotte with the influenza. 

Alexander Martin moved to Virginia, from thence to Guilford County, 
North Carolina, in the year of 1772, and was a representative from that 
county under the Colonial Assembly. 

He was, in 1774, a member of the first Assembly of the representatives of 
people met to vindicate their rights ; and again in 1775. In 1776, he was ap- 
pointed Colonel of a regiment, in the continental line, and marched with Gene- 
ral Francis Nash, to the north, to join General Washington. He, with his 
regiment, was in the battle of Brandywine, 11th September, 1775, where 
Lafayette was wounded ; and was near him when he received the wound. In 
the attack of Washington on the British at Germantown, October 4th, 1777, 
he was present when his general, Francis Nash, was killed : the sketch in 
manuscript before me, by his brother, describes this battle with great preci- 
sion. The wound which General Nash received was from a cannon ball, 
which took away most part of his right hip bone. 

The war being over, he resigned his commission and was elected again to 
the General Assembly, and was chosen Speaker of the Senate. 

In 1782, he was elected Governor of the State, and again in 1789. 

He was a man of letters, and, for a time, at Princeton College. He was 
vain of his attainments, and ambitious of literary renown. He has left 
several manuscripts in prose and some in poetry. His ode on the death of 
General Francis Nash of this State, who fell at Germantown on 4th October, 
1777, and lines on the death of Governor Caswell, who died at Fayetteville, 
10th November, 1789, while Speaker of the Senate, have been published, 
in the North Carolina University Magazine, and may be considered as more 
patriotic than poetic. 

In 1793, the degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred upon him by the Col- 
lege of New Jersey. 

He was the firm friend of our University and one of the trustees, from 
1790 to his death. The claims of the University were earnestly pressed upon 
the consideration of the General Assembly, in his message as Governor, in 

We have had under examination a manuscript of sixty-seven pages, de- 
posited, as stated on the first page, in the office of Secretary of State at 
Raleigh, by Governor Martin ; " Letters of the Hon. Alexander Spotswood, 
late Governor of Virginia, respecting the affairs of North Carolina, addressed 
to the Ministry of the late Queen Anne," extracted from his letter book in 
MS.," which has been of much service and is of deep interest. 

When Governor Burke, in 1781, was captured by the Tory Fannen, and 
carried to Charleston, where he was held as a prisoner, Alexander Martin, 
as President of the Senate, and by virtue of his office, acted as Governor of 
the State. He was elected to succeed Governor Burke in 1782, and after 
serving his term out, was succeeded by Richard Caswell on his second term. 
In 1789 he was again elected Governor. So that he was, in fact, three several 
terms elected Governor of the State. 

He conducted the affairs of the State in a troubled and perilous period with 
great dignity, unswerving fidelity, and scrupulous integrity. 

After serving his third term as Governor, he was, in 1793, elected Senator 
in Congress, which elevated post he held until 1799. 

He lived at Danbury, on Dan River, in Rockingham, in affluence, and open- 
handed hospitality, and he died in 1807, without legitimate issue, having 
never been married. 

John Motly Morehead is a resident of this County ; he was born near 
Rockingham County, 4th July, 1798; educated by Rev. David Caldwell, and 



graduated in 1817, at the University. He studied law, and practiced the pro- 
fession for many years with great success. 

In 1821 he represented llockingham in the House of Commons. He moved 
to Guilford, and represented this county in the House of Commons, in 1826 
and 1827. 

In 1841 he was elected Governor, over Hon. R. M. Saunders, and was again 

It was Governor Morehead's fortune to run his political career in heated 
party times ; in the ardor of his temper he might sometimes have 

"Given to party what was meant for mankind." 

He is now President of the Central Railroad, a position of great responsi- 

Hon. John M. Dick is also a resident and native of this County; he was 
born about 1791. 

In 1829 elected Senator from Guilford, and again in 1830. 

In 1832 he was elected a Judge of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity, 
which position he now holds. 

Members of Assembly from Guilford County : — 





Ralph Gorrell, 
Ralph Gorrell, 
Alexander Martin, 
Alexander Martin, 
Alexander Martin, 
Alexander Martin, 
Charles Bruce, 
James Galloway, 
Alexander Martin, 
William Gowdy, 
Alexander Martin, 
Alexander Martin, 
William Gowdy, 
Daniel Gillespie, 
Daniel Gillespie, 
Daniel Gillespie, 
Daniel Gillespie, 
Daniel Gillespie, 
Daniel Gillespie, 
Ralph Gorrell, 
Hance McCain, 
Hance McCain, 
Hance Hamilton, 
Hance Hamilton, 
Samuel Lindsay, 
George Bruce, 
Samuel Lindsay, 
Samuel Lindsay, 
Hance McCain, 
Hance McCain, 
Jonathan Parker, 
Jonathan Parker, 
Jonathan Parker, 
Samuel Lindsay, 
Jonathan Parker, 
Jonathan Parker, 
Jonathan Parker, 
Jonathan Parker, 

Members of House of Commons. 

John Collier, Robert Lindsay. 
James Hunter, Robert Lindsay. 
James Hunter, Daniel Gillespie. 
James Hunter, William Gowdy. 
William Gowdy, James Hunter. 
William Gowdy, James Hunter. 
James Galloway, John Leak. 
John Hamilton, John Leak. 
John Hamilton, Barzellai Gardner. 
John Hamilton, B. Gardner. 
B. Gardner, William Gowdy. 
John Hamilton, William Gowdy. 
John Hamilton, Daniel Gillespie. 
Hance Hamilton, Robert Hannah. 
Robert Hannah, B. Gardner. 
Robert Hannah, B. Gardner. 
R. Hannah, B. Gardner. 
B. Gardner, Robert Hannah. 
Hance Hamilton, Hance McCain. 
B. Gardner, Hance Hamilton. 
Hance Hamilton, Samuel Lindsay. 
Samuel Lindsay, George Bruce. 
Samuel Lindsay, George Bruce. 
Samuel Lindsay, Jonathan Parker. 
George Bruce, Jonathan Parker. 
Zaza Brashier, Jonathan Parker. 
John Moore, .Jonathan Parker. 
Jonathan Parker, Zaza Brashier. 
Z. Brashier, Richard Mendenhall. 
Z. Brashier, Richard Mendenhall. 
Robert Hannah, John Howell. 
Robert Hannah, John Howell. 
Robert Hannah, John Howell. 
Robert Hannah, William Armfield. 
Robert Hannah, John Howell. 
John Howell, Robert Lindsay. 
Obed Macey, James Gibson. 
James Gibson, James McNairy. 




Years. Senators. 

1815. Jonathan Parker, 

1816. John Caldwell, 

1817. John Caldwell, 

1818. John Caldwell, 

1819. John M. Dick, 

1820. John W. Caldwell, 

1821. Jonathan Parker, 

1822. Jonathan Parker, 

1823. Jonathan Parker, 

1824. Jonathan Parker, 

1825. Jonathan Parker, 

1826. Jonathan Parker, 

1827. Jonathan Parker, 

1828. Jonathan Parker, 

1829. John M. Dick, 

1830. John M. Dick, 

1831. John M. Dick, 

1832. Jonathan Parker, 

1833. Geo. C. Mendenhall, 

1834. Jonathan Parker, 

1835. Jas. T. Morehead, 

1836. Jas. T. Morehead, 

1838. Jas. T. Morehead, 

1840. Jas. T. Morehead, 

1842. Jas. T. Morehead, 

1844. Jesse H. Lindsay, 

1846. John A. Gilmer, 

1848. John A. Gilmer, 

1850. John A. Gilmer, 

Members of House of Commons. 
John Howell, James McNairy. 
James McNairy, William Ryan. 
William Ryan, Robert Donnell. 
James McNairy, William Ryan. 
R. Donnell, William Dickey. 
John Rankin, David Worth. 
John Gordon, William Adams. 
Samuel Hunter, David Worth. 
Samuel Hunter, David Worth. 
William Unthank, James Neally. 
F. L. Simpson, William Unthank. 
F. L. Simpson, John M. Morehead. 
F. L. Simpson, John M. Morehead. 
F. L. Simpson, Geo. C. Mendenhall. 
Geo. C. Mendenhall, F. L. Simpson. 
Allen Peeples, Geo. C. Mendenhall. 
Amos Weaver,* Allen Peeples, 
Allen Peeples, David Thomas. 
David Thomas, Allen Peeples. 
Ralph Gorrell, Jesse H. Lindsay. 
Jesse H. Lindsay, Ralph Gorrell. 
Jesse H. Lindsay, Peter Adams, F. 

L. Simpson. 
Jesse H. Lindsay, William Doak, 

David Thomas. 
Geo. C. Mendenhall, William Doak, 

Jas. Brannock. 
Geo. C. Mendenhall, William Doak, 

Joel McLean. 
William Doak, Joel McLean, John 

A. Smith. 
Nathan Hunt, E. W. Ogburne, Peter 

David F. Caldwell, Calvin Johnson, 

Jas. W. Doak. 
David F. Caldwell, Calvin Hender- 
son Wiley, Peter Adams. 



Origin of name — Date of formation — Population and products — Its capital — 
Colonial and Revolutionary history — Its distinguished citizens, Willie 
.Jones, William R. Davie, John B. Ashe, Willis Allston, Joseph J. Daniel, 
Ilutchins J. Burton, John Branch, B. F. Moore, Jesse A. Bynum, and 
others — Members of the town and county of Halifax from 1777 to 1851, 

Halifax County was formed in 1758 from Edgecombe County ; 
and in this year the com't house for the counties of Edgecombe, 

* Amos Weaver was returned, but his seat was vacated under the 31st section of the 


Granville, and Northampton was moved from Enfield to the town 
of Halifax.* 

It derives its name from the Earl of Halifax, who, in 1758, was 
the first Lord of the Board of Trade. " It is a name of Saxon 
origin, and means ' holy hair,' from the sacred hair of a certain 
virgin, whom a clerk beheaded, because she resisted his passion. 
She was canonized. "f It is situated in the north-eastern part of 
the State, and bounded on the north and east by the Koanoke River, 
which separates it from Northampton County ; on the south by 
Martin, Edgecombe, and Nash Counties; and the west by the 
County of Warren. Its capital town is Halifax, which is beautifully 
located on the west bank of the Roanoke River, navigable for steam 
and other boats, and distant from Raleigh eighty-seven miles. 

Its population, 5,763 whites ; 8,954 slaves ; 1,872 free negroes ; 13,007 re- 
presentative population. 

Its products, 2,905,573 lbs. cotton ; 15,750 lbs. wool ; 609,325 bushels corn ; 
147,216 lbs. tobacco; 11,230 bushels wheat; 72,032 bushels oats ; 4,886 bbls. _ 

The County of Halifax, in its early history, is distinguished for 

its devotion to liberty, and for the patriotism of her sons. 

At a meeting of the Committee of Safety for Halifax County, Dec. 21st, 
1774, present, William Jones, Chairman ; Nicholas Long, John Bradford, 
James Ilogan, Benjamin McCullock, Joseph John Williams, William Alston, 
Egbert Haywood, David Sumner, Samuel Weldon, and Thomas Ilaynes. 

It is represented that Andrew Milkr, a merchant in Halifax town, refused 
to sign the Association. 

Ordered that Mr. Haywood and Mr. Haynes desire his attendance before 
the committee. 

Upon which he attended and refused to sign, and gave as reasons that he 
owed persons in England; to be bound not to export any commodity to Eng- 
land after 1st September next, would be unjust, and therefore he declined 
signing that part of the Association respecting a non-importation to Britain. 

It was resolved unanimously, " That this Committee will not purchase any 
goods or wares from said Miller, or any person connected with him, and we 
recommend the same course to the people of this country, and to all who wish 
well to their country.''^ 

To that convention of patriots that assembled at Newbern on August 25th, 
1774, she sent, as delegates, Nicholas Long, and Wilie Jones. 

To the Assembly at the same place, in April, 1775, she sent the same and 
Benjamin McCullock. 

To the Assembly at Hillsboro', Aug. 21st, 1775, she sent as delegates Nicho- 
las Long, James Hog an, David Sumner, John Webb, and John Geddv. 

To the Assembly in Halifax, April 4th, 1776, she sent John Bradford, 
James Hogan, David Sumner, Joseph John Williams, Willis Alston, and 
Wilie Jones, from the town, which bod};^ placed our State in military organ- 
ization, and by whom Allen Jones was appointed Brigadier-General of Hali- 
fax District; Willis Alston, Colonel ; David Sumner, Lieutenant-Colonel; 
James Hogan, 1st Major ; Samuel Weldon, 2d Major of Halifax Regiment. 

To the Congress which met at Halifax, Nov. 12th, 1776, which formed a 
Constitution, John Bradford, James Hogan, Willis Alston, Samuel Weldon, 
Benjamin McCullock, and Wilie Jones, from the town of Halifax, were 

This ancient borough has the honor of being the birthplace of 

* Martin's History of North Carolina, vol. ii. p. 95. 

t See Baily's Dictionary. 

I American Archives, by Peter Force, 4th series, vol. i. p. 1055. 


our Constitution, and the place in North Carolina where the 
Declaration of Independence, declared at Philadelphia (July 4th, 
1776), "was first celebrated.* 

That the spirit of patriotism was not confined to the men alone is a matter 
of history. Mrs. Ellet, in her Women of the Revolution, has recorded the 
names of Mrs. AVilie Jones, Mrs. Allen Jones, and Mrs. Nicholas Long, whose 
patriotic zeal, noble spirit, and devotion to the country, gave a tone to public 
sentiment in the days of '76. 

Mrs. WiLiE JoxES was a daughter of Colonel Montfort, and combined with 
much personal beauty, great brilliancy of wit, and suavity of manners. One 
of her acquaintances says, that " she was the only person, with whom he was 
ever acquainted, that was loved, devotedly, enthusiastically loved, by every 
human being who knew her." 

When the Army, under Lord Cornwallis, marched from Wilmington to Vir- 
ginia, in 1781, thej'^ remained for some days on the banks of the Roanoke, and 
the English officers quartered among the femilies in the town. Tradition 
attributes to Mrs. Jones, a passage of wit between her aud Colonel Tarleton, 
who was wounded, at the Cowpens, in the hand by a sabre cut, by the sword 
of Colonel William Washington. On Tarleton, in her presence, speaking of 
Washington in opprobrious terms, as an illiterate, ignorant fellow, hardly 
able to write his name, " Ah ! Colonel, you ought to know better, for you 
bear on -vour person proof that he knows verytoell how to make his mark." 

On another occasion her sister, Mrs. Ashe, at whose house Leslie and other 
officers were quartered, Colonel Tarleton indulged in the same sarcastic tone, 
stating that he " would be happy to see Colonel Washington," for he had under 
stood he was diminutive and ungainly in person. Mrs. Ashe replied, "If 
you had looked behind you, Colonel Tarleton, at the battle of the Cowpens, you 
tt'Oidd have enjoyed that pleasure." 

This was too much to the already chafed officer ; his hand involuntarily 
grasped the hilt of his sword. At this moment General Leslie entered the 
room, and observing his Colonel very angry, and the lady agitated, he inquired 
of her the cause of her emotion. She explained the cause, to which the 
gallant General said, with a smile: " Say what you please, Mrs. Ashe, Colo- 
nel Tarleton knows better than to insult a lady in my presence." 

Mrs. WiLiE Jones died in 1828, leaving five children, two of whom now 
reside in Xorth Carolina. 

Mns. Allen Jones was a Miss Edwards, and the sister of Isaac Edwards, 
the English Secretary of Gov. Tryon. She died soon after the Revolution, 
leaving one daughter, who married a son of Mrs. Nicholas Long. 

Mrs. Long was a Miss McKinny. Her husband. Col. Nicholas Long, was 
Commissary-General of the North Carolina forces. She was a woman of great 
energy of mind and body, and high mental endowments. She died at the 
advanced age of eighty, leaving a numerous oiFspring. Her virtues and 
patriotism were the themes of the praise and admiration of the officers of 
the army of both parties. 

I extract from the People's and Rowitt's Journal, the following incident 
of Miss Bishop, afterwards Mrs. Powell. 

" On the march of the British army from Wilmington to Virginia, in 1781, 
Col. Tarleton, near 'Twanky Chapel,' in Halifax County, either from a scar- 
city of provisions or from a malicious desire to destroy the property of the 
American citizens who were opposed to the British, caught all the horses, 
cattle, hogs, and even fowls that he could lay hands on, and destroyed or 
appropriated them to his own use. The male, and most of the female inhabi- 
tants of the country fled from the approach of the British troops, and hid 
themselves in the swamps and forests adjacent ; and, when they passed 
throuo-h the upper part of the country, while every one else left the premises 

* Vol. i. page 83. 


on whicli she lived, Mrs. Powell (then Miss Bishop) 'stood her ground/ 
and fiiccd the foe fearlessly. But it would not do ; they took their horses and 
cattle, and among the former, a favorite pony of her own, and drove them off 
to the camp, which was about a mile distant. Young as she was, she deter- 
mined to have her pony again, and she must necessarily go to the British 
camp, and go alone, as no one would accompany her. And alone she went, on 
foot, at night, and without any weapon of defence, and in due time arrived at 
the British camp. By what means she managed to gain an audience with 
Tarleton is not known ; but she appeared before him unannounced, and raising 
herself erect, said, ' I have come to you, sir, to demand restoration of my pro- 
perty, which your knavish fellows stole from my father's yard.' ' Let me under- 
stand you, Miss,' replied Tarleton, taken completely by surprise. ' Well, sir," 
said she, ' your roguish men in red coats came to my father's yard about 
sundown, and stole my pony, and I have walked here, alone and unprotected, 
to claim and demand him ; and sir, I must and will have him._ I fear not your 
men: they are base and unprincipled enough to dare to offer insult to any un- 
protected female ; but their cowardly hearts will prevent them doing her bodily 
injury.' And, just then, by the light of a camp fire, espying her own dear 
little pet pony at a distance, she continued, ' There, sir, is my horse, I shall 
mount him and ride peaceably home ; and if you have any of the gentlemanly 
feeling within you of which your men are totally destitute, or if you have any 
regard for their safety, you will see, sir, that I am not interrupted. But before 
I go I wish to say to you, that he who can, and will not prevent this base and 
cowardly stealing from henroosts, stables, and barn-yards, is no better, inniy 
estimation, than the mean, good-for-nothing, guilty wretches who do the dirty 
work with their own hands ! Good night, sir.' And, without waiting further, 
she took her pony uninterrupted, and galloped safely home ; Tarleton was 
so much astounded that he ordered that she should be permitted to do as she 

Mrs. Powell died in her native country, in 1840, after she had attained 
a green old age. One of her grandchildren, William S. Parker, volunteered 
in°the JMexican war, and died at Ceralvo, in Mexico. Another, Richard B. Par- 
ker, is residing in Halifax County, N. C, a most respectable and worthy citizen. 
And a grand-daughter, Mrs. MaryE. Sledge, wife of W. T. Sledge, and sister 
of the two first named gentlemen, also lives in Halifax County, besides other 
relations, who all, no doubt, do justice to her memory; but others should do 
likewise, for she was one of the noble spirits of the ' times that tried men's souls.' 

Dr. Rush, in his work on the Mind, makes the observation, that he never knew 
or read of a distinguished man, whose mother was not an intelligent woman. 
We often see that distinguished men have ordinary children born to their 
name, but rarely active, intelligent women. 

Sprung from such women, it is not to be wondered that the people of 
Ilalifixs were patriotic, independent, and self-sacrificing. This_ feeling was 
roused into unconquerable resistance by the conduct of the British govern- 
ment, and no portion of our State was more " fixed and forward" in the 
cause of liberty. This called down upon them the weight of British oppres- 
sion. The historian of the army of Cornwallis is compelled to say that, 
"At Halifax, some enormities were committed by the British, that were a 
disgrace to the name of man."* Tarleton states that, " A sergeant and a 
dragoon were executed at Halifax, for rape and robbery."! 

At Swift Creek, Fishing Creek, and at Halifax Town, detached parties of 
the Americans made unsuccessful attacks on the British, but were repulsed 
without loss. 

In the month of May, 1781, Cornwallis crossed the Roanoke River, with 
the British Army, at Hrdifas, and proceeded by way of Hicksford, and effected 
a junction with the main body of the British araiy, at Petersburg, under 
General Phillips, who about this time died, and was succeeded by the no- 
torious General Benedict Arnold. 

* Stedman, ii. 385. 

t Tarletoii's Campaigns, 1780-81, ia the Southern Provinces of North America. 


WiLiE Jo>fES, and his brother Allen, were distinguished as firm and de- 
termined friends of the country in her struggles for freedom. Wilie Jones 
resided in Halifax, and Allen Jones in Northampton. On every and all 
occasions, when their country called for their services, they were prompt and 
willing. Shoulder to shoulder, they contended for her liberties, and both 
were distinguished members of the State Congress which formed our Consti- 
tution, and members of the committee that drew its forms. Wilie Jones has 
been recorded as a scholar and statesman. lie was not distinguished so much 
as an orator as for his efficient business habits. In the language of one of 
his cotemporaries, " he could draw a bill in better language than any other 
man of his day." 

He was President of the Committee of Safety for the whole State, in 1776, 
which officer was virtually Governor of the State, in the interregnum between 
the abdication of Governor Martin, the last of the Royal Governors, and the 
accession of Governor Caswell. 

He succeeded his brother General Allen Jones, as a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress which met at Philadelphia in 1780, and served until 1781. 

He was elected a member of the Convention which assembled at Philadel- 
phia on the second Monday in May, 1787, of which General Washington was 
President, which formed the Constitution of the United States, but he de- 
clined the appointment. Dr. Hugh AYilliamson was appointed by Governor 
Caswell to supply his place. 

He was a member of the Convention that met at Hillsboro' 21st July, 1788, 
to deliberate upon the Federal Constitution. The journals of that Convention 
have been preserved for us. 

In politics as in war, strategy is often used. Wilie Jones, Judge Spencer, 
Piev. David Caldwell, General Joseph McDowell, and others, were leaders of 
the opposition, and conscious of their numerical strength, as well as of the 
intellectual powers of its eloquent and talented advocates, Johnston, Iredell, 
Davie and others, they maintained a sullen and portentous silence. They forced 
its friends to the unenviable position of imagining the grounds of opposition, 
and then defending the Constitution. The advantages of this position were gi-eat. 

On the third day of the session, the President (Samuel Johnston, then 
Governor of the State) laid before the Convention an official copy of the Con- 
stitution, with accompanying documents. Mr. Wilie Jones moved that the 
question upon the Constitution be taken without debate, and be put imme- 
diately. This was opposed by Mr. Iredell, Mr. Davie, and others. Such 
however, was the tact of Mr. Jones, that the learning of Ii*edell, the eloquence 
of Davie, the intellectual power of Johnston, availed but little. 

The Convention, by a vote of 184 to 84, rejected the instrument. North 
Carolina, placed upon her sovereign rights, remained out of the Union. On 
the third Monday in November, 1789, another Convention assembled at Fay- 
etteville, to consider the Constitution, and by this Convention it was adopted. 

Wilie Jones was for several years a member of the House of Commons. 
He married a daughter of Colonel Montford, and died near Raleigh, where he 
now lies buried, at the seat now owned by Matthew Shaw, Esq., leaving five 

William Richardson Davie was long a resident of Halifax County, which 
he represented for many years in the Legislature. 

He was born in Egremont, near White Haven, in England, on the 20th of 
June, 1756. When only five years of age, his father, Archibald Davie, brought 
him to America, and he was adopted by his maternal uncle, Rev. William 
Richardson, who resided on the Catawba River in South Carolina. 

He was sent to an academy in Charlotte, where he was prepared for College. 

He entered Princeton College, where by his application and genius he at- 
tained the reputation of an excellent student. But the din of arms disturbed 
these quiet shades, and Davie exchanged the gown for the sword. The 
studies of the College were closed, and Davie joined the army of his country 
in the summer of 1776, and served as a volunteer in the army at the north. 
The campaign over he returned again to College, and graduated in the fall 
of that year with the first honors of the Institution. 


lie returned to North Carolina and commenced the study of the law in 
Salisbury, but the eventful struggle for life and liberty then going on, did not 
allow his spirit to repose while his country was in danger. He induced a 
worthy and influential gentleman by the name of Barnett to raise a troop of 
horse, and in this troop Barnett was elected captain, and Davie lieutenant. 
His commissiou is signed by Eichard Caswell, and dated 5th April, 1779. 

The company joined the southern army, and attached to Pulaski's Legion. 
His gallantry and assiduity was so great that he soon rose to the rank of 

At the battle of Stono (20th June, 1779), Davie witnessed the 'first severe 
conflict of arms, and was seriously wounded in the thigh, which laid him up 
in the hospital at Charleston for some time, and narrowly escaped with his 

In receiving a heavy charge of cavalry from the enemy, which broke the 
line of our troops, Major Davie received a wound which caused him to fall 
from his horse. He still held the bridle, but he was so severely wounded, 
that after repeated efforts, he could not re-mount. The enemy was now upon 
him. In a moment more the wounded oSicer had been a prisoner. A private, 
whose horse had been killed, and who was reti-eating, saw the imminent dan- 
ger of his gallant officer, and returned at the risk of his life, for the enemy was 
within twenty steps. With great composure he raised Major Davie on his 
horse, and slowly and safely led him from the bloody field. An action of 
courage worthy of Rome in her palmiest day. In the haste of the retreat, 
after depositing the Major in safety, this soldier disappeared. 

Major Davie made frequent inquiry for his preserver, to evince his'gratitude 
to him and his family for his timely and heroic aid. But in vain. At the 
siege of Ninety-six, when Davie was acting as Commissary-General to the' 
southern army, on the morning of the attack, a soldier came to Davie's tent, 
and made himself known as the man who had aided him at Stono. He pro- 
mised to call again. But he fell in battle, and Davie could only show to his 
lifeless remains that gratitude that had his life been spared would have been 
more substantial and munificent. 

After his recovery he returned to Salisbury and resumed his books. In 
1780 he obtained his license to practice. But the camp rather than the court 
house still demanded his talents and services. 

In the winter of that year, he obtained authority from the General Assembly 
of North Carolina to raise a troop of cavalry, and two companies of mounted 
infantry. But the authority only was granted — the State was too poor to 
grant the means — and Major Davie, Avith a patriotism worthy of eternal 
record, disposed of the estate acquired from his uncle, and raised funds to 
equip the troops. With this force he proceeded to the south-western portion 
of the State, and protected it from the predatory incursions of the Britisli 
and Tories. 

Charleston surrendered to the British army 12th of May, 1780. Tarleton's 
attack on and butchery of Buford, at Waxhaw, forty miles from Charlotte, 
was on the 29th. This completed the conquest of South Carolina. Georgia 
was regarded, and was, in fact, a conquered province. 

Brigadier-General Rutherford ordered out the militia in mass, to obstruct 
the advance of the conquerors. This patriotic region heard and obeyed the 
call. On the 3d June, 1780, nine hundred men were assembled at Charlotte 
ready to defend their country. The intelligence was received that Tarleton 
and the British had retrograded to Camden. The militia were reviewed by 
General Rutherford, and harangued by Rev. Dr. McWhorter, President of the 
College at Charlotte, and then dismissed by the General, directing them to 
keep the arms in readiness at a moment's warning. 

Lord Rawdon with the British advanced to Waxhaw Creek. General 
Rutherford issued on the 10th his orders for the militia to rendezvous at Mc- 
Ree's plantation, eighteen miles north-east of Charlotte. The orders were 
obeyed, and on the 12th, eight hundred men in arms were on the ground. 
On the 14th the troops were organized. The cavalry under Major Davie was 
formed into two troops, under Captains Lemmonds and Martin; a corps of 


light infantry (three hundred) placed under Colonel "William P. Davidson, a 
regular officer, and the balance under the immediate command of General 

On this evening it was reported that the Tories had assembled in strong 
force under Col. Moore at Ramsour's Mill, near -where the town of Lincoln- 
ton now stands ; and Gen. Rutherford issued his orders to Col. Francis 
Locke, Captains Falls and Brandon of Rowan, and to Major David Wilson, of 
Mecklenbui'g, and to other officers, to raise men, attack and disperse them. 
He deemed his own force important to check the advance of the British from 
Camden, and did not wish to reduce it by any detachment. 

On the 15th General Ruthei-ford marched within two miles of Charlotte. 
Here he learned that Lord Rawdon had retrograded to Camden. It was then 
he resolved to advance on the Tories, who, it was now well known, were as- 
sembled, about 1300, at Ramsour's Mill. On Sunday (18th), he marched to 
Tuckasege Fork, on the Catawba River, and sent an express to Colonel 
Locke, who was advancing to attack the Tories at Ramsour's, advising him 
of his approach, and to unite with him. He crossed on the 19th, and 
marched the next day, and camped within sixteen miles from Ramsour's. 
His express never reached Col. Locke, for at ten o'clock at night Colonel 
James Johnston* of Tr^yon County (now Lincoln), reached Rutherford's camp, 
with notice of Locke's intention to attack at sunrise next morning the Tories, 
and requesting the aid of Rutherford. This excited Rutherford to more 
speed, but the battle had been fought and won before he (with whom was 
Major Davie and Major Jos. Graham) could reach the field. For a faithful 
and graphic account of the battle from the pen of General Joseph Graham, 
Avho was a resident of the county, and well acquainted with all the facts 
and actors, the reader is referred to the Chapter XLVL, (Lincoln County.) 

This account will correct an unintentional error recorded in the life of 
Governor Davie, by Professor Hubbard, as to the number of killed on our side, 
wherein it is stated that " Lieutenants McKissack, Houston and Patton were 
killed." _ 

Captain McKissack and Captain Houston were both wounded. The first 
represented Lincoln County long afterwards in the General Assembly, and 
the latter died of good old age long after this battle. He was the father 
of my near neighbor, Dr. Joel Brevard Houston, and many similar stalwart 

After this General Rutherford marched towards the Yadkin, to put down 
Col. Bryan, who was assembling the Tories in the forks of the Yadkin, while 
Major Davie and his mounted force were ordered to take position near the 
south line to protect this frontier, check the foraging parties of the British, 
and the depredations of the Tories. 

He took position on the north side of "Waxhaw Creek ; and here he was 
reinforced by Major Crawford with some South Carolina troops, and thirty-five 
Indian warriors (of the Catawba), under their chief, New River, and the 
Mecklenburg militia under Colonel Higgins. 

On 20th July he intercepted at Flat Rock a convoy of provisions, spirits, 
and clothing intended for the enemy, posted at Hanging Rock, about four 
and a half miles distant. This escort was guarded by some dragoons and 
volunteers. The escort was sui-prised, and their capture was effected without 
loss — the spirits, provisions, and wagons destroyed — the prisoners mounted 
on the captured horses, and at dark the retreat commenced. The advance 
was formed of the guides, and a few mounted infantry under charge of Cap- 
tain Petit ; the prisoners were guarded by dragoons under command of Cap- 
tain Wm. Polk (who served as volunteer), in the centre ; and the guard 
brought up the rear. On Beaver Creek, about midnight, they were attacked 
by the enemy in ambuscade. The rear guard had entered the lane, when 
the officer in advance hailed the British, who were discovered concealed 
under the fence, in a field of standing corn. A second challenge was an- 
swered by a volley of musketry from the concealed foe, which commenced on 

* Father of Robert Joliuston, Esq , of Lincoln County. 


the right, and passed by a running fire to the rear of the detachment. Major 
Davie, who rode rapidly forward, ordered the men forward, and to push 
through the lane ; but under surprise his troops turned back, and upon the 
loaded arms of the enemy. He was thus compelled to repass the ambuscade 
under a heavy fire, and overtook his men retreating by the same road they 
had advanced. The detachment was finally rallied and halted upon a hill ; 
but so surprised and discomfited at this unexpected attack that no efibrt 
could induce them to charge upon the enemy. A judicious retreat was the 
only course left to avoid a similar disaster, which was effected, and Davie 
passed the enemy's patrols, and regained his camp early next day without fur- 
ther accident or loss. The loss of Davie's corps was slight, compared to the ad- 
vantage gained by him in the capture of the convoy. The fire of the enemy 
fell chiefly upon those in the lane, who were prisoners (confined two on a 
horse with the guard). These were nearly all killed or mortally wounded. 
Lieutenant Elliot was killed, Captain Petit paid the penalty of neglect of 
duty, by being wounded with two of his men. Petit had been ordered by 
Major Davie, who anticipated some attempt to recover the prisoners, on 
their approach to the fatal lane, to advance, examine the lane, the ford of 
the creek, and the houses ; with express orders to secure all the persons in 
the families, so that no alarm could be created. He returned, and reported 
that he had executed faithfully his orders, and all was well. Had this been 
done faithfully this ambuscade would have been earlier discovered, and its 
effects prevented. ^ 

General Davie, in a MS. account of this affair, leaves this sagacious advice : 
" It furnishes a lesson to officers of partisan corps, that every officer of a 
detachment may, at some time, have its safety and reputation committed 
to him, and that the slightest neglect is generally severely punished by an 

I take this account of this afiair from a most valuable original manuscript, 
written under the eye of General Davie, by his son, now on file in the Archives 
of the Historical Society at Chapel Hill. This corrects the statement in the 
excellent work of Professor Hubbard, where he says : " Captain Petit, Lieut. 
Elliott, and two men were killed."* 

Cols. Sumpter and Neal, from South Carolina, and Col. Irwin, with three 
hundred Mecklenburg Militia, in the latter end of July, joined Major Davie. 
A council was held. It was determined that the British posts at Rocky 
Mount and Hanging Piock should be attacked. Colonel Sumpter, with the 
South Carolina troops, and Colonel Irwin, with the Mecklenburg troops, were 
to attack Rocky Mount, and Major Davie .should march on Hanging Rock. 
Both marched the same evening. These two points were about four and a 
half miles distant from each other. 

Rocky Mount is on the west bank of the AVateree River, thirty miles from 
Camden, and was garrisoned by Colonel Turnbull,t with 150 New York 
volunteers and some militia.J Its defences consisted of two log-houses, a 
loop-holed building, and an abattis. 

Hanging Piock is on the road from Charlotte to Camden, and on the left 
as you go down on the east side of Wateree, about twenty-four miles from 

Sumpter, passing Broad River at Blair's Ford, arrived early the next day 
and attacked the post. Their attack was gallant, and the advance of the raw 
troops to the fort, under a heavy fire of the enemy, has elicited even the 
admiration of their opponents. For want of cannon, these attacks were un- 
successful. He formed a forlorn hope, led by Colonel Andrew Neal. They 
penetrated the abattis, but Colonel Neal and five privates fell in this attempt, 
and many were mortally wounded. General Sumpter then ordered a retreat, 
which was efi"ected without annoyance or further loss. 

Major Davie, with about forty mounted riflemen and the same number of 

* Life of William Richardson Davie, by Fordyce Hubbard. The Library of Ameri- 
can Biugraphv, page '20. 
t Stedumn,"i. 201. { Tarleton, 94. 


dragoons, approached Hanging Eock about ten o'clock the same day. This 
post was garrisoned by a strong force. While Davie was reconnoitering the 
ground to commence the attack, he received information that three companies 
of mounted infantry, returning from some excursion, had halted at a house 
near the post. 

This house was in full view of the Hanging Rock. It was a point of a 
right angle made by a lane, one end of which led to the enemy's camp, the 
other to the woods. Davie advanced cautiously from the end near the woods, 
while he detached his riflemen, whose dress was similar to the Tories, with 
orders to rush forward and charge. The riflemen passed the enemy's sen- 
tinels without suspicion or challenge, dismounted in the lane, and gave the 
enemy befoi'e the house a well-directed fire ; the surprised Loyalists fled to 
the other end, where they were received by the dragoons in full gallop, who 
charged boldly on them and gave them a heavy fire. They retreated in great 
confusion to the angle of the lane, where they were received by the infantry, 
who charged with great impetuosity and closed up all retreat. The dragoons 
advancing, surrounded them, and they were all cut to pieces in the very face 
of the whole British camp at Hanging Rock. No time could be spared to 
take any prisoners. Sixty valuable horses and one hundred muskets were 
the booty taken from the enemy. The whole camp of the enemy instantly 
beat to arms ; but this brilliant but bloody afi"air was over, and Davie out of 
reach before their forces were in motion, or their consternation and panic sub- 
sided from this daring and successful attack. Davie reached his camp safely 
without the loss of a single man. 

Colonel Sumpter was thoroughly convinced, composed as his command 
was, that it must be constantly in employment, and that the minds of such 
men are greatly influenced by enterprise. He resolved to make a united 
attack upon this post (Hanging Rockj. 

I record the battle in General Davie's own words. 
1780. Battle of Hanging Rock. 

On the 5th of August the detachments met again at Lansford, on the Ca- 
tawba. Their strength was little diminished ; Major Davie had lost not one 
man. The North Carolina Militia, under Colonel Irwin and Major Davie, 
numbered about five hundred men, officers and privates ; and about three hun- 
dred South Carolinians under Colonels Sumpter, Lacy, and Hill. 

It became a matter of great importance to remove the enemy from their 
posts, and it was supposed, if one of them was taken, the other would be 
evacuated. Upon a meeting of the ofiicers, it was determined to attack the 
Hanging Rock on the following day ; as this was an open camp they expected 
to be on a more equal footing with the enemy ; and the men, whose approba- 
tion in those times was absolutely requisite, on being informed of the deter- 
mination of the ofiicers, entered into the project with spirit and cheerfulness. 
The troops marched in the evening and halted about midnight within two 
miles of the enemy's camp, and a council was now called to settle the mode 
of attack. Accurate information had been obtained of the enemy's situation, 
who were pretty strongly posted in three divisions. 

The garrison of Hanging Rock consisted of five hundred men ; one hundred 
and sixty Infantry of Tarleton's legion, a part of Colonel Brown's regiment, 
and Bryan's North Carolina Tory Regiment. The whole commanded by 
Major Carden. 

The Regulars were posted on the right ; a part of the British legion and 
Hamilton's Regiment were at some houses in the centre ; and Bryan's Regi- 
ment, and other Loyalists some distance on the left, and separated from the 
centre by a skirt of wood ; the situation of the regular troops could not be 
approached without an entire exposure of the assailants, and a deep ravine and 
creek covei-ed the whole point of the Tory camp. Colonel Sumpter proposed 
that the detachments should approach in their divisions, march directly to the 
centre encampments, then dismount and each division attack its camp. This 
plan was approved by all the officers but Major Davie, who insisted on leaving 


the horses at this place and marching to the attack on foot, urging the confu- 
sion always consequent on dismounting under a fire, and the certainty of los- 
ing the effect of a sudden and vigorous attack. This objection was, however, 
overruled. The divisions were soon made, and as the day broke the march 
re-commenced ; the general command was conferred on Colonel Sumpter, as 
the senior officer; Major Davie led the column on the right, consisting of his 
own corps, some volunteers under Major Bryan, and some detached compa- 
nies of South Carolina refugees ; Colonel Hill commanded the left, composed 
of South Carolina refugees; and Colonel Irwin the centre, formed entirely of 
the Mecklenburg militia. They turned to the left of the_ road to avoid the 
enemy's piquet and patrol, with an intention to return to it under cover of a 
defile near the camp, but tlie guides, either from ignorance or timidity, led 
them so far to the left that the right, centre, and left divisions, all fell on the 
Tory encampment. These devoted people were soon attacked in front and 
flank, and routed with great slaughter, as the Americans pressed on in pur- 
suit of the Tories who fled towards the centre encampment. _ Here the Ameri- 
cans received a fire from one hundred and sixty of the Legion Infantry, and 
some companies of Hamilton's Regiment posted behind a fence; but their 
impetuosity was not one moment checked by this unexpected discharge ; they 
pressed on, and the Legion Infon try broke and joined in the. flight of the 
Loyalists, yielding their camp, without a second effort, to the militia. At this 
moment a part of Colonel Brown's Regiment had nearly changed the fate of 
the day. They, by a bold and skillful manoeuvre, passed into a wood between 
the Tory and centre encampments, drew up unperceived and poured in a heavy 
fire on the militia forming from the disorder of the pursuit on the flank of the 
encampment ; these brave men took instinctively to the trees and bush heaps, 
and returned the fire with deadly effect ; in a few minutes there was not a 
British officer standing, and many of the regiment had fallen, and the balance, 
on being offered quarters, threw down their arms. The remainder of a British 
line who had also made a movement, retreated hastily towards their former 
2->ositlon and formed a hollow square in the centre of the cleared ground. 

The rout and pursuit of these various corps by a part of our detachment, 
and plunder of the camp by others, had thrown the Americans into great 
confusion. The utmost exertions were made by Col. Sumpter and the other 
officers to carry the men on to attack the British square ; about two hundred 
men, and Davies' dragoons, were collected and formed on the margin of the 
roads, and a heavy but ineffectual fire was commenced on the British troops ; 
a large body of the enemy, consisting of the legion, infantry, Hamilton's regi- 
ment, and Tories, were observed rallying, and formed on the opposite side of 
the British camp, near the wood, and lest they might bo induced to take the 
Americans in flank, Major Davie passed round the camp under cover of the 
trees, and charged them with his company of dragoons. The troops, under 
the impressions of defeat, were routed and dispersed by a handful of men. 

The distance of the square from the woods, and the fire of the two pieces 
of field artillery, prevented the militia from making any considerable impres- 
sion on the British troops, so that on Major Davie's return, it was agreed to 
plunder the encampment and retire. As this party were returning towards 
the centre, some of the legion cavalry appeared, advanced up in the Camden 
road, \yith a countenance as if they meant to keep their position, but on 
being charged by Davie's dragoons, they took the woods in flight, and one 
only was outdone. . ^ 

A retreat was now become absolutely necessary; the British Commissary s 
stores were taken in the centre encampment, and a number of the men were 
already intoxicated, the greatest part were loaded with plunder, and those 
in a condition to fight had exhausted their ammunition ; about an hour had 
been employed in plundering the camp, taking the parole of the British 
officers, and preparing litters for the wounded. 

All this was done in full view of the British army, who consoled them- 
selves with some military music and an interlude of three cheers for King 
George, which was immediately answered by three cheers for the hero of 
America. The militia, at length got into the line of march, Davie and his 


dragoons covering the retreat, but as the troops were loaded with plunder, 
and encumbered with their wounded friends, and many of them intoxicated, 
this retreat was not performed in the best military style. However, under 
all these disadvantages, they filed off unmolested, along the front of the 
enemy, about one o'clock. The loss of the Americans was never correctly 
ascertained, for want of regular returns, and many of the wounded being 
carried immediately home from the action. Capt. Read, of North Carolina, 
and Capt McClure, of South Carolina, were killed. Col. Hill, South Carolina, 
Major Wynn, South Carolina, Capt. Craighead, Lieutenant Fleucher, Ensign 
McLuin, wounded. 

The Br